On This Day

1799 in History

Events in History

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 9 British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger introduces income tax to raise funds for the war against Napoleon

British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger
British Prime Minister
William Pitt the Younger
French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • Jan 10 Friedrich von Schiller's "Die Piccolomini" premieres in Weimar

AgreementContract of Interest

Jan 14 Eli Whitney receives government contract for 10,000 muskets

Inventor of the Cotton Gin Eli Whitney
Inventor of the Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney
  • Jan 14 King of Naples flees before advancing French armies
  • Jan 17 Maltese patriot Dun Mikiel Xerri, along with a number of other patriots, is executed
  • Jan 25 1st US patent for a seeding machine, Eliakim Spooner, Vermont
  • Feb 9 USS Constellation captures French frigate Insurgents off Nevis, W I
  • Feb 13 1st US law regulating insurance passed by Massachusetts legislature
  • Feb 15 1st US printed ballots authorized, Pennsylvania
  • Feb 25 1st federal forestry legislation authorizes purchase of timber land
  • Feb 25 US Congress passes 1st federal quarantine legislation
  • Mar 2 Congress standardizes US weights & measures

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

Mar 6 Napoleon Bonaparte captures city of Jaffa, Palestine, after a 5 day siege, defeating the Ottoman Empire

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • Mar 7 The Royal Institution of Great Britain founded; dedicated to scientific research and education.
  • Mar 12 Austria declares war on France
  • Mar 19 Joseph Haydn's "Die Schöpfung" premieres in Vienna

  • Mar 26 Napoleon captures Jaffa, Palestine
  • Mar 28 New York State abolishes slavery
  • Mar 29 New York passes a law aimed at gradually abolishing slavery in the state
  • Apr 16 Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Mount Tabor - Napoleon drives Ottoman Turks across the River Jordan near Acre
  • Apr 20 Friedrich von Schiller's "Wallensteins Tod" premieres in Weimar
  • May 4 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War: The Battle of Seringapatam: The siege of Seringapatam ends when the city is assaulted and the Tipu Sultan killed by the besieging British army, under the command of General George Harris.
  • May 22 Napoleon makes statement in support of re-establishing Jerusalem for Jews

DiscoveryHistoric Expedition

Jun 5 Naturalists Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland set sail in the Pizarro from A Coruña and begin their 5 year Latin American expedition

Naturalist and Explorer Alexander von Humboldt
Naturalist and Explorer
Alexander von Humboldt
  • Jun 22 Britain and Russia decide to invade Batavian Republic
  • Jul 7 Ranjit Singh's men take up their positions outside Lahore

Historic CommunicationRosetta Stone

Jul 15 The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign

Learn More
The Rosetta Stone
The Rosetta Stone
Learn More

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 24 William Clark is willed the slave York

Explorer and Leader of Lewis & Clark Expedition William Clark
Explorer and Leader of Lewis & Clark Expedition
William Clark
  • Jul 25 French-Egyptian forces under Napoleon I beat Turks at Battle of Abukir
  • Aug 13 British fleet under Lord Seymour overthrows Suriname
  • Aug 23 Napoleon leaves Egypt for France en route to seize power.
  • Aug 27 British invasion army lands in North Holland
  • Aug 30 Batavian fleet surrenders to British
  • Sep 1 Bank of Manhattan Company opens in NYC (forerunner to Chase Manhattan)
  • Oct 2 Duke of York & Russians capture Alkmaar in Netherlands
  • Oct 6 Battle of Castricum: Franco-Dutch army beats British-Russian army
  • Oct 9 Sinking of British frigate HMS Lutine, with the loss of 240 men and cargo worth £1,200,000 off Dutch coast
  • Oct 10 Convention of Alkmaar: British-Russian invasion army departs Holland
  • Oct 22 Russia leaves second anti-French Coalition
  • Nov 9 Napoleon Bonaparte pulls off a coup and becomes the dictator of France under the title of First Consul
  • Nov 12 Andrew Ellicott makes the first known record of a meteor shower observation in the U.S, from a ship off the coast of Florida Keys
  • Dec 10 Metric system first adopted in France

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Dec 18 George Washington's body interred at Mount Vernon

First US President George Washington
First US President
George Washington

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 6 Jedediah Smith, American fur trader & explorer, born in Tioga County, New York (d. 1831)
  • Jan 7 Daniel Tyler, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Brooklyn, Connecticut (d. 1882)
  • Jan 22 Ludger Duvernay, Canadian printer and publisher (d. 1852)
  • Feb 4 Joao Batista da Silva Leitao de Almeida Garret, Portuguese playwright
  • Feb 5 John Lindley, English botanist (Elements of Botany)
  • Feb 11 Basil Moreau, French Founder priest (d. 1873)
  • Feb 26 Émile Clapeyron, French engineer and physicist (d. 1864)
  • Mar 8 Simon Cameron, U.S. Senator and Secretary of War (Union), born in Maytown, Pennsylvania (d. 1889)

Person of interestAnna Atkins

Mar 16 Anna Atkins, English botanist, photographer and the 1st person to publish a book illustrated with photographic images, born in Tonbridge, England (d. 1871)

Botanist and Photographer Anna Atkins
Botanist and Photographer
Anna Atkins
  • Mar 20 Karl August Nicander, Swedish poet (d. 1839)
  • Mar 22 Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander, German astronomer, cataloguer of 324,188 stars, born in Memel, Kingdom of Prussia, (d. 1875)
  • Mar 28 Karl Adolph von Basedow, German artist (Ziekte van Basedow), born in Dessau, Germany (d. 1854)

Person of interestEdward Smith-Stanley

Mar 29 Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, British Prime Minister (Conservative: 1852, 1858-59, 1866-68), born in Knowsley, England (d. 1869)

British Prime Minister Edward Smith-Stanley
British Prime Minister
Edward Smith-Stanley
  • Apr 12 Henri Druey, Swiss politician and a founding father of constitutional democracy in Switzerland, born in Faoug, Switzerland (d. 1855)
  • Apr 22 Jean Léonard Marie Poiseuille, French physician and physiologist (blood pressure), born in Paris (d. 1869)
  • May 11 John Lowell, American philanthropist, born in Massachusetts (d. 1836)
  • May 20 Honoré de Balzac, French novelist (La Comédie Humaine), born in Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France (d. 1850)
  • May 21 Mary Anning, British fossil collector, dealer, and palaeontologist (Jurassic marine fossil beds of Lyme Regis), born in Lyme Regis, Dorset (d. 1847)
  • Jun 6 Alexander Pushkin, Russian writer and poet (Eugene Onegin), born in Moscow, Russian Empire (d. 1837)
  • Jun 18 William Lassell, British astronomer who discovered satellites of Uranus and Neptune, born in Bolton, England (d. 1880)
  • Jun 23 John Milton Bernhisel, American physician (d. 1881)
  • Jul 4 Oscar I, King of Sweden and Norway (1844-59), born in Paris (d. 1859)
  • Jul 25 David Douglas, Scottish botanist, born in Scone, Perthshire, Scotland (d. 1834)
  • Jul 26 Isaac Babbitt, American goldsmith who invented babbitt's metal for bearings, born in Taunton, Massachusetts (d. 1862)
  • Aug 11 Joachim de Barrande, French paleontologist/geologist
  • Aug 20 Heinrich von Gagern, German liberal politician, born in Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany (d. 1880)
  • Sep 19 René Caillé, French explorer and the first European to return alive from the town of Timbuktu, born in Mauzé-sur-le-Mignon, Deux-Sèvres, France (d. 1838)
  • Oct 1 Rufus Choate, American lawyer (Hall of Fame), born in Ipswich, Massachusetts (d. 1859)
  • Oct 5 Anthony Gerhard Alexander van Rappard, Dutch politician, born in Utrecht, Netherlands (d. 1869)
  • Oct 30 Ignace Bourget, French-Canadian Bishop of Montreal, born in Lévis, Province of Lower Canada, British Empire (d. 1885)
  • Nov 3 William Sprague III, American politician (U.S. Senator from Rhode Island 1842-44)), born in Cranston, Rhode Island (d. 1856)
  • Nov 9 Gustavus, Crown Prince of Sweden, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1877)
  • Nov 17 Titian Ramsey Peale, American artist/naturalist (American Ornithology)
  • Nov 29 Amos Bronson Alcott, US educator/poet (Concord Days)
  • Dec 12 Karl Briullov, Russian painter, born in St. Petersburg, Russia (d. 1852)

Weddings in History

LoveWedding of Interest

Apr 11 Politician Henry Clay (21) weds Lucretia Hart in Lexington, Kentucky

Legislator and Orator Henry Clay
Legislator and Orator
Henry Clay

Deaths in History

  • Jan 6 Frederik, Dutch prince of Orange-Nassau and general, dies of a fever at 25
  • Jan 9 Maria Gaetana Agnesi, Italian scientist (b. 1718)
  • Jan 22 Horace B de Saussure, Swiss physicist/geologist/alpinist, dies at 58
  • Jan 26 Gabriel Christie, British general, dies at 76
  • Feb 4 Étienne-Louis Boullée, French architect (b. 1728)
  • Feb 7 Qianlong, Emperor of China, 6th Emperor of the Qing Dynasty, dies at 87
  • Feb 12 Lazzaro Spallanzani, Italian biologist (b. 1729)
  • Feb 16 Charles Theoby, ruler (Palts & Bayern), dies at 74
  • Feb 19 Jean-Charles de Borda, French mathematician, physicist, political scientist, and sailor, dies at 65
  • Feb 22 Heshen, infamous Qing Dynasty Chinese official at court (b. 1750)
  • Feb 24 Broerius Brorius, theologist (Pensive Christian), dies at about 41
  • Feb 24 Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, German physicist and writer (types of Lichtenberg), dies at 56
  • Mar 28 Etta L J "baronne" Palm-Aelders, Dutch adventurer/spy, dies at 55
  • Apr 17 Richard Jupp, English architect (East India House) (b. 1728)
  • May 4 Tipu Sultan, Indian military leader killed during Battle of Seringapatam, dies at 48
  • May 18 Pierre de Beaumarchais, French polymath & dramatist (The Marriage of Figaro, Barber of Seville), dies at 67
  • May 26 James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, Scottish judge (b. 1714)
  • May 31 Pierre Lemonnier, French astronomer (b. 1715)

Person of interestPatrick Henry

Jun 6 Patrick Henry, American Revolutionary and Founding Father famous for his "Give me liberty or give me death" speech, dies at 63

American Revolutionary and Founding Father Patrick Henry
American Revolutionary and Founding Father
Patrick Henry
  • Jun 7 Increase Sumner, American politician (5th Governor of Massachusetts), dies at 52
  • Jul 7 William Curtis, English botanist (Botanical Magazine), dies at 53
  • Aug 2 Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier, French inventor, dies at 54
  • Aug 5 Richard Howe, British admiral, dies at 73
  • Aug 7 John Bacon, English sculptor, dies at 58
  • Aug 15 Giuseppe Parini, Italian prose writer and poet (Il Giorno), dies at 70

Person of interestPius VI

Aug 29 Pope Pius VI [Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi], Italian Pope (1775-99), dies at 71

Pope Pius VI
Pius VI
  • Aug 31 Nicolas-Henri Jardin, French architect (b. 1720)
  • Sep 7 Jan Ingenhousz, Dutch-English physiologist (discovering photosynthesis) and personal physician of Maria Theresa, dies at 68
  • Sep 7 Louis Guillaume Lemonnier, French botanist and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, dies at 82
  • Oct 5 Antonio Dinis da Cruz e Silva, Portuguese poet (O Hissope), dies at 68
  • Oct 23 William Paca, American judge and signer (Declaration of Independence), dies at 58
  • Nov 22 Baroness van Dorth, orangist, executed
  • Dec 6 Joseph Black, Scottish chemist and physicist known for his discoveries of magnesium, latent heat and carbon dioxide, dies at 71

Person of interestGeorge Washington

Dec 14 George Washington, American Founding Father, military leader who commanded Continental Army during War for Independence, first President of the United States (1789-97), dies at 66

First US President George Washington
First US President
George Washington
  • Dec 18 Jean-Étienne Montucla, French mathematician, dies at 74
  • Dec 31 Jean-François Marmontel, French historian and writer, dies at 76