On This Day

1816 in History

Events in History


Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 8 Sophie Germain is the first woman to win a prize from the Paris Academy of Sciences for her paper on elasticity

Mathematician Sophie Germain
Mathematician
Sophie Germain
  • Jan 12 France decrees Bonaparte family excluded from the country forever

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 22 Lord Byron completes poems "Parisina" and "Siege of Corinth"

Romantic Poet Lord Byron
Romantic Poet
Lord Byron
  • Feb 13 -14] Teatro San Carlo in Naples destroyed by fire

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 27 Dutch regain Suriname from the French after the defeat of Napoleon

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • Mar 6 Jews are expelled from Free city of Lubeck, Germany
  • Mar 20 US Supreme Court affirms its right to review state court decisions
  • Apr 9 African Methodist Episcopal Church organizes (Philadelphia)
  • Apr 10 2nd Bank of US chartered

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 10 Samuel Taylor Coleridge recites his poem "Kubla Khan" to fellow poet Lord Byron, who persuades him to publish it

Poet, Critic and Philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Poet, Critic and Philosopher
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Romantic Poet Lord Byron
Romantic Poet
Lord Byron
  • May 5 American Bible Society organized in New York
  • May 9 Lady Caroline Lamb publishes the Gothic novel "Glenarvon", a thinly disguised account of her affair with Lord Byron which also depicts her husband William Lamb
  • May 10 British steamship "Defiance" arrives at Rotterdam harbor
  • May 11 American Bible Society forms (NY)
  • May 25 Collection of poems by Samuel Taylor Coleridge published by John Murray in London, including "Kubla Khan" and "Christabel"

Volcanic EruptionEruption of Mount Tambora

Jun 6 10" of snowfall in New England, part of a "year without a summer" which followed the eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia
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The massive Tambora volcano eruption
The massive Tambora volcano eruption

  • Jun 11 Gas Light Co of Baltimore founded
  • Jun 19 Battle of Seven Oaks between North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company, near Winnipeg, Manitoba
  • Jul 1 French frigate Medusa wrecked; basis of Géricault's painting "Raft of the Medusa"
  • Jul 2 French frigate "Medusa" runs aground off Cap Blanc.
  • Jul 2 French frigate "La Méduse" runs aground under incompetent leadership of aristocrat Viscount of Chaumareys, forcing evacuation of 400 passengers. 150 men, 1 woman are left on "la Machine," a poorly provisioned raft. 13 days later only 15 survivors remain due to starvation, riots, madness, suicide, and cannibalism
  • Jul 8 Frost in Waltham, Massachusetts during "year without a summer"
  • Jul 9 Argentina declares independence from Spain
  • Jul 17 "L'Argus" accidentally discovers raft holding survivors from wrecked French frigate "Méduse." After 13 days at sea only 15 of 151 remain, the rest having been cannibalised, murdered, or committed suicide. This event was made famous by Théodore Gericault’s painting "The Raft of the Medusa"
  • Jul 19 Survivors of French frigate Medusa rescued off Senegal after 17 days
  • Jul 27 US troops destroy Fort Apalachicola, a Seminole fort, to punish Indians for harboring runaway slaves
  • Aug 8 Bavaria joins Holy Alliance
  • Aug 14 Great Britain annexes Tristan da Cunha
  • Aug 19 Java again in Dutch hands
  • Aug 24 The Treaty of St. Louis is signed by the USA and the united tribes of Ottawa, Ojibwa, and Potawatomi in St. Louis, Missouri.
  • Aug 27 Lord Exmouth bombards Algiers, a refuge for Barbary pirates

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Sep 5 Louis XVIII has to dissolve the Chambre introuvable ("Unobtainable Chamber").

King of France Louis XVIII
King of France
Louis XVIII
  • Oct 7 1st double decked steamboat, Washington, arrives in New Orleans
  • Oct 15 Lord Byron views the love letters of Lucrezia Borgia and poet Pietro Bembo in Milan and declares them "the prettiest love letters in the world"
  • Oct 21 The Penang Free School is founded in George Town, Penang, Malaysia, by the Rev Hutchings. It is the oldest English-language school in Southeast Asia.
  • Nov 19 Warsaw University is established.
  • Dec 2 First savings bank in US opens (Philadelphia Savings Fund Society)

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Dec 4 James Monroe is elected to become the 5th President of the United States, defeating Rufus King of the Federalist Party

5th US President James Monroe
5th US President
James Monroe
  • Dec 10 Dutch regain Sumatra from the British
  • Dec 11 Citizens of Geneva thwarted Savoyard invaders
  • Dec 11 Indiana becomes 19th state of the Union
  • Dec 13 Patent for a dry dock issued to John Adamson, Boston
  • Dec 28 American Colonization Society organizes
  • Dec 30 The Treaty of St. Louis is proclaimed.

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 7 Stephen Miller, American politician (Governor of Minnesota) Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Perry County, Pennsylvania (d. 1881)
  • Jan 9 John Palmer Usher, Secretary of the Interior under Lincoln during US Civil War (1863-1865), born in Brookfield, New York (d. 1889)
  • Jan 11 Fitz Henry Warren, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Brimfield, Massachusetts (d. 1878)
  • Jan 15 Marie LaFarge, French murderer, born in Paris, France (d. 1852)
  • Jan 19 Henry Gray, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1892)
  • Jan 23 Compars Herrmann, German stage magician, born in Hanover, Germany (d. 1887)
  • Jan 26 Lloyd Tilghman, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1863)
  • Jan 30 Nathaniel Prentiss Banks, American politician, Major General (Union Army), born in Waltham, Massachusetts (d. 1894)
  • Feb 17 Haller Nutt, American rich Southern Plantation owner (Longwood house - largest octagonal house in the US), born at Laurel Hill Plantation, Mississippi (d. 1864)
  • Mar 2 Alexander H. Bullock, 26th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1882)

Person of interestJames Donnelly

Mar 7 James Donnelly, Irish-Canadian patriarch of the Donnelly family (Black Donnelly massacre), born in Ireland (d. 1880)

Squatter James Donnelly
Squatter
James Donnelly
  • Mar 12 David Stuart, American politician, Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 1868)
  • Mar 14 Montgomery Dent Corse, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Alexandria, Virginia (d. 1895)
  • Mar 29 James Gallant Spears, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Bledsoe County, Tennessee (d. 1869)
  • Mar 29 Tsultrim Gyatso, 10th Dalai Lama, born in Chamdo (d. 1837)
  • Apr 5 Samuel Freeman Miller, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, born in Richmond, Kentucky (d. 1890)
  • Apr 8 Frederic William Burton, Irish painter, born in Wicklow, Ireland (d. 1900)
  • Apr 16 Edward Johnson, American Major General (Confederate Army), born in Midlothian, Virginia (d. 1873)
  • Apr 17 Thomas Hazlehurst, English Methodist chapel builder, born in Runcorn, Cheshire, England (d. 1876)

Person of interestCharlotte Brontë

Apr 21 Charlotte Brontë, English novelist (Jane Eyre), born in Thornton, West Yorkshire, England (d. 1855)

  • Apr 21 Louis Wigfall, American politician (Confederate States Senator from Texas 1862-85), born in Edgefield, South Carolina (d. 1974)
  • Apr 22 Philip James Bailey, English poet (Festus), born in Nottingham, England (d. 1902)
  • Apr 22 Charles-Denis Bourbaki, French general, born in Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, France (d. 1897)
  • May 3 Montgomery Cunningham Meigs, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Washington, D.C. (d. 1892)
  • May 16 Henry Hopkins Sibley, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1886)
  • May 24 Emanuel Leutze, American painter (Washington Crossing the Delaware), born in Schwäbisch Gmünd, Württemberg, German Confederation (d. 1868)
  • May 24 Robert Seaman Granger, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Zanesville, Ohio (d. 1894)
  • Jun 4 Régis de Trobriand, French aristocrat, lawyer and Bvt Mjr Gen (Union), born in Tours, France (d. 1897)
  • Jun 11 Robert Huston Milroy, American Major General (Union Army), born in Salem, Indiana (d. 1890)
  • Jun 19 William Henry Webb, American industrialist and philanthropist, born in NYC, New York (d. 1899)
  • Jun 29 Jacob van Zuylen van Nijevelt, Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs (1852-53), born in Dordrecht, Netherlands (d. 1890)
  • Jul 4 Hiram Walker, American entrepreneur and founder of the Hiram Walker and Sons Ltd. distillery, born in East Douglas, Massachusetts (d. 1899)
  • Jul 7 Isaac Fitzgerald Shepard, American General (Union Army), born in Natick, Massachusetts on (d. 1889)
  • Jul 11 French-Andries Durlet, Belgian sculptor and architect, born in Antwerp, Belgium (d. 1867)
  • Jul 13 Gustav Freytag, writer
  • Jul 14 Arthur de Gobineau, French philosopher (d. 1882)
  • Jul 20 William Bowman, English anatomist, born in Nantwich, Cheshire (d. 1892)
  • Jul 21 Paul Julius Baron von Reuter, German-born founder of Reuters news service, born in Kassel (d. 1899)
  • Jul 25 Christian Bernhard Tauchnitz, German publisher (T Edition), born in Unterkaka, Meineweh, Germany (d. 1895)
  • Jul 31 George Henry Thomas, American Major General (Union Army), born in Newsoms, Virginia (d. 1870)
  • Aug 3 John E. Smith, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Berne, Switzerland (d. 1897)
  • Aug 4 Israel Vogdes, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Chester County, Pennsylvania (d. 1889)
  • Aug 19 Julius van Zuylen van Nijevelt, Dutch minister of Foreign affairs, born in Dommeldange, Luxembourg (d. 1894)
  • Aug 21 Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, French chemist, born in Strasbourg, France (d. 1856)
  • Aug 24 Daniel Gooch, English engineer, laid 1st successful transatlantic cables, born in Bedlington, Northumberland, England (d. 1889)
  • Sep 6 Francis Stebbins Bartow, Confederate colonel, born in Chatham County, Georgia (d. 1861)
  • Sep 11 Carl Zeiss, German scientific instrument and lens maker (Carl Zeiss AG), born in Weimar, German Confederation (d. 1888)
  • Sep 23 Elihu Benjamin Washburne, MC (Union), (d. 1887)
  • Sep 23 Julius White, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Cazenovia, New York (d. 1890)
  • Oct 4 Egbert Benson Brown, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Brownsville, New York (d. 1902)
  • Oct 15 Amiel Weeks Whipple, American Major General (Union Army), born in Greenwich, Massachusetts (d. 1863)
  • Oct 16 William Preston, American lawyer, politician and Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1887)
  • Oct 29 Ferdinand II, German prince of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry and King of Portugal (1837-53), born in Palais Coburg, Vienna, Austrian Empire (d. 1885)
  • Nov 3 Jubal Early, American General (Confederate Army), born in Franklin County, Virginia (d. 1894)
  • Nov 4 William Polk Hardeman, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Williamson County, Tennessee (d. 1898)
  • Nov 4 Stephen Johnson Field, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1899)
  • Nov 15 Joseph Bennett Plummer, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Barre, Massachusetts (d. 1862)
  • Nov 26 William H. T. Walker, American Major General (Confederate Army), born in Augusta, Georgia (d. 1864)
  • Nov 29 Morrison Waite, American jurist (d. 1888)
  • Dec 6 Henry Eustace McCulloch, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Rutherford County, Tennessee (d. 1895)
  • Dec 8 August Belmont, Prussian-American financier and diplomat (U.S. Minister to the Netherlands 1853-57), born in Alzey, Hesse, Germany (d. 1890)
  • Dec 13 Clement Claiborne Clay, American politician (U.S. Senator from Alabama), born in Huntsville, Alabama (d. 1882)

Person of interestWerner von Siemens

Dec 13 [Ernst] Werner von Siemens, German inventor (siemens electrical conductance unit) and industrialist (Siemens corporation), born in Lenthe, German Confederation (d. 1892)

Industrialist and Inventor Werner von Siemens
Industrialist and Inventor
Werner von Siemens
  • Dec 18 Alfred Elzey Jones, Major General (Confederate Army), (d. 1871)
  • Dec 27 Eliakim Parker Scammon, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Whitefield, Maine (d. 1894)
  • Dec 29 Carl Ludwig, German physician and physiologist, born in Witzenhausen, Germany (d. 1895)

Weddings in History

  • Feb 29 Dutch (King) Willem II marries Russian grand-duchess Anna Paulowna
  • May 2 Léopold (Léopold I)of Saxe-Coburg, 1st King of Belgium following independence from the Netherlands marries British Princess Charlotte Augusta
  • Dec 30 English Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley (24) marries 2nd wife writer "Frankenstein" Mary Godwin (19) and daughter of early feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft

Divorces in History


Broken heartDivorce of Interest

Apr 16 Leading Romantic poet Lord Byron signs Deed of Separation dissolving his marriage with Lady Byron at her request after 1 year of marriage

Romantic Poet Lord Byron
Romantic Poet
Lord Byron

Deaths in History


Person of interestSamuel Hood

Jan 27 Samuel Hood, 1st Viscount Hood/admiral, dies at 92

British Admiral Samuel Hood
British Admiral
Samuel Hood
  • Jan 30 Reinier Vinkeles, Dutch engraver and art collector, dies at 74
  • Feb 6 Maria Ludwika Rzewuska, Polish szlachcianka (b. 1744)
  • Feb 22 Adam Ferguson, Scottish sociologist and historian, dies at 92
  • Mar 19 Philip Mazzei, Italian physician (b. 1730)
  • Mar 20 Maria I of Portugal, Queen of Portugal and the Algarves, dies at 81
  • Apr 7 Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este, Empress of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia, dies at 28
  • Apr 28 Johann Heinrich Abicht, German philosopher, dies at 53
  • May 28 Ras Wolde Selassie, Ethiopian warlord and Regent of the Ethiopian Empire
  • May 29 Madame L'Ouverture, widow of Haiti's leader Toussaint L'O, dies
  • Jun 6 Christiane Vulpius, wife of Johann W von Goethe, dies at 51
  • Jun 12 Pierre Augereau, Marshal of France and duc de Castiglione (b. 1757)
  • Jul 7 Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Irish playwright (The Rivals, The School for Scandal) and Whig MP, dies at 64
  • Jul 14 Francisco de Miranda, Venezuela freedom fighter, dies at 66
  • Jul 20 Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin, Russian poet (b. 1743)
  • Jul 23 Elizabeth Hamilton, author (Cats: A Celebration), dies at 68
  • Aug 7 Dionysius Godefridus van der Keessel, Dutch jurist (Theses Selectae, Select Theses on the Laws of Holland and Zeeland), dies at 77
  • Aug 9 Johann August Apel, German jurist and writer, dies at 44
  • Oct 30 Frederick I of Württemberg (b. 1754)
  • Nov 6 Gouverneur Morris, American lawmaker and diplomat (b. 1752)
  • Dec 15 Charles Stanhope, 3rd earl Stanhope, English radical politician and scientist, dies at 63