On This Day

1813 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 14 Gideon Hawley becomes 1st state school superintendent in US (NY)
  • Jan 21 First reference to pineapple cultivation in Hawaii in diary entry by Francisco de Paula Marin
  • Jan 21 Spaniard Don Francisco de Paula y Marin plants coffee in Hawaii - 1st record of coffee growing in Hawaii
  • Jan 22 Americans capture Frenchtown, Michigan Territory

Book releaseHistoric Publication

Jan 28 Jane Austen's "Pride and Prejudice" is published by Thomas Egerton in the United Kingdom

Novelist Jane Austen
Novelist
Jane Austen
  • Feb 23 1st US raw cotton-to-cloth mill founded in Waltham, Massachusetts
  • Feb 27 1st federal vaccination legislation enacted
  • Feb 27 US Congress authorizes use of steamboats to transport mail
  • Mar 3 Office of Surgeon General of the US Army forms
  • Mar 18 David Melville, Newport, Rhode Island, patents apparatus for making coal gas
  • Mar 20 Lady Hester Stanhope sets out for ancient city of Palmyra, the first western woman to visit
  • Mar 25 1st US flag flown in battle on the Pacific by the frigate Essex
  • Apr 27 Americans under General Pike capture Toronto; Pike is killed
  • Apr 29 Ist US Rubber patent granted to Jacob F Hummel
  • May 11 In Australia, William Lawson, Gregory Blaxland and William Wentworth, lead an expedition westwards from Sydney. Their route opens up inland Australia for continued expansion throughout the 19th century.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 23 South American independence leader Simón Bolívar enters Mérida, leading the invasion of Venezuela, and is proclaimed El Libertador ("The Liberator")

Military and Political Leader Simón Bolívar
Military and Political Leader
Simón Bolívar

  • May 27 Americans capture Fort George, Canada
  • May 31 In Australia, Lawson, Blaxland and Wentworth reach Mount Blaxland, marking the end of a route across the Blue Mountains
  • Jun 1 Captain John Lawrence utters Navy motto "Don't give up the ship"
  • Jun 6 US invasion of Canada halted at Stoney Creek (Ontario)
  • Jun 21 Peninsular War: Battle of Vitoria
  • Jun 24 Battle of Beaver Dams - British and native forces defeat US forces (War of 1812)
  • Jul 31 British invade Plattsburgh, NY

AppointmentAppointment of Interest

Aug 12 Robert Southey is appointed British Poet Laureate by King George III

King of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover George III
King of Great Britain, Ireland and Hanover
George III
  • Aug 14 British warship Pelican attacks & captures US war brigantine Argus
  • Aug 19 Gervasio Antonio de Posadas joins Argentina's second triumvirate.
  • Aug 23 Battle of Grossbeeren - Prussians under Von Bulow repulse French

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

Aug 27 Battle of Dresden; Napoleon defeats Austrians

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • Aug 30 Battle of Kulm: French forces defeated by Austrian-Prussian-Russian alliance.
  • Sep 4 First US religious newspaper (Religious Remembrancer (Christian Observer))
  • Sep 7 "Uncle Sam" 1st used to refer to the US, by Troy Post of New York
  • Sep 10 American Naval Commander Oliver Hazard Perry defeats the British in Battle of Lake Erie
  • Sep 30 Battle of Bárbula: Simón Bolívar defeats Santiago Bobadilla
  • Oct 5 Battle of Thames in Canada; Americans defeat British
  • Oct 8 Treaty of Ried between Bavaria & Austria
  • Oct 16 Battle of Leipzig, largest battle in Europe prior to WWI, Napoleon's forces defeated by Prussia, Austria and Russia

  • Oct 20 Kingdom of Westphalia abolished
  • Oct 23 The Pacific Fur Company trading post in Astoria, Oregon is turned over to the rival British North West Company (the fur trade in the Pacific Northwest was dominated for the next three decades by the United Kingdom).
  • Nov 2 Treaty of Fulda signed in Germany after Battle of Leipzig
  • Nov 3 US troops under General Coffee annihilate the Red Stick Creek Indian village at Tallasseehatchee, Alabama
  • Nov 6 Chilpancingo congress declares Mexico independent of Spain

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Nov 9 General Andrew Jackson, responding to a plea for assistance from White Stick Creek Indians at Fort Leslie, drives off the attacking force of Red Stick Creek Indians at Talladega, Alabama

US President & General Andrew Jackson
US President & General
Andrew Jackson
  • Nov 11 Dresden surrenders to allied armies
  • Nov 12 Allied troops occupy Zwolle Neth
  • Nov 15 Allied troops occupies Groningen
  • Nov 15 Tax revolt in Amsterdam
  • Nov 21 Stettin surrenders to allied armies
  • Nov 28 Cossacks occupy Utrecht
  • Nov 29 Elias Canneman (Lib) becomes minister of Finance
  • Nov 30 Prince Willem Frederik returns to Netherlands
  • Dec 2 Prince Willem Frederik accepts constitutional monarchy
  • Dec 5 Lübeck surrenders to allied armies
  • Dec 18 British take Fort Niagara in War of 1812
  • Dec 26 Zamose, Modlin, Torgau surrenders to allied armies
  • Dec 29 British burn Buffalo, New York during War of 1812
  • Dec 30 Danzig surrenders to allied armies

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 4 Alexander Freiherr von Bach, Austria attorney/premier (1852-59)

Person of interestIsaac Pitman

Jan 4 Isaac Pitman, English teacher and inventor of Pitman shorthand (Stenographic Soundhand), born in Trowbridge, England (d. 1897)

English Teacher and Inventor Isaac Pitman
English Teacher and Inventor
Isaac Pitman
  • Jan 4 Louis L Bonaparte, English/French linguist/senator
  • Jan 5 Thomas Neville Waul, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Sumter County, South Carolina (d. 1903)
  • Jan 7 Ann Rutledge, said to be Abraham Lincoln's true love, born in Henderson, Kentucky (d. 1835)
  • Jan 13 Agostino Depretis, Italian statesman, Prime Minister of Italy (1876-78, 1778-79, 1881-87), born in Bressana Bottarone, Kingdom of Italy (d. 1887)
  • Jan 15 James Marion Sims, American physician & surgical pioneer (vesicovaginal operation), born in Lancaster County, South Carolina (d. 1883)
  • Jan 18 Joseph Glidden, American inventor of 1st commercial usable barbed wire, born in Charlestown, New Hampshire (d. 1906)
  • Jan 19 Henry Bessemer, engineer/inventor (Bessemer engine)
  • Jan 20 Jacon Gartner Lauman, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Taneytown, Maryland (d. 1867)
  • Jan 26 Juan Pablo Duarte, Dominican founding father (d. 1876
  • Jan 31 Samuel Sarphati, Amsterdam, physician/pharmacist/social activist
  • Feb 8 Jacob G Agarah, Swedish algologist
  • Feb 11 Otto Ludwig, German writer and critic (d. 1865)
  • Feb 13 Charles Pierre Schimpf, governor of Suriname (1855-59)
  • Feb 14 John McNeil, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (d. 1891)
  • Feb 16 Joseph Reid Anderson, Brigadier General (Confederate Army) (d. 1892)
  • Mar 4 Wijnand Nuijen, Dutch romantic and water color painter (Wrecked), born in Den Haag, Netherlands (d. 1839)
  • Mar 15 John Snow, English epidemiologist (d. 1858)
  • Mar 18 Friedrich Hebbel, writer

Person of interestDavid Livingstone

Mar 19 David Livingstone, Scottish explorer (found by Stanley in Africa), born in Blantyre, South Lanarkshire, Scotland (d. 1873)

Physician and Explorer David Livingstone
Physician and Explorer
David Livingstone
  • Mar 21 James Jesse Strang, King of Mormons on Beaver Is, MI (1850-56)
  • Mar 22 Gabriel René Paul, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in St. Louis, Missouri (d. 1886)
  • Mar 26 Thomas West Sherman, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Newport, Rhode Island (d. 1879)
  • Mar 27 Nathaniel Currier, American lithographer (Currier & Ives), born in Roxbury, Massachusetts (d. 1888)
  • Mar 29 John Letcher, American lawyer and politician, U.S. House of Representatives from Virginia, born in Lexington, Virginia (d. 1884)
  • Apr 14 Junius Spencer Morgan, American merchant and philanthropist (Metro Museum of Art), born in Holyoke, Massachusetts (d. 1890)
  • Apr 17 Henry Washington Benham, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Cheshire, Connecticut (d. 1884)
  • Apr 18 James McCune Smith, African-American doctor and abolitionist, born in Manhattan, New York (d. 1865)
  • Apr 23 Stephen A. Douglas, American politician, US senator from Illinois (Lincoln-Douglas debates), born in Brandon, Vermont (d. 1861)
  • Apr 23 Frédéric Ozanam, French scholar and founder of the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul, born in Milan, Italy (d. 1853)
  • May 5 Søren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher, born in Copenhagen, Denmark (d. 1855)
  • May 6 Joseph Tarr Copeland, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in New Castle, Maine (d. 1893)
  • May 10 Montgomery Blair, American lawyer (Dred Scott v. Sandford), born in Franklin County, Kentucky (d. 1883)
  • May 12 Johann Czerski, German chaplin
  • May 23 Mason Brayman, American attorney, newspaperman and Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Buffalo, New York (d. 1895)
  • Jun 6 Israel Washburn Jr., American politician, U.S. House of Representatives from Maine (1853-61), born in Livermore, Massachusetts (d. 1883)
  • Jun 8 David Dixon Porter, United States Navy admiral, born in Chester, Pennsylvania (d. 1891)
  • Jun 16 Otto Jahn, German archaeologist (d. 1869)
  • Jun 18 Pavel Annenkov, Russian literature historian (Zametsjatelnoje desjatileti), born in Moscow, Russia (d. 1887)
  • Jun 24 Henry Ward Beecher, American clergyman/orator (Independent), born in Litchfield, Connecticut (d. 1887)
  • Jun 25 William High Keim, American politician and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Reading, Pennsylvania (d. 1862)
  • Jul 7 William Scott Ketchum, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Norwalk, Connecticut (d. 1871)
  • Jul 12 Claude Bernard, French physiologist involved in the founding of modern physiology (blind experiments), born in Saint-Julien, Rhône (d. 1878)
  • Jul 26 Isaac Baumann, Jewish pioneer and trader in Bloemfontein, South Africa, born in Kassel Hesse, Germany (d. 1881)
  • Aug 5 Carnot Posey, American Confederate brigadier general, born in Wilkinson County, Mississippi (d. 1863)
  • Aug 5 Ivar Aasen, Norwegian linguist and poet, born in Ørsten, Norway (d. 1896)
  • Aug 15 Jules Grévy, 2nd President of the French Third Republic, born in Mont-sous-Vaudrey, France (d. 1891)
  • Aug 18 Benjamin Alvord, American scientist and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Vancouver, Washington (d. 1884)
  • Aug 21 Jean Stas, Belgian chemist, born in Leuven, Belgium (d. 1891)
  • Aug 26 Nicaise de Keyser, Flemish painter (Battle of Guilder Tracks)
  • Aug 30 Princess Mathilde Caroline of Bavaria, eldest daughter of Ludwig I of Bavaria, born in Augsburg, Germany (d. 1862)

Person of interestMark Hopkins

Sep 1 Mark Hopkins, American business tycoon and railroad executive (Central Pacific Railroad), born in Henderson, New York (d. 1878)

Business Tycoon and Railroad Executive Mark Hopkins
Business Tycoon and Railroad Executive
Mark Hopkins
  • Sep 11 Conrad Feger Jackson, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Alsace Township, Pennsylvania (d. 1862)
  • Sep 13 John Sedgwick, American Major General (Union Army), who is best remembered for his famous last words "they couldn't hit an elephant at this distance" before being shot in battle, born in Cornwall, Connecticut (d. 1864)
  • Oct 9 John J. Pettus, American politician, Confederate governor (D-Miss, 1859-63), born in Wilson County, Tennessee (d. 1867)
  • Oct 12 Lyman Trumbull, U.S. Senator from Illinois (1855-73), born in Colchester, Connecticut (d. 1896)
  • Oct 17 Georg Büchner, German playwright (d. 1837)

Person of interestLudwig Leichhardt

Oct 23 Ludwig Leichhardt, German explorer of inland Australia, born in Trebatsch, Prussia (d. c. 1848)

Explorer and Naturalist Ludwig Leichhardt
Explorer and Naturalist
Ludwig Leichhardt
  • Nov 13 John Wolcott Phelps, American abolitionist, author and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Guilford County, Vermont (d. 1885)
  • Nov 13 Peter II, prince-bishop of Montenegro (1830-51) and poet (The Ray of The Microcosm), born in Njeguši, Montenegro (d. 1851)
  • Nov 29 Franz von Miklosich, Slovenian linguist (d. 1891)
  • Nov 30 Hermann Kurz, German poet and novelist (Schillers Heimatjahre), born in Reutlingen, Germany (d. 1873)
  • Nov 30 Louise-Victorine Ackermann, French poet (works characterized by a deep sense of pessimism), born in Paris (d. 1890)
  • Dec 10 Zachariah Chandler, American merchant and politician (found Republican Party), born in Bedford, New Hampshire (d. 1879)
  • Dec 19 Thomas Andrews, Irish chemist and physicist (ozone), born in Belfast (d. 1885)
  • Dec 20 Samuel Jordan Kirkwood, American politician (Gov-Iowa)/US Sect of Interior (1881-82), born in Harford Country, Maryland (d. 1894)
  • Dec 25 Milledge Luke Bonham, (Confederacy) (d. 1890)

Weddings in History


LoveWedding of Interest

Mar 29 John Tyler (23) later 10th US President, marries 1st wife Letitia Christian Tyler (22)

10th US President John Tyler
10th US President
John Tyler

Deaths in History

  • Jan 3 Bennelong, Australian aboriginal interlocutor between his tribe and the British settlers (b. c. 1764)
  • Jan 6 Louis Baraguey d'Hilliers, French general, dies at 48
  • Jan 20 Christoph Martin Wieland, German poet and writer (Oberon), dies at 79
  • Jan 23 George Clymer, American merchant (signed US Declaration of Independence), dies at 73
  • Feb 13 Samuel Ashe, Governor of North Carolina (b. 1725)

Person of interestRobert R. Livingston

Feb 26 Robert R. Livingston, US diplomat (Declaration of Independence), dies at 66

American Founding Father Robert R. Livingston
American Founding Father
Robert R. Livingston
  • Mar 23 Princess Augusta Frederica of Great Britain, dies at 75
  • Apr 10 Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Italian mathematician and astronomer (number theory, celestial mechanics), dies at 77
  • Apr 19 Benjamin Rush, physician/abolotionist (signed US Declaration of Independence), dies at 67
  • Apr 27 Zebulon Pike, American brigadier general & explorer (Pike's Peak), dies in battle at 34
  • Apr 28 Mikhail Kutuzov, Russian field marshal (Battle of Borodino), dies at 67
  • May 1 Jean-Baptiste Bessières, French marshal (killed in combat) (b. 1768)
  • May 23 Geraud Duroc, French general (b. 1772)
  • Jun 6 Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart, French architect
  • Jun 17 Charles Middleton, 1st Baron Barham, English sailor and politician, dies at 86
  • Jun 28 Gerhard JD von Scharnhorst, Prus min of War (1807-10), dies in battle
  • Jul 6 Granville Sharp, English abolitionist, dies at 77
  • Jul 22 George Shaw, English botanist and zoologist, dies at 61
  • Jul 29 Jean-Andoche Junot, French general (b. 1771)
  • Aug 11 Henry James Pye, English poet, British Poet Laureate (1790-1813), dies at 68
  • Aug 21 Sophia Magdalena of Denmark, Queen consort of Sweden, dies at 67
  • Aug 23 Alexander Wilson, Scottish ornithologist and naturalist, dies at 47
  • Aug 26 Karl Theodor Korner, German poet (Vetter aus Bremen), dies at 21
  • Sep 2 Jean Victor Marie Moreau, French general, mortally wounded in battle at 50
  • Sep 13 Hezqeyas of Ethiopia, deposed Emperor of Ethiopia

Person of interestTecumseh

Oct 5 Tecumseh, Shawnee Chief (Battle of Thames), dies in battle at 45

Native American Leader of the Shawnee Tecumseh
Native American Leader of the Shawnee
Tecumseh
  • Oct 19 Józef Antoni Poniatowski, Polish general and marshal of France, dies in battle at 50
  • Nov 29 Giambattista Bodoni, Italian stamp cutter/publisher (bodoni), dies at 73
  • Dec 19 James McGill, Scottish-Canadian businessman and philanthropist, dies at 69
  • Dec 24 Empress Go-Sakuramachi of Japan (b. 1740)