1853 in History

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Events in History

  • Jan 1 1st practical fire engine (horse-drawn) in US enters service
  • Jan 3 Solomon Northup is freed after 7 illegal years in slavery with aid of Washington Hunt, Governor of New York
  • Jan 4 Solomon Northup, author of the memoir "Twelve Years a Slave", regains his freedom

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 6 Franklin Pierce, the President-elect of the United States at the time, and his family are involved in a train wreck in Massachusetts

14th US President Franklin Pierce
14th US President
Franklin Pierce
  • Jan 10 Charles Reade's "Gold" premieres in London
  • Jan 21 Envelope-folding machine patented by Russell Hawes in Worcester, Massachusetts

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 23 John Wilkes Booth is baptized at St. Timothy's Protestant Episcopal Church

  • Feb 21 US authorizes minting of $3 gold pieces
  • Mar 2 Territory of Washington organized after separating from Oregon Territory
  • Mar 3 Transcontinental railroad survey is authorized by US Congress
  • Mar 3 US Assay Office in NYC authorized
  • Mar 4 Pope Pius IX recovers Catholic hierarchy in Netherlands
  • Mar 4 William Rufus de Vane King (D) sworn in as 13th US VP
  • Apr 1 Cincinnati becomes 1st US city to employ fulltime professional firefighters
  • Apr 15 Protestant church questions king Willem III RC bishops
  • Apr 16 The first passenger rail opens in India, from Bori Bunder, Bombay to Thane.
  • Apr 17 Johan Rudolf Thorbecke's government in the Netherlands resigns
  • Apr 17 US Marine Hospital at Presidio (SF) forms
  • Apr 18 1st train in Asia (Bombay to Tanna, 36 km)
  • Apr 19 Netherlands Van Hall government forms
  • Apr 26 Dutch King William III disbands 2nd Chamber
  • Apr 29 Comet C/1853 G1 (Schweizer) approaches within 0.0839 AUs of Earth
  • May 1 Argentina adopts its constitution
  • May 2 Franconi's Hippodrome opens (NYC)
  • May 6 1st major US rail disaster kills 46 (Norwalk, Connecticut)

1stHistoric Invention

May 14 Gail Borden, land surveyor, newspaper publisher and inventor, patents his process for condensed milk

Inventor and Manufacturer of Condensed Milk Gail Borden
Inventor and Manufacturer of Condensed Milk
Gail Borden
  • May 17 Thorbeckes liberals win 2nd-Parliamentary election
  • May 23 Buenos Aires gains independence from Argentina (reunited 1859)
  • May 31 Elisha Kane's Arctic expedition leaves NY aboard Advance
  • Jun 24 US President Franklin Pierce signs the Gadsden Purchase, buying 29,670 square-miles (76,800 square km) from Mexico for $10 million (now southern Arizona and New Mexico)

Conference meetingConference of Interest

Jul 6 National Black convention meets in Rochester NY, ex-slave Frederick Douglass attends

Abolitionist Frederick Douglass
Abolitionist
Frederick Douglass
  • Jul 6 William Wells Brown publishes "Clotel", 1st novel by an African American

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 8 Commodore Matthew C. Perry sails his frigate Susquehanna into Tokyo Bay, opening Japan to Western influence and trade

Commodore of the US Navy Matthew C. Perry
Commodore of the US Navy
Matthew C. Perry
  • Jul 9 Adm Perry & US Navy visit Japan
  • Jul 14 1st US World's fair opens at New York's Crystal Palace
  • Jul 14 Commodore Perry requests trade relations with Japan
  • Jul 14 US President Franklin Pierce opens 1st industrial exposition (NY)
  • Jul 14 New Zealand holds its first general election
  • Jul 18 Completion of Grand Trunk Line, trains begin running over 1st North American railroad between Portland, Maine & Montreal
  • Jul 25 Joaquin Murrieta, the famous California bandit known as "Robin Hood of El Dorado", is killed by California Rangers
  • Aug 8 Russian fleet appears at Nagasaki, Japan
  • Aug 24 1st potato chips prepared by chef George Crum at Moon's Lake House, near Saratoga Springs, New York (popular legend says he invented though earlier recipes exist)
  • Sep 11 1st electric telegraph used - Merchant's Exchange, San Francisco to Pt Lobos, California
  • Sep 15 First US woman ordained a minister, Antoinette Blackwell
  • Sep 24 France annexes New Caledonia
  • Sep 24 Northern Daily Times, 1st provincial daily newspaper, starts in London
  • Sep 29 Emigrant ship "Annie Jane" sinks off Scotland, drowning 348
  • Oct 2 Austrian law forbids Jews from owning land
  • Oct 6 4th National Women's Rights Convention opens in Cleveland Ohio
  • Oct 19 First flour mill in Hawaii begins operations
  • Oct 23 Maastricht-Aken railway in Netherlands opens
  • Nov 9 Origin of Carrington rotation numbers for rotation of Sun
  • Nov 17 Street signs authorized at San Francisco intersections
  • Nov 28 Olympia forms as capital of Washington Territory
  • Dec 30 A dinner party is held inside a life-size model of an Iguanodon (ornithopod dinosaur) created by Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins and Sir Richard Owen in south London

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 11 Gustav Falke, German author/poet (Der Mann im Nebel)
  • Jan 11 Georgios Jakobides, Greek painter (d. 1926)
  • Jan 12 Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro, Italian mathematician (tensor analysis)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 16 Andre Michelin, French industrialist,tire manufacturer (Michelin) and publisher of the Michelin Guide, born in Paris (d. 1931)

Industrialist André Michelin
Industrialist
André Michelin
  • Jan 16 Gen Sir Ian Hamilton, British military commander (d. 1947)
  • Jan 16 Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov, Russian philosopher (d. 1900)
  • Jan 17 Alva Belmont, American socialite & suffragette (d. 1933)
  • Jan 28 Jose Martí y Perez, Cuba, poet/essayist/politician
  • Feb 6 Ignacij Klemenčič, Slovenian physicist (d. 1901)
  • Feb 9 Leander Starr Jameson, PM of South African Cape colony
  • Feb 14 Jan van Rijswijck, Flemish journalist/mayor (Antwerp)
  • Mar 5 Howard Pyle, illustrator/painter/author (King Stork)
  • Mar 14 Ferdinand Hodler, Swiss painter (d. 1918)
  • Mar 28 Rudolf Kittel, German theologist (Psalms)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 30 Vincent van Gogh, Dutch artist, painter and pioneer of Expressionism (The Potato Eaters, Irises), born in Groot-Zundert, Netherlands (d. 1890)

  • Apr 4 Tad Lincoln, son of U.S. president Abraham Lincoln (d. 1871)
  • Apr 22 Alphonse Bertillon, French anthropologist, devised crime ID system
  • Apr 23 Winthrop M. Crane, 40th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1920)
  • Apr 27 Jules Lemaître, French critic and dramatist (d. 1914)
  • Apr 30 Alfred Berger, Austrian playwright, born in Vienna (d. 1912)
  • May 21 Jacques Marie Eugène Godefroy Cavaignac, French politician (d. 1905)
  • May 28 Carl Larsson, Swedish painter (d. 1919)
  • Jun 3 William Matthew Flinders Petrie, English Egyptologist (d. 1942)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 5 Cecil Rhodes, British businessman, diamond merchant and imperialist politician who was Prime Minister of the Cape Colony (1890-96), born in Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, England (d. 1902)

British Businessman and Imperialist Politician Cecil Rhodes
British Businessman and Imperialist Politician
Cecil Rhodes
  • Jul 7 Albert Vandal, French earl/historian (Le Pacha Bonneval)
  • Jul 18 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, Holland, physicist (Nobel 1902)
  • Jul 20 Geo[rge] Poggenbeek, Dutch water colors painter
  • Jul 27 Vladimir Korolenko, Russian writer (d. 1921)
  • Aug 19 Aleksei Brusilov, Russian general (d. 1926)
  • Aug 28 Vladimir Shukhov, Russian engineer and inventor, born in Grayvoron, Russia (d. 1939)
  • Sep 2 Wilhelm Ostwald, German physical chemist (Nobel 1909)
  • Sep 4 Hermann von Wissmann, German Africa explorer/governor East-Africa
  • Sep 16 Albrecht Kossel, German physician, Nobel laureate (d. 1927)
  • Sep 17 Clemens Baeumker, German historian (Patristischen Philosophie)
  • Sep 20 Rama V, King of Thailand (d. 1910)
  • Sep 21 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Dutch physicist (liquid helium, Nobel 1913), born in Groningen, Netherlands (d. 1926)
  • Sep 23 Marcel Planiol, French private law scholar
  • Sep 29 Princess Thyra, daughter of Christian IX of Denmark (d. 1933)
  • Oct 17 Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (d. 1920)
  • Oct 29 Josephine Beall Bruce, African American activist (NACW) Philadelphia Pa.
  • Nov 1 Jose Santos Zelaya, (L), ruler of Nicaragua (1893-1910)
  • Nov 9 Stanford White, American architect, born in NYC, New York (d. 1906)
  • Nov 12 Oskar Panizza, German writer (Das Liebeskonzil), born in Bad Kissingen, Bavaria (d. 1921)
  • Nov 21 Hussain Kamil, sultan of Egypt (1914-17)
  • Nov 24 Bat Masterson, American gunfighter (d. 1921)
  • Nov 28 Helen Magill White, first American woman to earn a Ph.D. (d. 1944)
  • Dec 6 Haraprasad Shastri, Indian academic, Sanskrit scholar, archivist and historian of Bengali literature (d. 1931)
  • Dec 14 Salvador Diaz Miron, Mexican poet (Los Cien Mejores Poemas)
  • Dec 15 Jean B A Kessler, director of oil on Dutch Indies
  • Dec 17 Émile Roux, French physician (d. 1933)
  • Dec 19 Charles Fitzpatrick, Canadian politician who was the 12th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec and 5th Chief Justice of Canada, born in Quebec City, Canada (d. 1942)
  • Dec 21 Isolde Kurz, German writer/poetess (Meine Mutter)
  • Dec 22 Yevgraf Fyodorov, Russian mathematician (d. 1919)
  • Dec 26 René Bazin, French novelist (d. 1932)

Weddings in History

  • Jan 30 Emperor and French President Napoleon III marries Eugenie de Montijo, Countess of Teba
  • May 19 Dutch prince Henry marries princess Amalia of Saxony-Weimar

HeartWedding of Interest

Jun 17 Prime Minister of Canada Alexander Mackenzie (31) weds second wife Jane Sym

2nd Prime Minister of Canada Alexander Mackenzie
2nd Prime Minister of Canada
Alexander Mackenzie

HeartWedding of Interest

Aug 4 Confederate general Thomas Jackson (29) weds Elinor Junkin in Lexington

Confederate General Stonewall Jackson
Confederate General
Stonewall Jackson

Deaths in History

  • Jan 1 Gregory Blaxland, Australian explorer (b. 1778)
  • Jan 9 Juan N Gallego, Spanish poet/interpreter (El dos de Mayo), dies at 75
  • Jan 13 Theophilos Kairis, Greek priest, humanist and revolutionary (b. 1783)
  • Mar 4 Christian Leopold von Buch, German geologist (b. 1774)
  • Mar 5 Georg A Kestner, German art collector/diplomat, dies at 75
  • Mar 8 Edward John Dent, British Clockmaker, dies at 62

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 17 Christian Doppler, Austrian physicist, dies at 49

  • Apr 8 Jan W Pieneman, historical painter (Battle at Waterloo), dies at 73
  • Apr 13 Leopold Gmelin, German chemist (b. 1788)
  • Apr 13 James Iredell, Jr., American politician (b. 1788)
  • Apr 18 William King, US VP, dies a month after his inauguration
  • Apr 23 Auguste Laurent, chemist, dies

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Apr 25 William Beaumont, physiologist, dies at 67

  • Apr 28 Ludwig Tieck, German writer, dies at 79
  • May 8 Joannes P Roothaan, 1st Dutch lt col-gen of Jesuits, dies at 67
  • Jun 12 John C de Jonge, Dutch historian/archivist, dies at 60
  • Jun 18 Branko Radicevic, Serbian poet (1st Serbian Uprising), dies
  • Jul 23 Andries Pretorius, Boer leader (b. 1798)
  • Jul 25 Joaquin Murieta, Mexican born Californian outlaw
  • Aug 23 Alexander Calder, first mayor of Beaumont, Texas (b. 1806)
  • Sep 8 Frédéric Ozanam, founder of the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul (b. 1813)
  • Oct 2 D Francois J Arago, French astronomer/physicist (chromosome), dies
  • Nov 15 Queen Maria II of Portugal (b. 1819)