1812 in History

Events in History

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 9 Swedish Pomerania (Germany) seized by Napoleon

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • Jan 12 1st cargo arrives in New Orleans by steam, from Natchez

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 19 Peninsular War: After a ten day siege, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, orders British soldiers of the Light and third divisions to storm Ciudad Rodrigo

1st Duke of Wellington & British Prime Minister Arthur Wellesley
1st Duke of Wellington & British Prime Minister
Arthur Wellesley
  • Jan 23 7.8 earthquake shakes New Madrid, Missouri
  • Feb 7 8.2 earthquake shakes New Madrid, Missouri

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 7 Poet Lord Byron (6th Baron Byron) makes his maiden speech in House of Lords

Romantic Poet Lord Byron
Romantic Poet
Lord Byron
  • Feb 11 Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry signs a redistricting bill - first "gerrymander"
  • Mar 3 US passes 1st foreign aid bill (aids Venezuela earthquake vicitims)
  • Mar 11 Citizenship granted to Prussian Jews
  • Mar 14 Congress authorizes war bonds to finance War of 1812
  • Mar 15 1st Russian settlement in California at Russian River
  • Mar 19 The first Spanish constitution is enacted, one of the earliest constitutions ever promulgated

VenezuelaMassive Earthquake in Caracas, Venezuela

Mar 26 Earthquake measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale destroys 90% of Caracas, Venezuela and kills an estimated 15,000–20,000 people
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  • Apr 5 British storm Badajoz fortress in Extremadura, Spain, held by French & Spanish
  • Apr 30 (Eastern) Louisiana admitted as 18th US state
  • May 11 Waltz introduced into English ballrooms. Some observers consider it disgusting and immoral.


May 11 British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is assassinated by John Bellingham in the lobby of the House of Commons, London. Ironically, descendants of both later elected to Parliament at the same time.

British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval
British Prime Minister
Spencer Perceval
  • Jun 4 Louisiana Territory officially renamed "Missouri Territory"

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Jun 8 Robert Jenkinson becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom after Spencer Perceval's assassination

British Prime Minister Robert Jenkinson
British Prime Minister
Robert Jenkinson
British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval
British Prime Minister
Spencer Perceval
  • Jun 18 War of 1812 begins as US declares war against Britain

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

Jun 22 Upon learning of plans by the Americans to execute a surprise attack, Laura Secord walks 32 km to warn British troops, results in a British surprise victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams

Canadian War Heroine Laura Secord
Canadian War Heroine
Laura Secord
  • Jun 24 Napoleon Bonaparte's forces invade Russia crossing the Neman River
  • Jul 11 US invades Canada (Detroit frontier)
  • Jul 12 US forces led by General Hull invade Canada (War of 1812)
  • Jul 22 Duke of Wellington defeats French at Battle of Salamanca, Spain
  • Jul 23 Battle of Mogilev Russia-Napoleon fights Tsar Alexander I
  • Aug 1 Rare tornado hits Westchester County, NY

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 5 War of 1812: Tecumseh's Native American force ambushes Thomas Van Horne's 200 Americans at Brownstone Creek, causing them to flee and retreat

Native American Leader of the Shawnee Tecumseh
Native American Leader of the Shawnee
  • Aug 12 Duke of Wellington's troops enter Madrid
  • Aug 16 General Hull surrenders Detroit and Michigan territory to British forces under the command of Major General Sir Isaac Brock, who capture Fort Detroit with the help of Indigenous warriors led by Tecumseh
  • Aug 19 US warship Constitution defeats British warship Guerriere
  • Sep 3 World's first cannery ( Donkin, Hall and Gamble) opens in London, England to supply food to the Royal Navy
  • Sep 7 Battle at Borodino: Napoleon-Kutuzov
  • Sep 14 Napoleon occupies Moscow and the fires start, extinguished by the 19th
  • Sep 15 French army under Napoleon reaches Kremlin, Moscow
  • Sep 18 Great Fire of Moscow burns out after 5 days, 75% of the city destroyed and 12,000 killed
  • Oct 13 Battle of Queenstown Heights: British forces defeat United States forces attempting to invade Canada
  • Oct 14 Work on London's Regent's Canal starts.
  • Oct 19 Napoleon's forces begin their retreat from Moscow
  • Oct 22 Duke of Wellington seizes Burgos, Spain
  • Oct 23 Failed coup against emperor Napoleon
  • Oct 24 Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Maloyaroslavets takes place near Moscow.
  • Oct 25 US frigate United States captures British vessel Macedonian
  • Nov 3 Napoleonic armies defeated at Vyazma
  • Nov 17 Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Krasnoi during Napoleon's retreat from Moscow
  • Nov 29 Napoleon's Grand Army crosses Berezina River in retreat from Russia

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Dec 2 James Madison re-elected President of the US, Elbridge Gerry Vice-President

4th US President James Madison
4th US President
James Madison
  • Dec 4 Peter Gaillard of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, patents a horse-drawn mower
  • Dec 11 1st newspaper on Curacao (Curacao Gazette & Commercial Advertiser)
  • Dec 12 French invasion of Russia comes to an end.
  • Dec 14 The French Invasion of Russia, led by Napoleon, officially ends

Historic PublicationRumpelstiltskin

Dec 20 "Grimm's Fairy Tales" or "Children's and Household Tales" by Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm is first published
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  • Dec 29 The USS Constitution under the command of Captain William Bainbridge, captures the HMS Java off the coast of Brazil after a three hour battle

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 6 Melchora Aquino, Filipino revolutionary hero, born in Caloocan, Philippines (d. 1919)
  • Jan 10 Georg Hermann Nicolai, German architect & educator, born in Torgau, Germany (d. 1881)
  • Jan 13 Humphrey Marshall, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1872)
  • Jan 13 Victor de Laprade, French poet and critic (d. 1883)
  • Jan 15 Peter C Asbjornsen, Norwegian fairy tale writer
  • Jan 20 Ralph Pomeroy Buckland, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born Leyden, Massachusetts (d. 1892)
  • Jan 20 Thomas Meik, Scottish engineer (d. 1896)
  • Jan 21 Moses Hess, Jewish socialist and nationalist, born in Bonn, Germany (d. 1875)
  • Jan 31 John Randolph Tucker, American naval officer (Confederate Navy), born in Alexandria, Virginia (d. 1883)

Person of interestCharles Dickens

Feb 7 Charles Dickens, English novelist (Oliver Twist, Tale of 2 Cities), born in Portsmouth, Hampshire (d. 1870)

Novelist Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens

Person of interestAlexander H. Stephens

Feb 11 Alexander H. Stephens, US Confederate Vice President, born in Crawfordville, Georgia (d. 1883)

Confederate States VP Alexander H. Stephens
Confederate States VP
Alexander H. Stephens
  • Feb 11 Benjamin Franklin Sands, Commander (Union Navy), (d. 1883)
  • Feb 14 Alfred Thomas Agate, American artist, born in Sparta, New York (d. 1846)
  • Feb 15 Charles Lewis Tiffany, jeweler (Tiffany), born in Killingly, Connecticut
  • Feb 16 Henry Wilson, (R) 18th VP (1873-75)
  • Feb 29 Sir James Wilson, Premier of Tasmania (d. 1880, also on 29 February)
  • Mar 1 Augustus Pugin, English-born architect (d. 1852)
  • Mar 6 Aaron Lufkin Dennison, father of American watchmaking
  • Mar 10 Victor Tesch, Belgian lawyer/min of Justice
  • Mar 11 James Speed, Atty Gen (Union), (d. 1887)
  • Mar 16 Henry Dwight Terry, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Hartford, Connecticut (d. 1869)
  • Mar 20 George Bibb Crittenden, Major General (Confederate Army), (d. 1880)
  • Mar 22 Stephen Pearl Andrews, American abolitionist (d. 1886)
  • Apr 3 Louisa Maria, Queen of Belgium (1832-50), Wife of Leopold I), born in Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France (d. 1850)
  • Apr 6 Aaron Bernstein, writer
  • Apr 6 Alexander Herzen, Russian writer (d. 1870)
  • Apr 9 Randolph Barnes Marcy, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Greenwich, Massachusetts (d. 1887)
  • Apr 15 Pierre-Etienne-Theodore Rousseau, painter
  • Apr 22 Solomon Caesar Malan, British orientalist (d. 1894)
  • Apr 26 Alfred Krupp, German arms merchant
  • Apr 27 William W. Snow, American politician, U.S. House of Representatives from New York (1851-53), born in Heath, Massachusetts (d. 1886)
  • Apr 28 Daniel Henry Rucker, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Belleville, New Jersey (d. 1910)
  • Apr 30 Kaspar Hauser, German son of grand duke Karel van Bathe
  • May 6 Marin R Delany, Charlestown Va, Abolitionist and Physician (1st African American major in US Army)

Person of interestRobert Browning

May 7 Robert Browning, English poet (Pied Piper), born in London, England (d. 1889)

  • May 12 Edward Lear, England, landscape painter, (Complete Nonsense Book)
  • May 12 Louis Ludwig Blenker, German-American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Worms, Germany (d. 1863)
  • May 17 Joseph Warren Revere, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1880)
  • May 19 Felix Kirk Zollicoffer, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1862)
  • May 23 Henri A Esquiros, French poet/writer (Les Vierges Folles)
  • May 30 John Alexander McClernand, American politician and Major General (Union Army), born in Breckinridge County, Kentucky (d. 1900)
  • Jun 3 Pieter Mijer, Dutch gov-gen of Neth Indies (1866-72)
  • Jun 7 Theophilus Toulmin Garrard, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Clay County, Kentucky (d. 1902)
  • Jun 9 Hermann von Fehling, German chemist (Fehling's reagens)
  • Jun 9 Johann G Galle, German astronomer (discovered Neptune)
  • Jun 12 Edmond Hébert, French geologist, born in Villefargau, Yonne, France (d. 1890)
  • Jun 14 Fernando Wood, American politician, New York City mayor (1855-58 and 1860-62), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1881)
  • Jun 18 Ivan Goncharov, Russian novelist/travel writer (Oblomov)
  • Jun 28 Rudolf von Alt, Austrian painter, born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1905)
  • Jul 1 Willem J d'Ablaing van Giessenburg, Dutch genealogist/heraldicus
  • Jul 15 Benno Adam, animal painter
  • Jul 15 James Hope-Scott, English barrister (d. 1873)
  • Jul 27 Thomas Lanier Clingman, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Huntsville, North Carolina (d. 1897)
  • Aug 8 John Rodgers II, Commander (Union Navy), (d. 1882)
  • Aug 25 Percival Drayton, American Caption (Union Navy), born in Charleston, South Carolina (d. 1865)
  • Sep 12 Richard Hoe, American inventor and industrialist, born in NYC, New York (d. 1886)
  • Sep 18 Herschel Vespasian Johnson, American politician (41st Governor of Georgia), born in Burke County, Georgia (d. 1880)
  • Sep 29 Adolph Gopel, German mathematician, born in Rostock
  • Oct 20 Austin Flint, 19th century heart research pioneer
  • Nov 2 Abraham I van Lier, theater director (Gran Theatre-van Lier)
  • Nov 4 Aleardo [Gaetano] Aleardi, Italian/East poet (Lettere a Maria)
  • Nov 9 Paul Abadie, French master builder (renovated Notre Dame), born in Paris (d. 1884)
  • Nov 14 Maria Christina of Savoy, queen of the Two Sicilies (d. 1836)
  • Nov 18 Jesse Johnson Finley, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1904)
  • Nov 19 Karl Schwarz, German theologian (d. 1885)
  • Dec 4 Elias Smith Dennis, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Newburgh, New York (d. 1894)
  • Dec 6 Robert Spear Hudson, English businessman, born in West Bromwich, Staffordshire (d. 1884)
  • Dec 14 Charles Canning, English 1st viceroy of British-Indies, born in Brompton, London (d. 1862)
  • Dec 16 William Grose, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Dayton, Ohio (d. 1900)
  • Dec 23 Samuel Smiles, Scotland, author (Self-Help, Character, Duty)
  • Dec 24 Karl Eduard Zachariae, German jurist, born in Heidelberg, Germany (d. 1894)

Weddings in History

HeartWedding of Interest

Sep 12 Revolutionary leader Jose de San Martin (33) weds María de los Remedios de Escalada at Buenos Aires Cathedral in Argentina

Revolutionary Leader José de San Martín
Revolutionary Leader
José de San Martín

Deaths in History

  • Jan 23 Robert Craufurd, British general, dies at 47
  • Feb 6 Carlo Goldoni, writer, dies at 104
  • Feb 24 Hugo Kollataj, Polish teacher/minister, dies at 61
  • Feb 24 Étienne-Louis Malus, French physicist (Polarization of light), dies at 36
  • Apr 2 Louise of Orléans, Daughter of King Louis XV and Queen of Belgium, dies at 38
  • Apr 11 Gottlieb Schick, German painter (Opfer Noachs), dies at 35
  • Apr 20 George Clinton, American soldier and 4th Vice President (1805-12), dies at 73 and 1st Vice President to die in office

Person of interestSpencer Perceval

May 11 Spencer Perceval, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (assassinated) (b. 1762)

British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval
British Prime Minister
Spencer Perceval
  • Jun 2 John W de Winter, Dutch vice-adm, dies at battle at Kamperduin at 51
  • Jun 16 Franz Pforr, German painter and cartoonist (Lukasbund), dies at 23
  • Jul 14 Christian G. Heyne, German archaeologist, dies at 82
  • Aug 1 Yakov Kulnev, Russian general (killed in battle) (b. 1763)
  • Sep 12 Pyotr I Bagration, Georgian/Russian ruler/general, dies in battle
  • Sep 19 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, German Jewish banker and founder of the Rothschild banking dynasty, dies at 68
  • Oct 11 Jurriaan François de Friderici, Dutch governor-general of Suriname, dies at 60

Person of interestIsaac Brock

Oct 13 Isaac Brock, English general (conquered Detroit), dies in battle at 43

British Army Officer and Administrator Isaac Brock
British Army Officer and Administrator
Isaac Brock
  • Nov 11 Platon Levshin, Metropoitan of Moscow (b. 1737)
  • Nov 15 Eagle Fokke Simonsz, writer (Year 3000), dies at about 57

Person of interestSacagawea

Dec 20 Sacagawea, Shoshone interpreter for Lewis & Clark, dies at 24

Interpreter and Guide Sacagawea
Interpreter and Guide
  • Dec 27 Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Lithuanian rabbi and founder of Chabad Hasidism (b. 1745)
  • Dec 27 Joanna Southcott, an English self-described religious prophetess.