On This Day

1800 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 1 Dutch East Indies Company dissolves
  • Jan 2 Free African American community of Philadelphia petitions US Congress to abolish the slave trade
  • Jan 5 1st Swedenborgian temple in US holds 1st service in Baltimore
  • Jan 8 Austrians defeat French in Second Battle of Novi
  • Jan 8 Wild Boy of Aveyron (approx.12) discovered in southern France after possibly 7 years in the wild, later christened Victor of Aveyron
  • Jan 30 US population: 5,308,483; African American population 1,002,037 (18.9%)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 14 Luigi Chiaramonti crowned Pope Pius VII

Bishop of Imola and Pope Pius VII
Bishop of Imola and Pope
Pius VII
  • Mar 17 British warship Queen Charlotte catches fire; 700 die
  • Mar 20 French army defeats Turks at Helipolis & advance to Cairo

InventionScientific Discovery

Mar 20 Alessandro Volta reports his discovery of the electric battery in a letter to Joseph Banks, president of the Royal Society of London

Physicist and Inventor Alessandro Volta
Physicist and Inventor
Alessandro Volta
Botanist and explorer Joseph Banks
Botanist and explorer
Joseph Banks
  • Apr 24 US Library of Congress establishes with $5,000 allocation
  • May 7 Indiana Territory organized

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 11 French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck give a lecture first outlining his theories of evolution at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris, France

French Naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
French Naturalist
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
  • May 14 Friedrich von Schiller's "Macbeth" premieres in Weimar

MurderAssassination Attempt

May 15 King George III survives a second assassination attempt

King of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover George III
King of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover
George III
  • May 15 Pope Pius VII calls on French bishops to return to Gospel principles

  • Jun 7 David Thompson reaches the mouth of the Saskatchewan River in Manitoba
  • Jun 14 Battle of Marengo (Alessandria): Bonaparte vs Austria
  • Jun 29 Free mason lodge establishes in Alkmaar
  • Jul 8 Dr Benjamin Waterhouse gives 1st cowpox vaccination in the US to his son to prevent smallpox
  • Jul 9 Mt Vernon Gardens becomes site of 1st summer theater in US
  • Jul 10 The British Indian Government establishes the Fort William College to promote Urdu, Hindi and other vernaculars of sub continent
  • Aug 30 Gabriel Prosser leads a slave rebellion in Richmond, Virginia
  • Sep 5 Malta surrenders to British after they blockade French troops
  • Sep 7 Zion AME Church dedicated (NYC)
  • Sep 13 Curacao in British hands (until Jan 1803)
  • Oct 1 Spain cedes Louisiana to France in a secret treaty
  • Oct 17 Dutch colony Curacao transfererd to Great Britain

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Nov 1 John Adams becomes the first US President to live in the White House

2nd US President John Adams
2nd US President
John Adams
  • Nov 7 It becomes illegal for women in Paris to wear trousers without a Police permit (annulled 2013)
  • Nov 17 Congress holds its 1st session in Washington, D.C. in an incomplete Capitol Building

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Nov 24 Naturalists Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland depart Caracas for Cuba where they met fellow botanist John Fraser

Naturalist and Explorer Alexander von Humboldt
Naturalist and Explorer
Alexander von Humboldt
  • Dec 12 Washington, D.C., established as the capital of the United States of America

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 6 Willem A. Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, Dutch politician, born in Doesburg, Netherlands (d. 1872)

Person of interestMillard Fillmore

Jan 7 Millard Fillmore, 13th US President (Whig: 1850-53), born in Moravia, New York (d. 1874)

13th US President Millard Fillmore
13th US President
Millard Fillmore
  • Jan 10 Lars Levi Laestadius, Swedish botanist & founder of Laestadianism, born in Jäckvik, Arjeplog, Sweden (d. 1861)
  • Jan 11 Ányos Jedlik, Hungarian physicist (d. 1895)
  • Jan 24 Edwin Chadwick, British social reformer (Poor law reform, sanitation movement), born in Manchester, England (d. 1890)

Person of interestWilliam Henry Fox Talbot

Feb 11 William Henry Fox Talbot, English photographic pioneer, born in Dorset, England (d. 1877)

Photography Pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot
Photography Pioneer
William Henry Fox Talbot
  • Feb 14 Emory Washburn, 22nd Governor of Massachusetts (1854-55), born in Leicester, Massachusetts (d. 1877)
  • Feb 15 Frederik W Conrad, Dutch hydraulic engineer/railway pioneer
  • Feb 21 John Henry Winder, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1865)
  • Mar 2 Evgeny Baratynsky, Russian poet (d. 1844)
  • Mar 3 Heinrich Georg Bronn, German geologist (d. 1862)
  • Mar 12 Louis-Prosper Gachard, Belgian historian
  • Mar 14 James Bogardus, American inventor and builder (made cast-iron buildings), born in Catskill, New York (d. 1874)
  • Mar 16 Emperor Ninko of Japan (d. 1846)
  • Mar 25 Paulin Paris, French scholar and historian, born in Avenay, France (d. 1881)
  • Apr 15 James Clark Ross, British Royal Navy explorer (British Antarctic), born in London (d. 1862)
  • Apr 16 William Chambers, Scottish author and publisher (Basis of Communication & Coding), born in Peebles, Scotland (d. 1883)
  • Apr 16 George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan, British army officer (Charge of the Light Brigade), born in London, England (d. 1888)
  • May 1 Thomas Aloysius Dornin, American naval officer, born in Ireland (d. 1874)
  • May 5 Louis Christophe François Hachette, French publisher (Librairie Hachette), born in Rethel, Ardennes, France (d. 1864)
  • May 6 Roman Sanguszko, Polish aristocrat and general, born in Volhynia (d. 1881)

Person of interestJohn Brown

May 9 John Brown, American abolitionist and revolutionary (Harpers Ferry), born in Torrington, Connecticut (d. 1859)

Abolitionist John Brown
John Brown
  • May 30 Karl Wilhelm Feuerbach, German mathematician (Position of Feuerbach), born in Jena, Saxe-Weimar, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1834)
  • Jun 1 Edward Deas Thomson, Australian politician (d. 1879)
  • Jun 23 Karol Marcinkowski, Polish physician and social activist (d. 1846)
  • Jul 9 Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, German pathologist, born in Fürth, Bavaria (d. 1885)
  • Jul 19 Juan José Flores, General and first President of Ecuador (1839-1845), born in Puerto Cabello, Venezuela (d. 1864)
  • Aug 6 Catherine Beecher, American educator (championed higher education for women), born in East Hampton, New York (1878)
  • Aug 21 Hiram Walden, American politician, born in Pawlet, Vermont (d. 1880)
  • Aug 22 William S. Harney, U.S. general, born in Madison, Tennessee (d. 1889)
  • Aug 22 Samuel David Luzzatto, Italian-Jewish scholar, born in Trieste, Italy (d. 1865)
  • Sep 11 Daniel S. Dickinson, New York senator, born in Goshen, Connecticut (d. 1866)
  • Sep 17 Franklin Buchanan, American first superintendent of the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 1874)
  • Sep 19 William McKean, American naval officer (Union Navy), born in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania (d. 1865)
  • Sep 23 William H McGuffey, educator (McGuffey Readers)
  • Sep 30 Decimus Burton, British architect (Hyde Park, Palm House Kew Gardens), born in London, England (d. 1881)

Person of interestNat Turner

Oct 2 Nat Turner, American leader of a major slave rebellion in 1831, born in Southampton County, Virginia (d. 1831)

Rebel Slave Nat Turner
Rebel Slave
Nat Turner

Person of interestGeorge Bancroft

Oct 3 George Bancroft, American historian (History of the United States), born in Worcester Massachusetts (d. 1891)

Father of U.S. History George Bancroft
Father of U.S. History
George Bancroft
  • Oct 25 Thomas Babington Macaulay, English poet and historian (Ivry, Naaseby), born in Leicestershire, England (d. 1859)
  • Oct 26 Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, Prussian general and fieldmarshal, born in Parchim, Mecklenburg-Schwerin (d. 1891)
  • Oct 27 Benjamin Franklin Wade, American politician, US Senator from Ohio (1851-69), born in Springfield, Massachusetts (d. 1878)
  • Nov 23 Michail P Pogodin, Russian historian/author (Povesti)
  • Dec 3 France Prešeren, Slovenian poet (Krst pri Savici), born in Vrba, Carniola, Habsburg Monarchy (d. 1849)
  • Dec 4 Emil Aarestrup, Danish physician and poet (Ritornellen), born in Copenhagen, Denmark (d. 1831)
  • Dec 17 Gergely Czuczor, Hungarian-Czech poet and translator (Great Hung dictionary), born in Andód (d. 1866)
  • Dec 21 Barnwell Rhett Robert, (Confederacy), (d. 1876)

Person of interestCharles Goodyear

Dec 29 Charles Goodyear, US chemist and manufacturing engineer (vulcanized rubber), born in New Haven, Connecticut (d. 1860)

Chemist and Inventor Charles Goodyear
Chemist and Inventor
Charles Goodyear

Weddings in History

  • Jan 20 Napoleon I's sister Carolina marries King Joachim Murat of Naples

LoveWedding of Interest

Jul 8 Prime Minister of UK George Canning (30) weds heiress Joan Scott

British Prime Minister George Canning
British Prime Minister
George Canning

LoveWedding of Interest

Aug 19 Social reformer Elizabeth Fry née Gurney (20) weds tea dealer Joseph Fry (23) at the Norwich Quaker Meeting House in Norwich, England

English Social Reformer Elizabeth Fry
English Social Reformer
Elizabeth Fry

Deaths in History

  • Jan 1 Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton, French zoologist, dies at 83
  • Jan 9 Jean Étienne Championnet, French general (b. 1762)
  • Jan 23 Edward Rutledge, US attorney (signed US Declaration of Independence), dies at 50
  • Feb 23 Joseph Warton, English literary critic (b. 1722)
  • Mar 29 Marc René, Marquis de Montalembert, French military engineer and writer, dies at 85
  • Apr 18 Pieter Fouquet, Dutch art merchant (Atlas of Fouquet), dies at 71
  • Apr 30 John H Midderigh, Rotterdam patriot, dies at 46
  • May 7 Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel, Dutch Grand Pensionary of Zeeland and Holland (1787-95), dies at 64
  • May 18 Alexander Suvorov, Russian general, dies at 70
  • May 19 French Bosbeeck, veterinarian/robber, hanged
  • Jun 7 Willem Arnold Alting, Dutch governor-general of Dutch East Indies (1780-97), dies at 75
  • Jun 14 Louis Charles Antoine Desaix, French military leader (b. 1768)
  • Jun 14 Jean-Baptiste Kléber, French general, dies at 47
  • Jun 20 Abraham Gotthelf Kästner, German mathematician, dies at 80
  • Jul 23 John Rutledge, American 2nd Chief Justice of the United States, dies at 60
  • Sep 29 Michael Denis, Austrian poet, bibliographer and lepidopterist, dies at 71
  • Oct 7 Gabriel, slave revolt leader (Virginia), hanged
  • Oct 28 Artemas Ward, American politician and soldier (major general during the American Revolutionary War), dies at 72
  • Dec 27 Hugh Blair, Scottish preacher and man of letters (b. 1718)