On This Day

1814 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 1 Field marshal Blucher's troops cross the Rhine at Kaub

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 2 Lord Byron completes "The Corsair"

Romantic Poet Lord Byron
Romantic Poet
Lord Byron
  • Jan 14 King of Denmark cedes Norway to King of Sweden by treaty of Kiel
  • Jan 22 1st Knights Templar grand encampment in US held in New York City
  • Jan 28 Stendahl's 1st book is published
  • Jan 29 War of the Sixth Coalition: Russia and Prussia are defeated by France in the Battle of Brienne
  • Jan 31 Gervasio Antonio de Posadas becomes Supreme Director of Argentina.
  • Feb 1 Lord Byron's "Corsair" sells 10,000 copies on day of publication
  • Feb 1 Volcano Mayon on Luzon Philippines erupts killing 1,200

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

Feb 10 Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Champaubert, the French beat the Russians

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • Feb 11 Norway's independence proclaimed
  • Feb 17 Battle of Mormant: French Imperial army defeat Russian Austrian forces (War of the Sixth Coalition)
  • Feb 18 The Battle of Montereau; victory of French under Napoleon Bonaparte against Austrians and Württembergers under the King of Württemberg.
  • Feb 25 Australia's first currency - the holey dollar introduced, made of Spanish 'pieces of eight' with the centers stamped out, for the colony of New South Wales [1]
  • Mar 7 Napoleon I of France wins the Battle of Craonne against combined Russian and Prussian force in northern France
  • Mar 20 Prince Willem Frederik becomes monarch of Netherlands

  • Mar 25 Netherlands Bank established

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

Mar 27 Battle at Horseshoe Bend: General Andrew Jackson defeats the Red Sticks, part of the Creek Indian tribe near Dadeville, Alabama

US President & General Andrew Jackson
US President & General
Andrew Jackson
  • Mar 30 Napoleonic Wars: Sixth Coalition forces march into Paris after defeating Napoleon
  • Mar 30 Murat issues the Rimini Declaration which would later inspire Italian Unification
  • Mar 31 Forces allied against Napoleon capture Paris
  • Apr 4 Napoleon abdicates for the first time in favour of his son
  • Apr 5 Netherlands Bank issues its 1st banknotes
  • Apr 9 Elias Canneman (L) resigns as minister of Finance of the Netherlands
  • Apr 11 Napoleon Bonaparte abdicates unconditionally and he is exiled to the island of Elba in the Mediterranean

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 26 King Louis XVIII lands at Calais from England

King of France Louis XVIII
King of France
Louis XVIII
  • May 4 Bourbon reign restored in France
  • May 4 King Ferdinand VII of Spain signs the Decree of the 4th of May, returning Spain to absolutism
  • May 5 British attack Fort Ontario, Oswego, New York
  • May 17 Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden (National Day)
  • May 17 Norwegian constitution passed by constituent assembly at Eidsvoll
  • May 17 Occupation of Monaco changes from French to Austrian
  • May 30 Napoleonic Wars: War of the Sixth Coalition - the Treaty of Paris (1814) is signed returning French borders to their 1792 extent.
  • Jun 22 1st match at the present Lord's, MCC v Herefordshire
  • Jul 3 Americans capture Fort Erie, Canada (War of 1812)
  • Jul 5 Americans defeat British and Canadians at Chippewa, Ontario

  • Jul 7 Walter Scott's novel "Waverley" published
  • Jul 17 Matthew Flinders publishes "A Voyage to Terra Australis", detailing his circumnavigation of Australia, first to name the continent Australia. He dies a day later. [1]
  • Jul 18 British capture Prairie du Chien (Wisconsin)
  • Jul 25 Battle of Niagara Falls (Lundy's Lane); Americans defeat British

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 25 English engineer George Stephenson introduces his first steam locomotive, a travelling engine designed for hauling coal on the Killingworth wagonway named Blücher

Engineer Known as the Father of Railways George Stephenson
Engineer Known as the Father of Railways
George Stephenson
  • Aug 1 Dutch King Willem I accepts blame in Southern defeat

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 7 Pope Pius VII reinstates the Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

Bishop of Imola and Pope Pius VII
Bishop of Imola and Pope
Pius VII
  • Aug 8 Peace negotiations begin in Ghent, Belgium
  • Aug 13 Cape of Good Hope formally ceded to British by the Dutch
  • Aug 13 Treaty of London-Netherland stops transporting slaves
  • Aug 24 British forces capture Washington, D.C. and destroy many landmarks (War of 1812)
  • Aug 25 British forces destroy Library of Congress, containing 3,000 books (War of 1812)
  • Sep 5 -15] Battle of Masurische Meren: Germans chase Russians out of East Prussia
  • Sep 11 Begun on the 6th Sept, Americans defeat British at Battle of Plattsburgh during War of 1812
  • Sep 11 Battle of Lake Champlain, NY; American Navy defeats British
  • Sep 12 Battle of North Point fought near Baltimore during War of 1812

Fiery Birth for Star Spangled BannerFiery Birth for Star Spangled Banner

Sep 14 Francis Scott Key pens the poem "Defence of Fort M'Henry", later known as "The Star-Spangled Banner" while witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry from a ship in Baltimore harbor

Read Article
The Stars and Stripes with the Star Spangled Banner words by Francis Scott Key
The Stars and Stripes with the Star Spangled Banner words by Francis Scott Key
Read Article
  • Sep 20 "Star Spangled Banner" published as a song, lyrics by Francis Scott Key, tune by John Stafford Smith
  • Oct 1 Opening of the Congress of Vienna, which redrew Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoléon Bonaparte
  • Oct 17 A Beer Flood occurs in London killing nine.
  • Oct 23 1st plastic surgery is performed (England)
  • Oct 29 "Demologos", 1st steam-powered warship, is launched
  • Nov 1 Congress of Vienna opens to re-draw the European political map after the defeat of France, in the Napoleonic Wars
  • Nov 7 1st sitting of States-general in Hague
  • Nov 28 The Times of London first printed by automatic, steam powered presses built by German inventors Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Friedrich Bauer - makes newspapers available to a mass audience
  • Dec 14 The Battle of Lake Borgne in Louisiana: British victory over the United States
  • Dec 22 Samuel Marsden of the Church Missionary Society arrives in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand to establish the country's first mission station; Sheep, cattle, horses and poultry are introduced

Treaty of InterestTreaty of Ghent

Dec 24 Treaty of Ghent signed, ending the War of 1812 between the United States, the United Kingdom and their allies

Learn More
The signing of the Treaty of Ghent on Christmas Eve
The signing of the Treaty of Ghent on Christmas Eve
Learn More
  • Dec 25 Reverend Samuel Marsden of the Church Missionary Society holds the first Christian service in New Zealand on land, at Rangihoua
  • Dec 27 Destruction of schooner Carolina, the last of Commodore Daniel Patterson's makeshift fleet that fought a series of delaying actions that contributed to Andrew Jackson's victory at the Battle of New Orleans.

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 1 Hong Xiuquan, Chinese rebel (d. 1864)
  • Jan 10 Aubrey de Vere, Irish poet & critic (Victorian Observer), born in Toreen, Republic of Ireland (d. 1902)
  • Jan 11 James Paget, English surgeon (disease of Paget)
  • Jan 11 Richard Griffith, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1862)
  • Jan 12 Jones Mitchell Withers, Mjr General (Confederate Army), (d. 1890)
  • Jan 17 Ellen Wood, English author (East Lynne, Pomeroy Abbey)
  • Jan 24 Abraham Czn van Stolk, Dutch art collector
  • Jan 25 Francis Harrison Pierpont, American lawyer & politician (Union), born in Morgantown, West Virginia (d. 1899)
  • Jan 26 Rufus King, American newspaper editor, politician and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in NYC, New York (d. 1876)
  • Jan 27 Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, French architect (d. 1879)
  • Jan 30 Jean-Baptist Capronnier, French-Belgian glass painter, born in Brussels, Belgium (d. 1891)
  • Feb 7 Gardner Quincy Colton, American lecturer who was the first to use nitrous oxide as an anesthetic in dentistry, born in Georgia, Vermont
  • Feb 9 Samuel Jones Tilden, philanthropist for NY Public Library
  • Feb 18 Samuel Fenton Cary, U. S. Congressman (d. 1900)
  • Feb 25 Taras Shevchenko, Ukrainian national poet and painter, born in Moryntsi, Ukraine (d. 1861) [OS]
  • Feb 26 Charles Joseph Sainte-Claire Deville, French geologist (d. 1876)
  • Mar 5 Wilhelm von Giesebrecht, German historian (d. 1889)
  • Mar 8 Ede Szigligeti [József Szathmáry], Hungarian dramatist, born in Nagyvárad-Olaszi (d. 1878)
  • Mar 9 Taras Shevchenko, Ukrainian national poet and painter, born in Moryntsi, Ukraine (d. 1861) [NS]
  • Mar 22 Thomas Crawford, US sculptor (Babes in the Wood)
  • Mar 24 Galen Clark, American naturalist/discovered Mariposa Grove
  • Apr 2 Henry L. Benning, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Columbia County, Georgia (d. 1875)
  • Apr 2 Erastus Brigham Bigelow, American inventor of weaving machine, born in West Boylston, Massachusetts (d. 1879)
  • Apr 3 Lorenzo Snow, 5th president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, born in Mantua, Ohio (d. 1901)
  • Apr 4 John Blair Smith Todd, American politician and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Lexington, Kentucky (d. 1872)
  • Apr 15 John Lothrop Motley, American historian and author (The Rise of the Dutch Republic), born in Dorchester, Boston (d. 1877)
  • Apr 19 Louis Amédée Achard, French novelist (The Cloak and Dagger), born in Marseille, France (d. 1875)
  • Apr 21 Angela Burdett-Coutts, English philanthropist extrordinaire and "the richest heiress in England", born in London (d. 1906)
  • Apr 24 Vicente Fidel López, Argentine historian (La Novia del Hereje), born in Buenos Aires, Argentina (d. 1903)
  • May 8 Thomas Green, American soldier & lawyer (Confederate Army), born in Buckingham County, Virginia (d. 1864)
  • May 8 Mikhail Bakunin, Russian revolutionary anarchist, born in Pryamukhino, Tver Governorate of the Russian Empire (d. 1876)
  • May 14 Charles Beyer, German-British locomotive engineer (d. 1876)
  • May 30 Eugène Charles Catalan, French-Belgian mathematician (worked on continued fractions, descriptive geometry, number theory and combinatorics), born in Bruges, Belgium (d. 1894)
  • Jun 8 Charles Reade, English novelist (Cloister & Hearth), born in Ipsden, Oxfordshire (d. 1884)
  • Jun 19 Jan Hendrik Weissenbruch, Dutch landscape painter, born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1903)
  • Jun 22 James Henry Lane, US General during Civil War (Union) and Senator (Kansas), born in Lawrenceburg, Indiana (d. 1866)
  • Jun 25 Gabriel Auguste Daubrée, French geologist, born in Metz, France (d. 1896)
  • Jul 6 Justus McKinstry, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in NYC, New York (d. 1897)

Person of interestSamuel Colt

Jul 19 Samuel Colt, American inventor and industrialist (Colt 6 shot revolver), born in Hartford, Connecticut (d. 1862)

Inventor/Industrialist Samuel Colt
Inventor/Industrialist
Samuel Colt
  • Aug 1 Ivan Gagarin, Russian Jesuit and founding editor of Études, born in Moscow (d. 1882)
  • Aug 1 Maxcy Gregg, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Columbia, South Carolina (d. 1862)
  • Aug 8 Esther Morris [Esther Hobart McQuigg], American suffragist, anti-slavery activist, and 1st female justice of the peace in the US, born in Tioga County, New York (d. 1902)
  • Aug 10 John Clifford Pemberton, Lt Gen (Confederate Army), (d. 1881)
  • Aug 10 William Lowndes Yancey, MC (Confederacy), (d. 1863)

Person of interestHenri Nestlé

Aug 10 Henri Nestlé, German-Swiss industrialist (founder of Nestlé), born in Frankfurt, Germany (d. 1890)

Founder of Nestlé Henri Nestlé
Founder of Nestlé
Henri Nestlé
  • Aug 13 Anders Jonas Ångström, Swedish physicist (Spectroscopy), born in Lögdö, Medelpad, Sweden (d. 1874)
  • Aug 14 Henry Hayes Lockwood, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Kent County, Delaware (d. 1899)
  • Aug 23 James Roosevelt Bayley, first Bishop of Newark, New Jersey, and the eighth Archbishop of Baltimore, born in NYC, New York (d. 1877)
  • Aug 28 Sheridan Le Fanu, Irish writer (The House by the Churchyard), born in Dublin, Ireland (d. 1873)
  • Sep 2 Ernst Curtius, German archaeologist/historian
  • Sep 6 George Cartier, Canadian co-PM (1858-62), born in Saint-Antoine-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada (d. 1873)
  • Sep 8 Charles-Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, French writer and historian, born in Bourbourg, France (d. 1874)
  • Sep 13 Nicolas Beets [Hildebrand], Dutch writer (Camera Obscura) and theologian, born in Haarlem, Netherlands (d. 1903)
  • Oct 3 Mikhail Lermontov, Russian poet and writer (Demon & other poems), born in Moscow (d. 1841)
  • Oct 11 Jean Baptiste Lamy, 1st Archbishop of Santa Fe (1853-85), born in Lempdes, Puy-de-Dôme, France (d. 1888)
  • Oct 25 Prince Louis, French Duke of Nemours, born in Palais Royal, Paris (d. 1896)
  • Oct 27 Daniel H. Wells, Mormon leader and 3rd Mayor of Salt Lake City, born in Trenton, New York (d. 1891)
  • Nov 8 Girolamo de Rada, Albanian poet (Skanderbeku), born in Macchia Albanese, Kingdom of Sicily (d. 1903)
  • Nov 13 Joseph Hooker, American Major General (Union Army), born in Hadley, Massachusetts (d. 1879)
  • Nov 14 Michael Kelly Lawler, Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in County Kildare, Ireland (d. 1882)
  • Nov 15 Pleasant Adam Hackleman, American lawyer, politician and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Franklin County, Indiana (d. 1862)
  • Nov 17 Joseph Finegan, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1885)
  • Nov 22 Serranus Clinton Hastings, American politician and lawyer (3rd Attorney General of California), born in Watertown, Jefferson County, New York (d. 1893)
  • Nov 25 Julius Robert von Mayer, German physician and physicist (first law of thermodynamics), born in Heilbronn, Württemberg (d. 1878)
  • Dec 19 Edwin Stanton, US Secretary of War during most of the American Civil War (1861-65) and US Attorney General (1860-61), born in Steubenville, Ohio (d. 1869)
  • Dec 25 Jan de Liefde II, Dutch vicar/founder (Coop of Welfare of the People)
  • Dec 27 James Henry Carleton, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Lubec, Maine (d. 1873)

Weddings in History


LoveWedding of Interest

Jul 25 Inventor Charles Babbage (21) weds Georgina Whitmore at St. Michael's Church in Devon, England

Inventor Charles Babbage
Inventor
Charles Babbage

Deaths in History

  • Jan 21 Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, French writer and botanist (b. 1737)
  • Jan 27 Philip Astley, English circus owner "Father of the Modern Circus", dies at 72
  • Jan 29 Johann Gottlieb Fichte, German philosopher (Wissenschaftslehre), dies at 51
  • Feb 26 Johan Tobias Sergel, Swedish sculptor, dies at 73
  • Mar 26 Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, French physician and freemason who proposed and became the namesake of the guillotine, dies of natural causes at 75
  • Apr 1 Jozef de Ferraris, French-Austrian general and cartographer, dies at 87
  • May 12 Robert Treat Paine, American judge (signed US Declaration of Independence), dies at 83
  • May 29 Joséphine de Beauharnais, first wife of Napoleon I and first Empress of France (1804-14), dies of pneumonia aged 50
  • Jun 7 Robert Jasper van der Capellen, Dutch politician and Master of Marsch, dies at 71
  • Jun 15 Charles Palissot de Montenoy, French writer/politician, dies at 84

Person of interestWilliam Howe

Jul 12 William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, British Military Leader (commander of British forces in the American Revolutionary War), dies at 84

Military Leader William Howe
Military Leader
William Howe

Person of interestArthur Phillip

Aug 31 Arthur Phillip, British admiral, 1st Governor of New South Wales (1788-92), dies at 75

1st Governor of New South Wales Arthur Phillip
1st Governor of New South Wales
Arthur Phillip
  • Sep 8 Maria Carolina of Austria, Queen of the Two Sicilies, dies at 62
  • Sep 22 A W Iffland, writer, dies
  • Oct 1 Jakob I van Przysucha, Polish hassidic leader, dies
  • Nov 1 Alexander Samoylov, Russian general and statesman (b. 1744)
  • Nov 18 William Jessop, British civil engineer (b. 1745)
  • Nov 23 Elbridge Gerry, American statesman who invented gerrymandering and 5th Vice President of the United States, dies at 70

Person of interestMarquis de Sade

Dec 2 Marquis de Sade, French philosopher and writer (Justine), dies at 74. The words sadism and sadist are derived from his name.

Philosopher and Writer Marquis de Sade
Philosopher and Writer
Marquis de Sade
  • Dec 13 Charles Joseph, 7th Prince of Ligne, Belgium fieldmarshal and author, dies at 79
  • Dec 19 Joseph Bramah, Inventor and Locksmith, notably invented the beer pump