On This Day

1795 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 16 French army under Pichegru occupies Utrecht, Netherlands
  • Jan 18 French admitted to Amsterdam without resistance
  • Jan 18 Governor and Viceroy Willem V flees Scheveningen to England
  • Jan 19 Democratic revolution in Amsterdam ends oligarchy

Victory in BattleDutch Fleet Captured

Jan 23 War of the First Coalition: French cavalry captures 14 Dutch ships and 850 guns near the port of Den Helder - rare instance of cavalry capturing a fleet

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Cavalry capturing the Dutch fleet at the battle of Den Helder
Cavalry capturing the Dutch fleet at the battle of Den Helder
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  • Feb 5 Zealand, Netherlands, surrenders to French general Michaud
  • Feb 7 11th Amendment to US Constitution ratified, affirms power of states
  • Feb 7 Dutch Prince William V accepts British occupation of Dutch Indies
  • Feb 13 1st state university in US opens, University of North Carolina
  • Feb 17 Thomas Seddal harvests 8.3-kg potato from his garden in Chester, England
  • Feb 21 Freedom of worship established in France under constitution
  • Feb 25 French Politician and Educator Joseph Lakanal, defines on behalf of the French Revolution an “educational utopia” aiming to “put an end to inequalities of development that affected a citizen's capacities for judgment."
  • Mar 5 Amsterdam celebrates Revolution on the Dam; Square of Revolution
  • Mar 5 Treaty of Basel - Prussia ends war with France
  • Mar 11 Battle at Kurdla India: Mahratten beat Mogols
  • Mar 28 Partitions of Poland: The Duchy of Courland, a northern fief of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, ceases to exist and becomes part of Imperial Russia.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 7 France adopts the metre as the basic measure of length

Mathematician and Astronomer Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre
Mathematician and Astronomer
Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre
  • Apr 23 William Hastings acquitted in England of high treason

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

May 1 Kamehameha, King of Hawaiʻi defeats Kalanikupule and conquors island of Oʻahu at Battle of Nuʻuanu (approx. date)

King of Hawaii Kamehameha I
King of Hawaii
Kamehameha I
  • May 16 Hedges Treaty: Bataafse Republic becomes French vassal state
  • Jun 6 Fire destroy 1/3 of Copenhagen; 18,000 injured
  • Jun 24 US and Great Britain sign Jay Treaty, 1st US extradition treaty
  • Jul 1 John Rutledge becomes 2nd chief justice of US Supreme Court
  • Jul 9 James Swan pays off the $2,024,899 US national debt
  • Jul 25 The first stone of the Pontcysyllte Aqueduct is laid
  • Jul 27 Spain and France sign peace treaty
  • Aug 15 Joseph Haydn leaves England forever
  • Aug 17 Slave revolt at Knip plantation, Curacao
  • Aug 18 Curacao governor De Veer sends militia to stop rebellious slaves
  • Aug 20 Joseph Haydn returns to Vienna from England
  • Aug 25 Curaçao slaves opponents returns to St Christopher
  • Sep 5 USA and Algiers sign peace treaty
  • Sep 15 Cape Colony surrenders to Britain

Book releaseHistoric Publication

Sep 15 "Lyrical Ballads" published by Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth - 1st work of English Romantic movement (probable date)

Poet, Critic and Philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Poet, Critic and Philosopher
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Poet William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
  • Sep 16 British capture Capetown, South Africa, from the Dutch
  • Sep 19 Tula, leader of Curacao slave opposition, imprisoned
  • Sep 23 Conseil of the Cinq-Cents (Council of 500), forms in Paris
  • Oct 1 France annexes Southern Netherlands
  • Oct 1 Belgium is conquered by France.
  • Oct 2 Tula (leader slave uprising) sentence to death in Curacao
  • Oct 16 M von Böhms "Oorlogscantate" premieres
  • Oct 24 3rd Partition of Poland, between Austria, Prussia & Russia
  • Oct 26 The Directoire, a five-man revolutionary government of France, is created
  • Oct 27 Pinckney's Treaty [Treaty of San Lorenzo] signed by Spain and US, establishing the southern boundary of the US and giving Americans right to navigate the Mississippi River
  • Nov 20 Curacao government forbids slave work on Sunday
  • Nov 28 US pays $800,000 & a frigate as tribute to Algiers & Tunis
  • Dec 19 1st state appropriation of money for road building, Kentucky

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 6 Anselme Payen, French chemist, born in Paris, France (d. 1871)
  • Jan 15 Willem de Clerq, Dutch merchant & man of letters, born in Amsterdam, Netherlands (d. 1844)
  • Jan 15 Alexandr Griboyedov, Russian playwright, born in Moscow, Russia (d. 1829)
  • Jan 18 Anna Paulowna Romanova, monarch of Russia/daughter of Tsar Paul I
  • Feb 3 Antonio José de Sucre, South American independence leader (d. 1830)
  • Feb 5 Wilhelm Karl Ritter von Haidinger, Austrian mineralogist (d. 1871)
  • Feb 8 Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, German chemist (Chinoline), born in Hamburg, Germany (d. 1867)
  • Feb 8 Moritz Gottlieb Saphir, Austrian satirical writer and journalist, born in Lovasbereny, near Budapest (d. 1858)
  • Feb 10 Ary Scheffer, Dutch painter/etcher/sculptor
  • Feb 15 Charles Niellon, Belgian brigade general (10 day campaign)
  • Feb 18 George Peabody, South Danvers Mass, merchant/philanthropist
  • Mar 28 Georg Heinrich Pertz, German historian, born in Hanover, Germany (d. 1876)
  • Apr 5 Henry Havelock, British soldier (War in Afghanistan 1838-39), born in Bishopwearmouth, County Durham (d. 1857)
  • Apr 19 Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, German naturalist and zoologist (micro-organisms), born in Delitzsch, Germany (d. 1876)
  • Apr 21 Vincenzo Pallotti, Italian saint (founder of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate), born in Rome (d. 1850)
  • Apr 28 Charles Sturt, English explorer (Australia), born in Bengal, British India (d. 1869)
  • May 7 Gerhard Moritz Roentgen, Dutch industrialist (founder of Fijenoord dockyard), born in Esen, East Frisia (d. 1852)
  • May 10 Jacques-Nicolas-Augustin Thierry, historian
  • May 13 Joshua Ratoon Sands, American Rear Admiral (Union Navy), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 1883)
  • May 13 Gérard Paul Deshayes, French geologist (d. 1875)
  • May 19 Johns Hopkins, philanthropist, founded Johns Hopkins University
  • May 23 Charles Barry, British architect, born in London (d. 1860)
  • Jun 12 John Marston, U.S. Navy officer, born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1885)
  • Jun 13 Thomas Arnold, English educator and historian (History of Rome), born in West Cowes, Isle of Wight, England (d. 1842)
  • Jun 24 Ernst Heinrich Weber, German anatomist and physiologist (one of the founders of experimental psychology), born in Wittenberg, Saxony, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1878)
  • Jul 25 James Barry [Margaret Ann Bulkley], female disguised as a man, surgeon general (British army), born in County Cork, Ireland (d. 1865)
  • Aug 22 Abraham Capadose, Dutch physician and missionary, born in Amsterdam (d. 1874)
  • Aug 28 Joannes Paredis, Belgian Bishop of Roermond, born in Bree, Belgium (d. 1886)

Person of interestJames Gordon Bennett

Sep 1 James Gordon Bennett, Sr., American newspaper publisher (New York Herald), born in Keith, Scotland (d. 1872)

Founder of the New York Herald James Gordon Bennett
Founder of the New York Herald
James Gordon Bennett
  • Sep 4 Friedrich August von Alberti, German geologist (Triasic Age), born in Stuttgart, Germany (d. 1878)
  • Sep 6 Frances Wright, Scottish writer and lecturer, born in Dundee, Scotland (d. 1852)
  • Sep 23 Alexander Twilight, minister and politician, first African American to graduate and to hold public office, born in Corinth Vermont (d. 1857)
  • Oct 5 Alexander Keith, Scottish-Canadian politician (4th Mayor of Halifax) and brewer (founder of the Alexander Keith's Nova Scotia Brewery), born in Halkirk, Caithness, Highland, Scotland (d. 1873)
  • Oct 15 Frederick William IV, King of Prussia (1840-61) and Germany (1849-61), born in Berlin (d. 1861)
  • Oct 16 William Buell Sprague, American clergyman and author (d. 1876)
  • Oct 28 Leonardus Antonius Lightenvelt, Dutch politician, born in 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands (d. 1873)

Person of interestJohn Keats

Oct 31 John Keats, English Romantic poet (Ode to a Grecian Urn), born in London (d. 1821)

Romantic Poet John Keats
Romantic Poet
John Keats

Person of interestJames Knox Polk

Nov 2 James Knox Polk, 11th US President (Democrat: 1845-49), born in Pineville, North Carolina (d. 1849)

11th US President James Knox Polk
11th US President
James Knox Polk
  • Nov 9 Walter Geikie, Scottish painter, born in Edinburgh, Scotland (d. 1837)
  • Nov 26 Cornelis Pieter Jacob Elout, Dutch military and President of West Sumatra, born in Haarlem, Netherlands (d. 1843)C
  • Dec 3 Rowland Hill, English inventor who introduced 1st adhesive postage stamp (1840), born in Kidderminster, Worcestershire, England (d. 1879)

Person of interestThomas Carlyle

Dec 4 Thomas Carlyle, Scottish essayist and historian (The French Revolution), born in Ecclefechan, Scotland (d. 1881)

Historian and Essayist Thomas Carlyle
Historian and Essayist
Thomas Carlyle
  • Dec 8 Peter Andreas Hansen, Danish-German astronomer (Hansen hypothesis), born in Tønder, Schleswig, Denmark (d. 1874)

Person of interestLeopold von Ranke

Dec 21 Leopold von Ranke, German historian who founded the modern concept of source-based history, born in Wiehe, Saxony, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1886)

  • Dec 22 Thomas Ainsworth, English founder of Nijverdal & industrialist (Twentse textile), born in Lancashire, England (d. 1841)

Weddings in History

LoveWedding of Interest

Mar 25 2nd Earl of Liverpool Robert Jenkinson (25) weds daughter of the Earl of Bristol Lady Louisa Hervey at Wimbledon

British Prime Minister Robert Jenkinson
British Prime Minister
Robert Jenkinson
  • Oct 4 "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" poet Samuel Coleridge (22) marries Sarah Fricker in Bristol, England

LoveWedding of Interest

Nov 25 US President William Henry Harrison (22) weds Anna Symmes (20) in North Bend, Ohio

9th US President William Henry Harrison
9th US President
William Henry Harrison

Deaths in History

  • Jan 3 Josiah Wedgwood, English pottery designer and manufacturer (Wedgwood), dies at 64
  • Jan 21 Samuel Wallis, English explorer (Wallis Island), dies at 66
  • Feb 27 Francis Marion, American military officer (pioneered guerrilla warfare during the American Revolutionary War), died around the age of 63
  • Mar 4 John Collins, American politician, 3rd Governor of Rhode Island (1786-90), dies at 77
  • Mar 21 Giovanni Arduino, Italian geologist (b. 1714)
  • Apr 12 Rainieri de Calzabigi, Italian librettist and poet, dies at 80
  • Apr 12 Johann Kaspar Basselet von La Rosée, Bavarian general, dies at 84
  • Apr 30 Jean-Jacques Barthélemy, French writer and numismatist (b. 1716)
  • May 19 Josiah Bartlett, American physician and statesman (signed US Declaration of Independence), dies at 65
  • May 19 James Boswell, Scottish biographer of Samuel Johnson and diarist, dies at 54
  • May 20 Ignác Martinovics, Hungarian physicist/revolutionary, beheaded
  • Jun 1 Pierre-Joseph Desault, French anatomist (b. 1744)
  • Jun 8 Louis XVII Charles, King of France (1793-95), dies at 10
  • Jul 3 Louis-Georges de Bréquigny, French historian (b. 1714)
  • Jul 3 Antonio de Ulloa, Spanish general and governor of Louisiana (b. 1716)
  • Jul 9 Henry Seymour Conway, British general and statesman (b. 1721)
  • Jul 31 Basílio da Gama, Portuguese poet (O Uraguai), dies at 54
  • Aug 4 Timothy Ruggles, American-born Tory politician (b. 1711)
  • Aug 26 Alessandro Cagliostro [Giuseppe Balsamo], Italian adventurer and magician (Prince of Quacks), dies while serving a life imprisonment for being a freemason in Castel Sant'Angelo at 52
  • Oct 1 Robert Bakewell, English cattle breeder, dies at about 70
  • Oct 3 Tula, leader of Curacaose slave uprising, executed
  • Oct 7 Johann Georg von Zimmermann, Swiss philosophical author and physician, dies at 66
  • Oct 8 Andrew Kippis, English non-conformist clergyman and biographer, dies at 70
  • Oct 10 Francesco Antonio Zaccaria, Italian theologian and historian, dies at 81
  • Oct 13 William Prescott, American Revolutionary soldier, dies
  • Nov 15 Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo, French painter (b. 1719)
  • Dec 23 Henry Clinton, British army officer and politician, dies at 65
  • Dec 28 Eugenio Espejo, Ecuadorian scientist (b. 1747)