On This Day

1815 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 3 France, the United Kingdom, and Austria form an alliance against Russia and Prussia
  • Jan 8 Battle of New Orleans (War of 1812); the war had ended on 24th December 1814 but none of the combatants knew
  • Jan 15 War of 1812: the USS President, an American frigate, is captured by four British frigates

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 30 Burned US Library of Congress re-established with Thomas Jefferson's 6,500 volumes

3rd US President Thomas Jefferson
3rd US President
Thomas Jefferson
  • Feb 3 World's first commercial cheese factory established, in Switzerland
  • Feb 6 New Jersey issues 1st US railroad charter (John Stevens)
  • Feb 13 The Cambridge Union Society is founded.

Treaty of InterestTreaty of Ghent

Feb 17 Treaty of Ghent ratified by the US Senate and signed by President James Madison ending War of 1812, over a month after it was signed in Europe

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The signing of the Treaty of Ghent on Christmas Eve
The signing of the Treaty of Ghent on Christmas Eve
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Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 26 Napoleon Bonaparte and his supporters leave Elba to start a 100 day re-conquest of France

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • Mar 1 Sunday observance in Netherlands regulated by law
  • Mar 2 Signing of Kandyan treaty by British invaders and Sri Lankan King
  • Mar 3 US declares war on Algiers for taking US prisoners & demanding tribute
  • Mar 16 Willem I proclaimed King of the Netherlands, including Belgium
  • Mar 20 Napoleon enters Paris after escape from Elba, begins 100-day rule
  • Mar 24 Handel & Haydn Society of Boston founded

Volcanic EruptionEruption of Mount Tambora

Apr 5 Mount Tambora in the Dutch East Indies, has its first violent eruption after several centuries of dormancy

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The massive Tambora volcano eruption
The massive Tambora volcano eruption
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  • Apr 6 British militia shoots prisoners, 100's killed
  • Apr 10 Austria declares war on Kingdom of Naples
  • Apr 10 Mount Tambora in the Dutch East Indies experiences a cataclysmic eruption, one of the most powerful in history, killing around 71,000 people, causes global volcanic winter
  • May 3 Battle at Tolentino: Austria beats King Joachim of Naples
  • May 16 The Governor of New South Wales, Lachlan Macquarie, officially names the town of Blackheath in the upper Blue Mountains
  • May 24 George Evans discovers Lachlan River, Australia
  • Jun 1 Napoleon Bonaparte swears fidelity to the Constitution of France
  • Jun 8 39 German states unite under Act of Confederation
  • Jun 9 End of the Congress of Vienna: New European political situation is set
  • Jun 16 Battle at Ligny: French army under Napoleon beats Prussia
  • Jun 16 Battle at Quatre-Bras: allies strike French
  • Jun 17 Stephen Decatur conquers Algerian frigate Mashouda

Battle of InterestBattle of Waterloo

Jun 18 Battle of Waterloo; Napoleon and France defeated by British forces under Wellington and Prussian troops under Blucher

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'Wellington at Waterloo', by Robert Alexander Hillingford, depicting Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, during the final confrontation against Napoleon
'Wellington at Waterloo', by Robert Alexander Hillingford, depicting Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington, during the final confrontation against Napoleon
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  • Jun 22 2nd abdication of Napoleon (after Waterloo)
  • Jun 30 US naval hero Stephen Decatur ends attacks by Algerian pirates
  • Jul 9 1st natural gas well in US is discovered

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 9 King Louis XVIII leaves Ghent for France

King of France Louis XVIII
King of France
Louis XVIII

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 9 Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord takes office as the first Prime Minister of France

Politician and Diplomat Talleyrand
Politician and Diplomat
Talleyrand
  • Jul 15 Napoleon surrenders to Captain Frederick Maitland of HMS Bellerophon at Rochefort after his earlier defeat at the Battle of Waterloo
  • Aug 6 US flotilla ends piracy by Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli

  • Aug 9 Napoleon Bonaparte sets sail for exile on St Helena on board British ship the Northumberland
  • Sep 21 King Willem I takes oath in Brussels
  • Sep 26 Russia, Prussia and Austria sign the Holy Alliance
  • Sep 26 Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord resigns as Prime Minister of France
  • Sep 28 Joachim Murats fleet sails from Corsica to Naples
  • Sep 29 King Willem I forms Dutch Order of the Lion
  • Oct 8 Joachim Murat's forces land at Pizzo, Italy
  • Oct 12 Ex-king Joachim Murat of Naples sentenced to death
  • Oct 15 Napoleon Bonaparte arrives on island of St Helena to begin his exile
  • Oct 31 Cornishman Sir Humphry Davy patents miner's safety lamp
  • Nov 20 Second Treaty of Paris: France and her allies agree France will pay indemnities after Battle of Waterloo, ending the Napoleonic Wars
  • Nov 20 Russia, Prussia, Austria and England sign an Alliance "for the maintenance of peace in Europe" on the same day as the Treaty of Paris
  • Nov 27 City of Kraków (Poland) declared a free republic state by the Congress of Vienna
  • Nov 27 Adoption of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland
  • Dec 5 Foundation of Maceió in Brazil.

Book releaseHistoric Publication

Dec 23 "Emma" By Jane Austen by published by John Murray in London [1]

Novelist Jane Austen
Novelist
Jane Austen

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 1 Charles Renouvier, French philosopher, born in Montpellier, France (d. 1903)
  • Jan 8 George Webb Morell, American Major General (Union Army), born in Cooperstown, New York (d. 1883)
  • Jan 8 Lawrence Pike Graham, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Amelia County, Virginia (d. 1905)
  • Jan 10 Alexander Brydie Dyer, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Richmond, Virginia (d. 1874)
  • Jan 10 Thomas Williams, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Albany, New York (d. 1862)

Person of interestJohn A. Macdonald

Jan 11 John A. Macdonald, First Prime Minister of Canada (1867-1873 and 1878-1891), born in Glasgow, Scotland (d. 1891)

Prime Minister of Canada John A. Macdonald
Prime Minister of Canada
John A. Macdonald
  • Jan 13 William Henry French, American Major General (Union Army), born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 1881)
  • Jan 15 Henry Morris Naglee, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1886)
  • Jan 16 Henry Wagner "Old Brains" Halleck, American expert in military studies and Major General (Union Army), born in Oneida County, New York (d. 1872)
  • Jan 18 James Chesnut Jr, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1885)
  • Jan 18 Richard Yates Gov, MC (Union), (d. 1873)
  • Jan 18 Constantin von Tischendorf, German biblical scholar (d. 1874)
  • Jan 21 Horace Wells, dentist (pioneered use of medical anethesia)
  • Jan 21 John Bingham, American politician and lawyer (d. 1900)
  • Jan 28 Andrew Jackson Hamilton, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Huntsville, Alabama (d. 1875)
  • Feb 2 Nathaniel Collins McLean, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Cincinnati, Ohio (d. 1905)
  • Feb 12 Edward Forbes, English Naturalist and pioneer in the field of biogeography, born in Douglas, Isle of Man (d. 1854)
  • Feb 18 Henri Leys, Flemish painter
  • Feb 21 Ernest Meissonier, French painter/sculptor
  • Feb 25 Robert Hall Chilton, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1879)
  • Mar 5 John Wentworth, American politician (d. 1888)
  • Mar 9 David Davis, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, born in Cecil County, Maryland (d. 1886)
  • Mar 13 James Curtis Hepburn, American missionary and linguist, born in Milton, Pennsylvania (d. 1911)
  • Mar 28 Arsène Houssaye, French novelist and poet, born in Bruyères, France (d. 1896)

Person of interestOtto von Bismarck

Apr 1 Otto von Bismarck, German chancellor (1866-90) who helped unify Germany, born in Schönhausen, Prussia (d. 1898)

German Statesman Otto von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto von Bismarck
  • Apr 11 Clara Fey, German Roman Catholic Nun and the founder of the Sisters of the Poor Child Jesus, born in Aachen, Prussia (d. 1894)
  • Apr 24 Anthony Trollope, English novelist and poet (Barchester Towers), born in London (d. 1882)
  • Apr 24 James E. Harrison, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Greenville District, South Carolina (d. 1875)
  • Apr 28 Andrew Jackson Smith, American Major General (Union Army), born in Livingston County, Kentucky (d. 1897)
  • Apr 29 Abram Duryée, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in NYC, New York (d. 1890)
  • May 3 Hermanus Willem Witteveen, Dutch theologist, born in Boornbergum, Netherlands (d. 1884)
  • May 5 Eugène Marin Labiche, French playwright (The Italian Straw Hat), born in Paris (d. 1888)
  • May 18 Thomas Stanhope Bocock, rep (Confederacy), (d. 1891)
  • May 19 John Gross Barnard, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Sheffield, Massachusetts (d. 1882)
  • May 27 Henry Parkes, Australian politician (longest non-consecutive Premier of the Colony of New South Wales), born in Canley, Warwickshire, England (d. 1896)
  • Jun 1 Otto of Greece, King of Greece (1832-62), born in Salzburg, Bavaria (d. 1862)
  • Jun 2 Philip Kearny, American Major General (Union Army), born in NYC, New York (d. 1862)
  • Jun 3 Martin Edward Green, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1863)
  • Jun 4 Paul Jones Semmes, American businessman and Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Wilkes County, Georgia (d. 1863)
  • Jun 11 Julia Margaret Cameron, English photographer, born in Calcutta, India (d. 1879)
  • Jun 19 Cornelius Krieghoff, Dutch-Canadian painter, born in Amsterdam (d. 1872)
  • Jul 13 James Alexander Seddon, Secy War (Confederacy), (d. 1880)
  • Jul 21 Stewart Van Vliet, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Ferrisburgh, Vermont (d. 1901)
  • Jul 24 Arnaud-Michel d'Abbadie, French explorer (Ethiopia), born in Dublin, Ireland (d. 1893)
  • Jul 28 Stefan Dunjov, Banat Bulgarian military figure (d. 1889)
  • Jul 30 Thomas Jackson Rodman, American Brevet Brigadier General (Union Army), inventor of the rodman gun and perforated-cake gunpowder, born in Salem, Indiana (d. 1871)
  • Aug 1 Richard Henry Dana Jr., American author (Two Years Before the Mast), born in Cambridge, Massachusetts (d. 1882)
  • Aug 2 Adolf Friedrich von Schack, German poet, born in Brüsewitz, Germany (d. 1894)
  • Aug 4 Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich, Sulz am Neckar, German Physician and advocate of scientific medicine
  • Aug 5 Edward John Eyre, British explorer and Governor of Jamaica, born in Whipsnade, England (d. 1901)
  • Aug 16 John Bosco, Italian priest, youth worker, educator, founder of the Salesian Society, born in Castelnuovo Don Bosco, Italy (d. 1888)
  • Aug 19 John P. McCown, American Major General (Confederate Army), born in Sevier County, Tennessee (d. 1879)
  • Aug 29 Anna Ella Carroll, American politician and civil war writer (Reconstruction), born in Pocomoke City, Maryland (d. 1894)
  • Sep 4 Andreas Ignatius Schaepman, Archbishop of Utrecht (1868-82), born in Zwolle, Netherlands (d. 1882)
  • Sep 5 Tyree Harris Bell, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Covington, Kentucky (d. 1902)
  • Sep 6 St. John Richardson Liddell, American Civil War Confederate General, born in Wilkinson County, Mississippi (d. 1870)
  • Sep 7 Howell Cobb, American politician (U.S. Secretary of Treasury), born in Jefferson County, Georgia (d. 1868)
  • Sep 7 John McDouall Stuart, Australian explorer, born in Dysart, Fife, Scotland (d. 1866)
  • Sep 8 Alexander Ramsey, American politician (1st Governor of Minnesota Territory), born in Hummelstown, Pennsylvania (d. 1903)
  • Sep 10 Eleazer Arthur Paine, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Geauga County, Ohio (d. 1882)
  • Sep 18 Henry C. Wayne, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Savannah, Georgia (d. 1883)
  • Sep 29 Andreas Aschenbach, German painter/engraver
  • Oct 11 Pierre Napoleon Bonaparte, Corsican representative of the people, born in Rome, Italy (d. 1881)
  • Oct 12 William J. Hardee, U.S. Army officer (Confederate Army), born in Camden County, Georgia (d. 1873)
  • Oct 13 Jules Quicherat, French historian and archaeologist, born in Paris (d. 1882)
  • Oct 16 Francis Lubbock, Governor of Texas (d. 1905)
  • Oct 17 Emanuel Geibel, writer
  • Oct 23 João Maurício Wanderley, Brazilian magistrate and politician (d. 1889)
  • Oct 24 John Edwards, American politician (US Representative Arkansas) Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1894)
  • Oct 29 Ľudovít Štúr, Slovak politician and author of Slovak language, born in Uhrovec, Austrian Empire (d. 1856)
  • Oct 31 Karl Weierstrass, German mathematician (theory of functions), born in Ostenfelde, Germany (d. 1897)
  • Nov 1 Crawford Williamson Long, American surgeon and pioneer (use of ether as an anesthetic in surgery), born in Danielsville, Georgia (d. 1878)
  • Nov 1 Douglas H. Cooper, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Amite County, Mississippi (d. 1879)
  • Nov 2 George Boole, English mathematician (Boolean algebra), born in Lincoln, England (d. 1864)
  • Nov 3 John Mitchel, Irish nationalist (Jail Journal), born in Camnish, County Londonderry (d. 1875)

Person of interestElizabeth Cady Stanton

Nov 12 Elizabeth Cady Stanton, American women's rights activist, born in Johnstown, New York (d. 1902)

Women's Rights Activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Women's Rights Activist
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Nov 15 John Banvard, American artist who painted worlds largest painting (3 mile canvas), born in NYC, New York (d. 1892)
  • Nov 23 William Dennison, postmaster/general (Union), (d. 1882)
  • Nov 24 James Trapier, N Gen (Confederate Army), (d. 1865)
  • Nov 24 Grace Darling, English heroine (d. 1842)
  • Nov 29 Stephen Augustus Hurlbut, American politician, commander of US Army of the Gulf, Major General (Union Army), born in Charleston, South Carolina (d. 1882)
  • Dec 8 Adolph Menzel, German painter and graphic artist, born in Breslau, Prussian Silesia (d. 1905)

Person of interestAda Lovelace

Dec 10 Ada Lovelace, English mathematician considered the first computer programmer, born in London (d. 1852)

Mathematician and Computer Programmer Ada Lovelace
Mathematician and Computer Programmer
Ada Lovelace
  • Dec 21 Thomas Couture, French history painter & teacher, born in Senlis, France (d. 1879)
  • Dec 22 Johann Jakob Bachofen, Swiss antiquarian & jurist, born in Basel, Switzerland (d. 1887)
  • Dec 23 Henry Highland Garnet, American minister, abolitionist and diplomat, born in Maryland
  • Dec 26 Israel Bush Richardson, American Major General (Union Army), born in Fairfax, Vermont (d. 1862)
  • Dec 31 George Gordon Meade, Spanish-American Major General (Union Army), born in Cádiz, Spain (d. 1872)

Weddings in History


LoveWedding of Interest

Jan 2 Leading Romantic poet Lord Byron (27) marries Anne Isabella Milbanke (22) by special licence, at Seaham Hall in County Durham

Romantic Poet Lord Byron
Romantic Poet
Lord Byron

Deaths in History

  • Jan 8 Edward Pakenham, Engl general (Battle of New Orleans), dies in battle
  • Jan 15 Emma, Lady Hamilton, English mistress of Lord Nelson (b. 1761
  • Jan 21 M Claudius, writer, dies at 74
  • Jan 21 Matthias Claudius, German poet, dies at 74
  • Jan 31 José Félix Ribas, Venezuelan independentist leader (b. 1775)
  • Feb 4 Geert Reinders, Dutch cattle breeder and inoculation proponent, dies at 77
  • Feb 4 Jacob van Strij, Dutch cartoonist and graphic artist, dies at 58

Person of interestRobert Fulton

Feb 24 Robert Fulton, American inventor and engineer (first commercial steamboat), dies of tuberculosis at 49

Commercial Steamboat Inventor Robert Fulton
Commercial Steamboat Inventor
Robert Fulton
  • Feb 26 Prince Josias of Coburg, Austrian general (b. 1737)
  • Mar 5 Franz Anton Mesmer, Austrian physician and hypnotist (Mesmerism), dies at 80
  • Mar 6 Lungtok Gyatso, 9th Dalai Lama, dies at 9
  • Apr 21 Joseph Winston, U.S. Congressman from North Carolina (b. 1746)
  • May 29 Cornelis de Gijselaar, politician/patriot, dies at 64
  • Jun 1 Louis Alexandre Berthier, French marshal (b. 1853)
  • Jun 16 Frederik Willem, Duke of Brunswick (1813-15), dies in battle at 43
  • Jun 17 Hammida, Algerian admiral, dies in battle
  • Jun 18 Thomas Picton, British general (killed in battle) (b. 1758)
  • Jun 18 Guillaume Philibert Duhesme, French general (b. 1766)
  • Jul 6 Samuel Whitbread, English politician, dies at 51
  • Aug 2 Guillaume Brune, French marshal, dies at 52
  • Aug 6 James A. Bayard (elder), United States Senator from Delaware (b. 1767)
  • Aug 18 Chauncey Goodrich, American politician (b. 1759)
  • Sep 9 John Singleton Copley, American painter of portraits and historical objects, dies at 77
  • Sep 24 John Sevier, American soldier, Governor of Tennessee (1796-1801, 1803-09), dies at 70
  • Sep 28 Nicolas Desmarest, French geologist and geographer (Volcanos), dies at 90
  • Oct 13 Joachim Murat, marshal of France/King of Naples (1808-15), executed
  • Dec 3 John Carroll, first Roman Catholic archbishop in the US, also known as the founder of Georgetown University, dies at 80
  • Dec 7 Michel Ney, French marshal (Waterloo), murdered at 46
  • Dec 20 Giovanni Meli, Sicilian poet (Buccolica), dies at 75
  • Dec 22 Jose Maria Morelos, Mexican revolutionary priest executed by Spaniards
  • Dec 29 Saartjie Baartman, Hottentot Venus, dies in Paris