1851 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 1 City of Glasgow steamer inaugurates Philadelphia-Liverpool line
  • Jan 15 General Mariano Arista replaces Mexican President José Joaquín de Herrera
  • Jan 28 Northwestern University (Chicago) chartered

InventionHistoric Invention

Jan 31 American Gail Borden announces the invention of condensed milk

Inventor and Manufacturer of Condensed Milk Gail Borden
Inventor and Manufacturer of Condensed Milk
Gail Borden
  • Jan 31 San Francisco Orphan's Asylum founded, 1st in California
  • Feb 15 Black abolitionists invade Boston courtroom rescuing a fugitive slave
  • Mar 3 Congress authorizes smallest US silver coin (3 cent piece)
  • Mar 6 Dion Boucicault's "Love in a Maze" premieres in London
  • Mar 7 Poll tax levied on Russo-Polish Jews entering Austrian Galicia ends
  • Mar 25 Yosemite Valley discovered in California
  • Apr 15 Earl G Andressy sentenced to death in Hungary
  • Apr 23 Canada issues its 1st postage stamps
  • May 1 Great Exhibition opens in the Crystal Palace, London
  • May 3 Sixth major fire in San Francisco destroys 1500-2000 buildings
  • May 6 Dr John Gorrie patents a "refrigeration machine"
  • May 6 Linus Yale patents Yale lock

  • May 6 New slave regulations go into effect in Suriname
  • May 6 San Francisco Chamber of Commerce starts
  • May 15 King Mongkut [Rama IV or Phra Chomklao Chaoyuhua] crowned in Siam (Thailand)
  • May 18 Amsterdam-Nieuwediep telegraph connection linked

Conference meetingConference of Interest

May 29 Sojourner Truth addresses 1st Black Women's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio

Abolitionist and Women's Rights Advocate Sojourner Truth
Abolitionist and Women's Rights Advocate
Sojourner Truth
  • Jun 2 1st US alcohol prohibition law enacted (Maine)
  • Jun 9 San Francisco Committee of Vigilance forms (1st time)
  • Jun 15 Jacob Fussell, Baltimore dairyman, sets up 1st ice-cream factory
  • Jun 22 Fire destroys part of San Francisco, including City Hall and Jenny Lind Theatre, city's seventh fire in 2 years
  • Jun 30 Battle of Viervoet (Basotho-British war)
  • Jul 13 John F Loudon discovers tin on East Indian Island of Billiton
  • Jul 23 Treaty of Traverse des Sioux signed by Sioux Indians and US
  • Jul 24 Window tax abolished in Britain
  • Jul 28 Total solar eclipse captured on a daguerreotype photograph
  • Jul 29 Annibale de Gasparis discovers asteroid 15 Eunomia
  • Aug 12 American inventor Isaac Singer patents the sewing machine
  • Aug 22 Gold fields discovered in Australia
  • Sep 15 Saint Joseph's University is founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
  • Sep 18 New York Times starts publishing (2 cents a copy)
  • Sep 22 City of Des Moines, Iowa incorporated as Fort Des Moines
  • Oct 1 1st Hawaiian stamps issued
  • Oct 2 The pasilalinic-sympathetic compass(a contraption built to test the pseudo-scientific hypothesis that snails create a permanent telepathic link when they mate) is demonstrated but proves to be a fake.
  • Oct 24 William Lassell discovers Ariel & Umbriel, satellites of Uranus
  • Oct 30 Alfred de Musset's "Bettine" premieres in Paris
  • Nov 9 Kentucky marshals abduct abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and take him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping a slave escape.
  • Nov 11 Alvan Clark patents telescope
  • Nov 13 1st meeting of anti-revolutionary "Netherlands & Orange"
  • Nov 13 Telegraph connection between London-Paris linked
  • Nov 13 The Denny Party lands at Alki Point, the first settlers of what would become Seattle, Washington

Book releaseHistoric Publication

Nov 14 "Moby-Dick" by Herman Melville first published by Harper and Brothers in the US

Moby Dick Author Herman Melville
Moby Dick Author
Herman Melville
  • Dec 2 French President Charles Louis Bonaparte in a Coup d'etat overthrows the Second Republic establishing himself as Emperor.
  • Dec 4 President Louis Napoleon Boaparte's forces crush an attempted coup d'etat in France
  • Dec 9 1st Young Men's Christian Association in North America set up in Montreal
  • Dec 22 The first freight train is operated in Roorkee, India.
  • Dec 24 Fire devastates US Library of Congress in Washington, destroys 35,000 volumes
  • Dec 29 1st American Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) chapter opened in Boston, Massachusetts

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 14 Theophile EA de Bock, Dutch painter/etcher/drawer
  • Jan 17 A. B. Frost, American illustrator (d. 1928)
  • Jan 19 David Starr Jordan, NY, biologist/university pres (Leland Stanford)
  • Jan 19 Johannes C Kapteyn, Dutch astronomer
  • Jan 25 Arne Garborg, Norwegian playwright (Bondestudentar)
  • Jan 27 Rafael Obligado, Argentina, writer (Santos Vega)
  • Feb 1 Durham Stevens, American diplomat (d. 1908)
  • Feb 2 José Guadalupe Posada, Mexican artist (d. 1913)
  • Feb 3 Johannes B van Heutsz, lt-gen/gov-gen Dutch East Indies
  • Feb 8 Kate O'Flaherty Chopin, writer, born in St. Louis, Missouri (d. 1904)
  • Feb 28 Samuel W. McCall, 47th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1923)
  • Mar 3 Alexandros Papadiamantis, Greek author (d. 1911)
  • Mar 16 Martinus Beijerinck, Dutch microbiologist and botanist (d. 1931)
  • Mar 19 Roque Saenz Pena, President of Argentina (1910-14)
  • Mar 19 William Henry Stark, American business leader (d. 1936)
  • Mar 28 Bernardino Machado, President of Portugal (1915–17, 1925–26), born in Rio de Janeiro (d. 1944)
  • Apr 6 Guillaume Bigourdan, French astronomer (d. 1932)
  • Apr 9 C. E. A. Wichmann, German-Dutch geologist, born in Hamburg, Germany (d. 1927)
  • Apr 13 Robert Abbe, American surgeon (d. 1928)
  • Apr 16 Ernst Josephson, Swedish painter, born in Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1906)
  • Apr 21 Charles Barrois, French geologist (d. 1939)
  • Apr 24 Eduardo Acevedo Díaz, Uruguayan writer (Ismael, Grito de Gloria), born in Uruguay, Montevideo (d. 1921)
  • Apr 25 Leopoldo Alas, Spanish novelist (La Regenta), born in Zamora, Spain (d. 1901)
  • May 1 Laza Lazarević, Serbian writer and psychiatrist (d. 1891)
  • May 18 James Budd, Governor of California (d. 1908)
  • May 20 Emile Berliner, German inventor (flat phonograph record)
  • May 20 Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, American nun/daughter of Nathaniel Hawthorne
  • May 21 Leon Bourgeois, French politician, internationalist (Nobel 1920)
  • May 29 Leon VA Bourgeois, French premier (1895-96, Nobel 1920)
  • Jun 8 Jacques-Arsène d'Arsonval, French physicist and inventor of the moving-coil D'Arsonval galvanometer, born in La Porcherie, France (d. 1940)
  • Jun 9 Charles Joseph Bonaparte, French politician (d. 1921)
  • Jun 12 Oliver Joseph Lodge, English physicist, early radio pioneer, born in Penkhull, England (d. 1940)
  • Jun 21 Daniel Carter Beard, American author, social reformer and founder of the Boy Scouts of America, born in Cincinnati, Ohio (d. 1941)
  • Jul 7 Lillien Jane Martin, psychologist, found gerontology clinic
  • Jul 8 Arthur J Evans, English archaeologist (Crete)
  • Jul 11 Millie & Christine McCoy, American siamese twins born slaves in Whiteville, North Carolina (d.1912)
  • Jul 15 Eduardo Gutiérrez, Argentinian author (d. 1889)
  • Jul 19 Hendrik Jut, Dutch murderer (Head of Jut), born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1878)
  • Jul 21 Sam Bass, American Old West train robber and outlaw, born in Mitchell, Indiana (d. 1878)
  • Jul 24 Friedrich Schottky, German mathematician (Schottky's theorem), born in Breslau, Germany (d. 1935)
  • Aug 3 Isabella Caroline Somerset, British philanthropist, temperance leader and campaigner for women's rights, born in London (d. 1921)
  • Aug 13 Felix Adler, German-American educator of political and social ethics, born in Alzey, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Germany (d. 1933)

Person of interestDoc Holliday

Aug 14 Doc Holliday, American gambler, dentist and gunfighter (Gunfight at the O.K. Corral), born in Griffin, Georgia (d. 1887)

Gunfighter in the American Old West Doc Holliday
Gunfighter in the American Old West
Doc Holliday
  • Aug 17 Henry Drummond, Scottish geologist and evangelist
  • Aug 19 Frans Schollaert, Belgian premier (1908-11)

Person of interestCharles E. Hires

Aug 19 Charles E. Hires, American pharmacist, inventor and manufacturer of the Hires Root Beer beverage, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1947)

Pharmacist and Root Beer Brewer Charles E. Hires
Pharmacist and Root Beer Brewer
Charles E. Hires
  • Aug 25 Alexander, Prince of Orange, heir apparent to the Netherlands, born in Noordeinde Palace, The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1884)
  • Sep 3 Olga Constantinovna of Russia, Queen consort of the Hellenes as the wife of King George I, born in Pavlovsk, Russian Empire (d. 1926)
  • Sep 4 John Dillon, Irish nationalist and British Lower house leader, born in Blackrock, Dublin (d. 1927)
  • Sep 7 Edward Asahel Birge, American pioneer in limnology, born in Troy, New York (d. 1950)
  • Sep 13 Walter Reed, U.S. Army physician and bacteriologist who proved mosquitoes transmit yellow fever, born in Belroi, Virginia (d. 1902)
  • Sep 15 Emilia Pardo Bazan, Spanish countess/writer (Sirena Negra)
  • Sep 28 Henry Arthur Jones, English playwright (Judah), born in Grandborough, Buckinghamshire, England (d. 1929)
  • Oct 2 Ferdinand Foch, French Allied military commander and marshal of France during WW I, born in Tarbes, France (d. 1929)
  • Oct 15 George Foot Moore, American theologist (Hebrews, Old Testament), born in West Chester, Pennsylvania (d. 1931)
  • Oct 16 James Ten Eyck, champion rower/coach (Ten Eyck Trophy namesake)
  • Oct 19 Empress Myeongseong, Empress of Korea (d. 1895)
  • Oct 31 Lovisa of Sweden, Queen of Denmark, born in Stockholm Palace, Stockholm, Sweden (d. 1926)
  • Nov 5 Charles Dupuy, French prime minister (d. 1923)
  • Nov 6 Charles Dow, American journalist and economist (co-founded Dow Jones and 1st editor of Wall St Journal), born in Sterling, Connecticut (d. 1902)
  • Nov 7 Chris von der Ahe, German entrepreneur and owner of St. Louis Brown Stockings, born in Hille, Germany (d. 1913)
  • Nov 20 Queen Margherita of Italy (d. 1926)
  • Nov 21 Desire J Mercier, Belgian philosopher/cardinal
  • Dec 10 Melvil[le Louis K] Dewey, created Dewey Decimal System for libraries
  • Dec 16 Theodoor H de Meester, Dutch premier (1905-08)
  • Dec 18 Graciano Lopez Jaena, Filipino hero, orator and satirist (d. 1896)
  • Dec 21 Thomas Chipman McRae, American politician, 34th Governor of Arkansas (d. 1929)
  • Dec 30 Asa Griggs Candler, developed Coca-Cola

Deaths in History

  • Jan 10 Karl Freiherr von Müffling, Prussian field marshal, dies at 75
  • Jan 12 Johan Herman Koekkoek, painter, dies at 72
  • Jan 19 Esteban Echeverría, Argentine writer (b. 1805)

Person of interestJohn James Audubon

Jan 27 John James Audubon, conservationist (Audubon Society), dies at 65

Ornithologist John James Audubon
Ornithologist
John James Audubon

Person of interestMary Shelley

Feb 1 Mary Shelley, English novelist (Frankenstein), dies of a brain tumour at 53

Frankenstein Author Mary Shelley
Frankenstein Author
Mary Shelley
  • Feb 16 Anne Willem Carel van Nagell, Dutch politician, dies at 95
  • Feb 18 Carl Gustav Jakob Jacobi, German mathematician (b. 1804)
  • Feb 23 Joanna Baillie, Scottish poet and playwright, dies at 88
  • Mar 4 James Richardson, British explorer (b. 1809)

Person of interestHans Oersted

Mar 9 Hans Christian Oersted, Danish physicist, dies at 73

Physicist/Chemist Hans Oersted
Physicist/Chemist
Hans Oersted
  • Mar 11 George McDuffie, Governor of South Carolina (b. 1790)
  • May 17 Adriaan van Bevervoorde, Dutch journalist (Treason), dies at 31
  • May 22 Mordecai Manuel Noah, American writer, journalist (b. 1755)
  • May 23 Lucas Pieter Roodbaard, architect, dies at 69
  • May 24 Stanko Vraz, [Jakob Frass], Slavic poet (Grammatica), dies at 40
  • Jul 5 Juanita, Mexican, lynched by California gold diggers
  • Jul 6 Thomas Davenport, American iventor (invented 1st commercial electric motor), dies at 48

Person of interestLouis-Jacques Daguerre

Jul 10 Louis-Jacques Daguerre, French inventor and photographer (daguerreotype), dies at 63

Photographer and Inventor Louis-Jacques Daguerre
Photographer and Inventor
Louis-Jacques Daguerre
  • Aug 1 William Joseph Behr, German writer (b. 1775)
  • Aug 11 Lorenz Oken, German naturalist, dies at 72
  • Sep 10 Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, American educator (b. 1787)
  • Sep 11 Sylvester Graham, American nutritionist and minister (Graham cracker) (b. 1794)

Person of interestJames Fenimore Cooper

Sep 14 James Fenimore Cooper, American author (Last of Mohicans), dies of dropsy at 61

  • Oct 4 Manuel de Godoy, Spanish statesman (b. 1767)
  • Oct 19 Marie Thérèse Charlotte (b. 1778)
  • Oct 31 Peter II, prince-bishop of Montenegro (1830-51) and poet (The Ray of The Microcosm), dies at 37
  • Nov 18 Ernst August, duke of Cumberland/king of Hanover (1837-51), dies at 80
  • Nov 26 Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, French marshal, 10th Prime Minister of France, dies at 82
  • Dec 19 J M William Turner, British painter (Rain, Steam & Speed), dies at 76
  • Dec 19 J. M. W. Turner, English landscape painter (Shipwreck), dies at 76