1821 in History

Events in History


Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 17 Mexico permits Moses Austin and 300 US families to settle in Texas, after his death leaves to son Stephen

Founder of Texas Stephen F. Austin
Founder of Texas
Stephen F. Austin
  • Jan 21 Paramaribo Suriname catches fire, 4 die
  • Feb 12 Mercantile Library of City of NY opens
  • Feb 21 Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire begins
  • Feb 22 Spain sells (east) Florida to United States for $5 million
  • Feb 23 College of Apothecaries organized in Philadephia; 1st US pharmacy college

AgreementAgreement of Interest

Feb 24 Agustín de Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero agree to the Plan of Iguala, stating that Mexico will become a constitutional monarchy, Roman Catholicism the official religion and that Peninsulares and Creoles will enjoy equal political and social rights

1st Emperor of Mexico Agustín de Iturbide
1st Emperor of Mexico
Agustín de Iturbide
Revolutionary General and President of Mexico Vicente Guerrero
Revolutionary General and President of Mexico
Vicente Guerrero
  • Mar 5 Monroe is 1st US President inaugurated on March 5th, because 4th was Sunday
  • Mar 14 African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church founded (NY)
  • Mar 21 First revolutionary act in Monastery of Agia Lavra, Kalavryta, Greek War of Independence.
  • Mar 23 Battle and fall of city of Kalamata, Greek War of Independence
  • Mar 25 Greece gains independence from Turkey (National Day)
  • Mar 26 Franz Grillparzer's "Das Goldene Vliess" premieres in Vienna
  • Apr 10 Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople is hanged by the Turks from the main gate of the Patriarchate, his body thrown into the Bosphorus
  • May 8 Greek War of Independence: Greeks defeat the Turks in Gravia
  • May 12 The first major battle of the Greek War of Independence against the Turks occurs in Valtetsi
  • May 30 James Boyd patents Rubber Fire Hose
  • May 31 Cathedral of Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary, 1st US Catholic cathedral, is dedicated in Baltimore
  • Jun 14 Badi VII, king of Sennar, surrenders his throne and realm to Ismail Pasha, general of the Ottoman Empire, bringing the 300 year old Sudanese kingdom to an end
  • Jun 19 Decisive defeat of the Greek revolutionary society Philikí Etaireía by the Ottomans at Drăgăşani (in Wallachia)
  • Jun 21 African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church organizes (NYC)
  • Jun 23 Dutch troops conquer Palembang
  • Jun 24 Battle of Carabobo; Bolívar defeats royalists outside Caracas
  • Jul 17 Spain cedes Florida to the US
  • Jul 28 Peru declares independence from Spain (National Day)
  • Aug 4 1st edition of American magazine "The Saturday Evening Post"

/flags/russiaRussian Antarctic Expedition

Aug 4 Russian Antarctic expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen returns to Kronshtadt after becoming the 1st to circumnavigate Antarctica
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  • Aug 6 1st edition of "Courrier of Pays-Bas" newspaper published in Brussels
  • Aug 10 Missouri admitted as 24th US state

BattleCoup d'état

Aug 19 Failed liberal coup against French King Louis XVIII

King of France Louis XVIII
King of France
Louis XVIII
  • Aug 21 Jarvis Island is discovered by the crew of the ship, Eliza Frances
  • Sep 1 1st colonies along Santa Fe Trail
  • Sep 15 Act of Independence of Central America: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras & Nicaragua declare their independence from the Spanish Empire
  • Sep 23 Fall of Tripolitsa, Greek forces massacre 30,000 Turks during Greek War of Independence
  • Sep 27 Mexican revolutionary forces led by Agustín de Iturbide occupy Mexico City as Spanish withdraw, bringing an end to the Mexican War of Independence

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 8 The government of General José de San Martín establishes the Peruvian Navy.

Revolutionary Leader José de San Martín
Revolutionary Leader
José de San Martín
  • Nov 9 1st US pharmacy college holds 1st classes, Philadelphia
  • Nov 28 Panama declares independence from Spain
  • Dec 1 Santo Domingo (Dominican Rep) proclaims independence from Spain
  • Dec 17 Kentucky abolishes debtors' prisons
  • Dec 28 Naples: Gioacchini Rossini moves to Bologna

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 4 John James Peck, American Major General (Union Army), born in Manlius, New York (d. 1878)
  • Jan 7 Lucius Jeremiah Gartrell, Brigadier General (Confed Army), (d. 1891)

Person of interestJames Longstreet

Jan 8 James Longstreet, American Confederate general (1st Corps, ANV), born in Edgefield, South Carolina (d. 1904)

Confederate General James Longstreet
Confederate General
James Longstreet
  • Jan 15 Lafayette McLaws, Major General (Confederate Army), (d. 1897)
  • Jan 21 John Cabell Breckinridge, (D) 14th US VP (1857-61)/mjr-gen (Confed)
  • Jan 27 John Chivington, American officer, (d. 1892)
  • Jan 29 Isaac Ferdinand Quinby, American General (Union Army), born in Morristown, New Jersey (d. 1891)

Person of interestElizabeth Blackwell

Feb 3 Elizabeth Blackwell, English-American physician who was the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States, born in Bristol, England (d. 1910)

  • Feb 10 William Read Scurry, (Confederate Army Brigadier General, (d. 1864))
  • Feb 11 Hermann Allmers, writer
  • Feb 11 Auguste-Édouard Mariette, French Egyptologist (d. 1881)
  • Feb 15 Abraham de Amorie van der de Have, theologist/poet
  • Feb 16 Heinrich Barth, geographer/explorer (Central Africa), born in Hamburg, Germany
  • Feb 19 Francis Preston Blair Jr, (Rep-Missouri), born in Lexington, Kentucky (d. 1875)
  • Mar 1 Joseph Hubert Reinkens, German Catholic bishop (d. 1896)

Person of interestJohn Abbott

Mar 12 John Abbott, 3rd Canadian Prime Minister (1891-92), born in Saint-Andre, Quebec (d. 1893)

3rd Prime Minister of Canada John Abbott
3rd Prime Minister of Canada
John Abbott
  • Mar 12 Luitpold von Bayern, Prince-regent of Bayern
  • Mar 14 Jens Worsaae, Danish archaeologist, historian and politician, born in Vejle, Denmark (d. 1885)
  • Mar 15 William Milligan, Scottish theologian (d. 1892)
  • Mar 15 Eduard Heine, German mathematician (d. 1881)
  • Mar 15 Johann Josef Loschmidt, Austrian scientist (d. 1895)
  • Mar 16 Ernest Feydeau, French author (Georges Feydeau)
  • Mar 19 Francis Barretto Spinola, American politician and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Old Field, New York (d. 1891)

Person of interestRichard Francis Burton

Mar 19 Richard Burton, English explorer and translator (Arabian Nights), born in Torquay, Devon (d. 1890)

Geographer, Explorer & Translator Richard Francis Burton
Geographer, Explorer & Translator
Richard Francis Burton
  • Mar 19 William Allingham, Ballyshannon, County Donegal, Irish poet (The Fairies, Laurence Bloomfield in Ireland)
  • Mar 23 Aleksej F Pisemski, Russian writer (Clodhopper)
  • Mar 24 Elisa Felix, [Rachel], tragedienne
  • Mar 24 [George] Hector Tyndale, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1880)
  • Mar 26 Ernst Engel, German statistician and economist (Law of Engel), born in Dresden, Germany (d. 1896)
  • Mar 29 Joshua Thomas Owen, British-American educator, politician, and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Carmarthen, United Kingdom (d. 1887)
  • Apr 3 T. Pelham Dale, Anglican clergyman prosecuted for Ritualist practices in the 1870s, born in Greenwich (d. 1892)
  • Apr 4 Linus Yale Jr., American portrait painter and inventor (Yale cylinder lock), born in Salisbury, New York (d. 1868)
  • Apr 9 Charles-Pierre Baudelaire, French poet and translator (Les Fleurs du mal), born in Paris, France (d. 1867)
  • Apr 15 Emerson Brown Joseph, (Confederacy), (d. 1894)
  • Apr 16 Ford Madox Brown, British painter, born in Calais, France (d. 1893)
  • Apr 19 Mortimer Dormer Leggett, American Major General (Union Army), born in Ithaca, New York (d. 1896)
  • May 2 Abram Sanders Piatt, American farmer, publisher, poet, politician, and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Cincinnati, Ohio (d. 1908)
  • May 8 William Henry Vanderbilt, American businessman, member of the Vanderbilt family, born in New Brunswick, New Jersey (d. 1885)
  • May 11 [Carlos] Charles John Stolbrand, Swedish-American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Skåne, Sweden (d. 1894)
  • May 16 Pafnuty Chebyshev, Russian mathematician (d. 1894)
  • May 17 Sebastian Kneipp, German naturopathist (d. 1897)
  • May 21 John F Loudon, Dutch entrepreneur/colonial director
  • May 22 Alfred Sully, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1879)
  • Jun 2 Ion Bratianu, (Lib), premier of Romania (1876-88)
  • Jun 4 Apollon Maykov, Russian poet, born in Moscow, Imperial Russia (d. 1897)
  • Jun 8 John Dunlap Stevenson, American attorney, politician, and Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Staunton, Virginia (d. 1897)
  • Jun 8 Samuel White Baker, English explorer (Ceylon & Egypt), born in London, England (d. 1893)
  • Jun 12 Henry Moses Judah, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Snow Hill, Maryland (d. 1866)
  • Jun 13 Albert, duc de Broglie, French premier (1873-74, 1977)
  • Jun 13 Navy Gustavus Vasa Fox, Asst Secy (Union), (d. 1883)
  • Jun 14 Jozef Lies, Flemish painter
  • Jun 26 Bartolomé Mitre [Martínez], Argentine general, author, statesman and President (1862-1868), born in Buenos Aires, Argentina (d. 1906)

Person of interestCharles Tupper

Jul 2 Charles Tupper, 6th Prime Minister of Canada (C: 69-day term), born in Amherst, Nova Scotia (d. 1915)

6th Prime Minister of Canada Charles Tupper
6th Prime Minister of Canada
Charles Tupper
  • Jul 6 Edward Winston Pettus, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1907)
  • Jul 8 William Harvey Lamb Wallace, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Urbana, Ohio (d. 1862)
  • Jul 10 Christopher Columbus Augur, American Major General (Union Army), born in Kendall, New York (d. 1898)
  • Jul 12 Daniel Harvey Hill, Confederate General (American Civil War), born in York District, South Carolina (d. 1889)

Person of interestNathan Bedford Forrest

Jul 13 Nathan Bedford Forrest, American slave trader, Confederate lieutenant general and KKK Grand Wizard, born in Chapel Hill, Tennessee (d. 1877)

Confederate General and KKK Grand Wizard Nathan Bedford Forrest
Confederate General and KKK Grand Wizard
Nathan Bedford Forrest

Person of interestMary Baker Eddy

Jul 16 Mary Baker Eddy, American founder of Christian Science (Science & Health), born in Bow, New Hampshire (d. 1910)

Christian Science Founder Mary Baker Eddy
Christian Science Founder
Mary Baker Eddy
  • Jul 21 Vasile Alecsandri, Romanian foreign minister, diplomat and poet, born in Bacau, Moldova (d. 1890)

Person of interestBill the Butcher

Jul 24 William Poole, American gang member (New York City's Bowery Boys), born in Sussex County, New Jersey (d. 1855)

Gang Leader Bill the Butcher
Gang Leader
Bill the Butcher
  • Aug 4 James Springer White, American theologian (co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church), born in Palmyra, Maine (d. 1881)

Person of interestLouis Vuitton

Aug 4 Louis Vuitton, French founder of the Louis Vuitton brand of leather goods now owned by LVMH, born in Anchay, France (d. 1892)

Luggage Maker Louis Vuitton
Luggage Maker
Louis Vuitton
  • Aug 10 Jay Cooke, American financier (d. 1905)
  • Aug 14 Clement Hoffman "Rock" Stevens, Brigadier General (Confederate Army)
  • Aug 21 William Barksdale, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1863)
  • Aug 29 Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet, French anthropologist who was the first to organize and classify Stone Age cultures into a chronological sequence of epochs, born in Meylan, France (d. 1898)
  • Aug 30 Anita Garibaldi, Brazilian warrior; Garibaldi's wife (War of Tatters), born in Laguna, Santa Catarina, Brazil (d. 1849)
  • Aug 31 Hermann von Helmholtz, German physician and physicist, born in Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1894)
  • Sep 8 Henry Baxter, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Sidney, New York (d. 1873)
  • Sep 24 Cyprian K Norwid, Polish painter/poet/playwright (Wanda)
  • Sep 26 Alvin Peterson Hovey, American judge, 21st Governor of Indiana (1889-1891), andBrevet Major General (Union Army), born in Mount Vernon, Indiana (d. 1891)
  • Sep 27 Henri-Frederic Amiel, Swiss/French writer (Grains de Mil)
  • Sep 28 Jonathan Clarkson Gibbs, American politician (d. 1874)
  • Oct 2 Alexander Peter "Old Straight" Stewart, Lt Gen (Confederate Army)
  • Oct 7 Richard Heron Anderson, Lt Gen (Confederate Army), (d. 1879)
  • Oct 7 William Sill, with The Underground Railroad

Person of interestGeorge Williams

Oct 11 George Williams, English philanthropist and founder of YMCA, born in Dulverton, West Somerset, England (d. 1905)

Founder of the YMCA George Williams
Founder of the YMCA
George Williams

Person of interestRudolf Virchow

Oct 13 Rudolf Virchow, German politician, anthropologist and pathologist (cell pathology), born in Schivelbein, Prussia (d. 1902)

Anthropologist/Pathologist Rudolf Virchow
Anthropologist/Pathologist
Rudolf Virchow
  • Oct 22 Collis Potter Huntington, American railroad executive (d. 1900)
  • Nov 2 Sir George Bowen, British provincial governor and 5th Governor of New Zealand (1868-73), born in Taughboyne, County Donegal, Ireland (d. 1899)

Person of interestFyodor Dostoyevsky

Nov 11 Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Russian novelist (Crime and Punishment, The Dream of a Ridiculous Man) who helped shape literary modernism and existentialism, born in Moscow, Russian Empire (d. 1881)

  • Nov 23 Charles Meryon, British/French etcher
  • Nov 30 Gustavus Woodson Smith, Secy War (Confederacy), (d. 1896)
  • Nov 30 Frederick Temple, 95th Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1902)
  • Dec 2 Rufus Barringer, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Cabarrus County, North Carolina (d. 1895)
  • Dec 10 Nikolai A Nekrasov, Russian poet, writer and publisher (Russkije Zjenjshiny)
  • Dec 12 Gustave Flaubert, French novelist (Madame Bovary)
  • Dec 17 Frederick West Lander, American poet and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Salem, Massachusetts (d. 1862)
  • Dec 19 Mary Ashton Livermore, American reformer/women's suffrage leader

Person of interestClara Barton

Dec 25 Clara Barton, American nurse and founder of the American Red Cross, born in North Oxford, Massachusetts (d. 1912)

Humanitarian Clara Barton
Humanitarian
Clara Barton
  • Dec 27 Jane Wilde, Irish poet, nationalist and mother of Oscar Wilde, born in Wexford (d. 1896)

Deaths in History


Person of interestElizabeth Ann Bayley Seton

Jan 4 Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton, 1st native-born American saint, dies in Maryland at 46

1st American-born Saint Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton
1st American-born Saint
Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton
  • Jan 25 Johan Valckenier, Dutch politician and patriot, dies at 62
  • Feb 21 Georg Friedrich von Martens, German diplomat (b. 1756)

Person of interestJohn Keats

Feb 23 John Keats, English Romantic poet (Ode to a Grecian Urn), dies of tuberculosis at 25

Romantic Poet John Keats
Romantic Poet
John Keats
  • Feb 23 Marie-Anne Collot, French sculptor, dies
  • Feb 26 Joseph de Maistre, Savoyard diplomat and writer (b. 1753)
  • Apr 20 Franz K Achard, German physicist and chemist, dies at 67
  • Apr 22 John Crome, [Old Crome], English landscape painter/etcher, dies at 52

Person of interestNapoléon Bonaparte

May 5 Napoleon Bonaparte, French military leader and Emperor of the French (1804-14, 1815), dies in exile on the island of Saint Helena, officially from stomach cancer but rumours of arsenic poisoning persist

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • May 19 Camille Jordan, French politician (b. 1771)
  • Jun 7 Tudor Vladimirescu, Romanian rebellion-leader (b. cca. 1780)
  • Jun 13 [Izaak J] Alexander Gogel, minister of finance/patriot, dies at 55
  • Jun 17 Martín Miguel de Güemes Argentine military leader (b. 1785)
  • Jul 4 Richard Cosway, English artist (b. 1742)
  • Jul 21 Maurice J M prince de Broglie, bishop of Ghent, dies at about 55
  • Aug 4 William Floyd, US soldier (signed Declaration of Independence), dies at 86
  • Sep 27 Luis (Philippus) Brion, Curacaos admiral/supreme commander, dies at 39
  • Oct 4 John Rennie, Scottish engineer, dies at 60
  • Oct 11 John Ross Key, American judge and lawyer (b. 1754)
  • Oct 24 Elias Boudinot, American lawyer and patriot, President of the Continental Congress, dies at 81
  • Dec 12 Phoebe Hessel, English woman who disguised herself as a man to serve in the British Army, probably to be with her lover, Samuel Golding, dies at 108
  • Dec 29 Jean-Baptiste Dumonceau de Bergendael, S Neth general, dies at 61