1866 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 9 Fisk University opens in Nashville, Tennessee
  • Jan 11 Steamship London sinks in storm off Land's End, England and kills 220
  • Jan 12 The Royal Aeronautical Society is formed in London.
  • Jan 18 Wesley College is established in Melbourne
  • Jan 20 Prim's Insurrection in Spain ends

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 4 Mary Baker Eddy cures her injuries by opening a bible

Christian Science Founder Mary Baker Eddy
Christian Science Founder
Mary Baker Eddy
  • Feb 10 Dutch government of Frans van der Putte forms

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 13 Jesse James holds up his first bank, stealing $15,000 from the Clay County Savings Association in Liberty, Missouri

Outlaw Jesse James
Outlaw
Jesse James
  • Feb 16 Spencer Compton Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington becomes the British Secretary of State for War
  • Feb 21 Lucy B Hobbs (Taylor) becomes 1st US woman to earn a DDS degree
  • Feb 26 New York Legislature forms NYC Metropolitan Board of Health
  • Mar 1 Paraguayan canoes sink 2 Brazilian ironclads on Rio Parana
  • Mar 2 1st US company to make sewing needles by machine incorporated, Conn
  • Mar 19 Immigrant ship Monarch of the Seas sinks in Liverpool; 738 die
  • Mar 21 US Congress authorizes national soldiers' homes
  • Mar 27 Andrew Rankin patents the urinal

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 27 US President Andrew Johnson vetoes civil rights bill; it later becomes 14th amendment

17th US President Andrew Johnson
17th US President
Andrew Johnson
  • Mar 28 1st ambulance goes into service
  • Mar 30 Bedrich Smetana's "Verkaufte Braut" (Sold Bride) premieres
  • Mar 31 The Spanish navy bombards the harbor of Valparaíso, Chile
  • Apr 1 US Congress rejects presidential veto giving all equal rights in US
  • Apr 2 US President Andrew Johnson ends civil war in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee & Virginia
  • Apr 4 Alexander II of Russia narrowly escapes an assassination attempt in the city of Kiev.
  • Apr 6 Grand Army of the Republic forms in Decatur, Illinois, by Dr. Benjamin F. Stephenson
  • Apr 8 Italy and Prussia ally against Austria-Hungary.
  • Apr 9 Civil Rights Bill passes over President Andrew Johnson's veto
  • Apr 10 American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) forms
  • Apr 16 Karakozov attempts to assassinate Tsar Alexander II of Russia
  • Apr 16 Nitroglycerine at Wells Fargo & Co office explodes
  • May 1 American Equal Rights Association forms
  • May 2 Peruvian defenders fight off Spanish fleet at the Battle of Callao
  • May 4 Woodward's Gardens opens to the public in San Francisco

MurderAssassination Attempt

May 7 German premier Otto von Bismarck seriously wounded in assassination attempt

German Statesman Otto von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto von Bismarck

InventionHistoric Invention

May 16 Charles E. Hires invents "Hires Root Beer"

Pharmacist and Root Beer Brewer Charles E. Hires
Pharmacist and Root Beer Brewer
Charles E. Hires
  • May 16 US Congress authorizes the nickel 5 cent piece (replaces silver half-dime)
  • May 18 French government of De Putte resigns
  • May 21 1st-class debut of G F Grace aged 15 years 159 days
  • May 24 Berkeley, California named (for George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne)
  • May 28 Dutch government of Zuylen van Nijevelt/Heemskerk forms
  • Jun 1 General Dutch Typographer Union forms
  • Jun 1 Renegade Irish Fenians from US invade Fort Erie, Ontario
  • Jun 2 Renegade Irish Fenians surrender to US forces
  • Jun 7 1,800 Fenian raiders are repelled back to the United States after they loot and plunder around Saint-Armand and Frelighsburg, Quebec
  • Jun 11 The Agra High Court (now the Allahabad High Court) is established in India
  • Jun 13 US House of representatives passes 14th Amendment (Civil rights)
  • Jun 15 Prussia attacks Austria
  • Jun 20 Italy declares war on Austria beginning the Third Italian War of Independence
  • Jun 24 Second Battle at Custozza: the Austrian Imperial army, joined by the Venetian Army decisively defeated the Italian army, despite the Italians' strong numerical advantage
  • Jul 4 Firecracker thrown in wood starts fire destroying half of Portland, Maine, US
  • Jul 10 Indelible pencil patented by Edson P. Clark, Northampton, Massachusetts
  • Jul 17 Italian fleet under Admiral Count Carlo Pellion di Persano captures Austrian Fort Lissa

  • Jul 19 Tennessee is 1st to ratify 14th Amendment to the US constitution, guaranteeing civil rights
  • Jul 20 Sea battle of Lissa-Austria vs Italy
  • Jul 21 Cholera epidemic kills hundreds in London
  • Jul 24 Tennessee becomes 1st Confederate state readmitted to Union
  • Jul 25 25th US Postmaster General: Alexander W Randall of Wisconsin takes office
  • Jul 25 David Faragut appointed as 1st admiral in US Navy

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 25 Ulysses S. Grant named 1st General of Army

Union General and US President Ulysses S. Grant
Union General and US President
Ulysses S. Grant
  • Jul 26 Canoe Club opens in England
  • Jul 27 Atlantic telegraph cable successfully laid (1,686 miles long)
  • Jul 28 Metric system becomes a legal measurement system in US
  • Jul 30 New Orleans's Democratic government orders police to raid an integrated Republican Party meeting, killing 40 people and injuring 150
  • Aug 11 World's 1st roller rink opens (Newport, Rhode Island)
  • Aug 20 President Andrew Johnson formally declares US Civil War over
  • Aug 23 Treaty of Prague ends Austro-Prussian war
  • Sep 1 Last Navaho chief Manuelito turns himself in at Fort Wingate
  • Sep 4 1st Hawaiian daily newspaper published

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Sep 6 Frederick Douglass is 1st US black delegate to a national convention

Abolitionist Frederick Douglass
Abolitionist
Frederick Douglass
  • Sep 22 Decisive battle of Curupaity in the War of the Triple Alliance.
  • Oct 1 Dutch Eindhoven-Venlo railway opens
  • Oct 2 J Osterhoudt patents tin can with key opener
  • Oct 6 1st train robbery in US (Reno Brothers take $13,000)
  • Oct 15 Great fire in Quebec destroys 2,500 houses
  • Oct 22 Paraguay: Battle of Curupaytí against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay.
  • Oct 30 Jesse James' gang robs bank in Lexington, Missouri ($2000)
  • Nov 4 Kingdom of Italy annexes Venetia
  • Nov 20 First national convention of Grand Army of Republic (veterans' org)
  • Nov 20 Howard University founded (Washington, D.C.)
  • Nov 30 Work begins on 1st US underwater highway tunnel in Chicago
  • Dec 6 Chicago water supply tunnel 3,227 m into Lake Michigan completed
  • Dec 21 Fetterman Massacre: Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians kill all 81 US Army soldiers in the worst military disaster ever suffered by the U.S. Army on the Great Plains

Birthdays in History

  • Jan 2 Prof Gilbert Murray, Australian classical scholar (d. 1957)
  • Jan 8 William G. Conley, American politician (d. 1940)
  • Jan 9 Albert Baertsoen, Flemish painter/etcher
  • Jan 15 Nathan Söderblom, Swedish archbishop, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1931)
  • Jan 20 Richard Le Gallienne, English writer (Maker of Gainborg)
  • Jan 25 Emile Vandervelde, President (1900–1918) of the International Socialist Bureau and Minister of 3 Belgian governments (d. 1938)
  • Jan 29 Romain Rolland, French writer (Jean-Christophe) (Nobel 1915)
  • Jan 31 Emil Strauss, German writer (Naked Man)
  • Feb 5 Arthur Keith, Persley Aberdeenshire, Scottish Anthropologist (human evolution)
  • Feb 6 Karl T Sapper, German geography/geologist (Vulkankunde)
  • Feb 7 Raf[ael] Verhulst, [Koen Ravestein], Flemish writer (Jesus of Nazarus)
  • Feb 10 Rafael Altamira Crevea, Spanish lawyer/historian
  • Feb 15 Bannister Fletcher, English architect and architectural historian (A History of Architecture), born in London (d. 1953)
  • Feb 20 Carl Westman, Swedish architect and designer (d. 1936)
  • Feb 24 Arthur Pearson, Wookey Somerset England, newspaper proprietor
  • Feb 24 Pyotr Nikolaevich Lebedev, Russian physicist (d. 1912)
  • Feb 25 Benedetto Croce, Italian humanist/historian/editor/philosopher

Person of interestHerbert Henry Dow

Feb 26 Herbert Henry Dow, American chemical industrialist (Dow Chemical), born in Ontario, Canada (d. 1930)

Chemical Industrialist Herbert Henry Dow
Chemical Industrialist
Herbert Henry Dow
  • Feb 28 Vyacheslav Ivanov, Russian philosopher, playwright and poet, born in Moscow, Russian Empire (d. 1949)
  • Mar 3 Fred A. Busse, Mayor of Chicago (d. 1914)
  • Mar 7 Paul Ernst, German writer, born in Elbingerode, Kingdom of Hanover (d. 1933)
  • Mar 15 Matthew Charlton, Australian politician (d. 1948)
  • Mar 15 Johan Vaaler, Norwegian inventor (d. 1910)
  • Mar 17 Pierce Butler, Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (d. 1939)
  • Mar 18 John Loudon, Dutch minister of Foreign Affairs (1913-18)
  • Mar 21 Antonia Caetana de Paiva Pereira Maury, astronomer
  • Apr 1 Sophonisba Breckenridge, scholar/teacher/social activist

Person of interestJ. B. M. Hertzog

Apr 3 J. B. M. Hertzog [Barry Hertzog], South African General and Prime Minister (1924-39), born in Wellington, South Africa (d. 1942)

South African Premier J. B. M. Hertzog
South African Premier
J. B. M. Hertzog
  • Apr 4 George P Baker, American educator and playwright (47 Workshop), born in Providence, Rhode Island (d. 1935)
  • Apr 6 Joseph Lincoln Steffens, muckraker/journalist (Shame of the Cities)
  • Apr 11 Carla Ford, wife of industrialist Henry Ford
  • Apr 11 Bernard O'Dowd, Australian poet, born in Beaufort, Australia (d. 1953)

Person of interestButch Cassidy

Apr 13 Butch Cassidy [Robert LeRoy Parker], American desperado (Wild Bunch Passage), born in Beaver, Utah (d. 1908)

  • Apr 14 Anne Sullivan [Johanna Macy], American teacher who educated Helen Keller, born in Feeding Hills, Massachusetts (d. 1936)
  • Apr 17 Ernest Starling, British physiologist (Frank-Starling law of the heart), born in London (d. 1927)
  • Apr 19 Henri WA Deterding, Dutch oil magnate (Royal Oil, Shell)
  • Apr 22 Hans von Seeckt, German general (Future of the Reich)
  • May 5 Thomas B. Thrige, Danish industrialist (d. 1938)
  • May 9 Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Leader of Indian Independence Movement (d. 1915)
  • May 10 Léon Bakst, Russian painter and scene and costume designer, born in Grodno, Belarus (d. 1924)
  • May 16 Ernest Watson Burgess, US sociologist (ecological school)
  • May 23 Gustav Aschaffenburg, German psychiatrist/criminalologist
  • May 24 Armando Frid, Argentina, live until July 28 1990 (124 years)
  • May 26 John Eigenhuis, writer (Tough Workers)
  • Jun 3 George Howells Broadhurst, English director (d. 1952)
  • Jun 4 Miina Sillanpää, Finnish politician (d. 1952)
  • Jun 13 Lambertus Zijl, sculptor (Trade scholarship)
  • Jun 20 Ivans, [Jacob van Schevichaven], Dutch lawyer/detective writer
  • Jun 20 George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon, English financier and Egyptologist who funded the search for and excavation of Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings, born in Highclere Castle, Hampshire, England (d. 1923)
  • Jul 3 Albert Gottschalk, Danish painter, born in Stege, Møn, Denmark (d. 1906)
  • Jul 11 Richard Beer-Hofmann, Austrian writer, born in Vienna (d. 1945)
  • Jul 11 Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine (d. 1953)
  • Jul 25 Frederick Frost Blackman, English botanist, born in London (d. 1947)

Person of interestBeatrix Potter

Jul 28 Beatrix Potter, English children's author and illustrator (The Tale of Peter Rabbit), born in London (d. 1943)

Children's Author Beatrix Potter
Children's Author
Beatrix Potter
  • Aug 5 Carl Harries, German chemist (d. 1923)
  • Aug 8 Matthew A Henson, 1st African American to reach North Pole (Jun 4 1909)
  • Aug 12 Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, Spanish playwright (Nobel 1922)
  • Aug 13 Giovanni Agnelli, Italian industrialist and CEO (Fiat Automakers), born in Turin, Italy (d. 1945)
  • Aug 14 Charles Jean de la Vallée-Poussin, Belgian mathematician (Prime number theorem), born in Leuven, Belgium (d. 1962)
  • Aug 17 Mir Mahboob Ali Khan, 6th Nizam of Hyderabad (d. 1911)
  • Aug 30 Georges Minne, Belgian sculptor, born in Ghent, Belgium (d. 1941)
  • Sep 2 Hiram Johnson, Progressive politician, US Senator, Governor of California (1911-17), born in Sacramento, California (d. 1945)
  • Sep 7 Tristan Bernard, French playwright and novelist (d. 1947)
  • Sep 10 Jeppe Aakjær, Danish writer (d. 1930)
  • Sep 13 Adolf Meyer, American psychiatrist/neurologist (pioneered mental hygiene)
  • Sep 21 Charles Jean Henri Nicolle France, bacteriologist (Nobel-1928)

Person of interestH. G. Wells

Sep 21 H. G. Wells, English sci-fi author (War of the Worlds, Kipps), born in Bromley, Kent (d. 1946)

Author H. G. Wells
Author
H. G. Wells
  • Sep 25 Thomas Hunt Morgan, American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and embryologist (Nobel Prize 1933), born in Lexington, Kentucky (d. 1945)
  • Sep 27 Tryggve Andersen, Norwegian writer (Fra Cancelliraadens Dage)
  • Sep 27 Eurosia Fabris, Italian Catholic Blessed (d. 1932)
  • Sep 29 Mykhailo Hrushevsky, Ukrainian historian and statesman, born in Chełm, Congress Poland (d. 1934)
  • Oct 2 Charles de Souzy Ricketts, artist
  • Oct 7 Martha McChesney Berry, American educator who founded Berry School for Children, born near Rome, Georgia (d. 1942)
  • Oct 7 Wlodimir Ledochowski, Polish-Austrian director of the Society of Jesus (d. 1942)
  • Oct 12 Antonie Waldrop, painter/lithographer

Person of interestRamsay MacDonald

Oct 12 Ramsay MacDonald, British Prime Minister (Labour: 1924, 1929-35), born in Lossiemouth, Morayshire, Scotland (d. 1937)

British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
British Prime Minister
Ramsay MacDonald
  • Oct 16 Pieter J Kromsigt, theologist/publicist (Troffel & Sword)
  • Nov 8 Herbert Austin, English automobile pioneer (d. 1941)

Person of interestSun Yat-sen

Nov 12 Sun Yat-sen, Chinese revolutionary and father of modern China, born in Xiangshan [now Zhongshan], Guangdong, Qing Dynasty (d. 1925)

Father of Modern China Sun Yat-sen
Father of Modern China
Sun Yat-sen
  • Nov 13 Abraham Flexner, American educator, born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1959)
  • Nov 17 Voltairine de Cleyre, American anarchist (d. 1912)

Person of interestHenry Bacon

Nov 28 Henry Bacon, American architect (Lincoln Memorial), born in Watseka, Illinois (d. 1924)

Architect Henry Bacon
Architect
Henry Bacon
  • Dec 4 Vassily V Kandinsky, Russian-born German, French abstract painter (Dreamy Inspiration), born in Moscow (d. 1944)
  • Dec 12 Alfred Werner, Swiss chemist (Nobel 1913)
  • Dec 14 Roger Fry, English artist and art critic (d. 1934)
  • Dec 28 Szymon Askenazy, Polish historian and diplomat (d. 1935)
  • Dec 29 Joseph Limburg, Dutch lawyer and politician, born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1940)

Deaths in History

  • Jan 10 Pyotr Pletnyov, Russian poet (b. 1792)
  • Jan 15 M T d'Azeglio, writer, dies
  • Jan 23 Thomas Love Peacock, English satirist (b. 1785)
  • Jan 27 John Gibson, British sculptor, dies at 75 (b. 1790)
  • Feb 3 François-Xavier Garneau, French Canadian poet and historian (b. 1809)
  • Feb 21 Stephen Elliott, Jr., Brigadier General (Confederate Army), dies at 35
  • Mar 4 Alexander Campbell, Irish-American clergyman and Founder of Disciples of Christ, dies at 77
  • Mar 6 William Whewell, English polymath and philosopher (History of Inductive Science), dies at 71
  • Mar 24 Maria Amalia, of Bourbon-Sicily, wife of Louis Filips of Austria, dies
  • Mar 28 Solomon Foot, American politician (b. 1802)
  • Mar 29 Menachem Mendel of Lubavitch, Rabbi/Chassidic leader, dies
  • Apr 1 Johannes C H de Meijere, Dutch zoologist, dies
  • May 13 Nikolai Brashman, Russian mathematician (b. 1796)
  • May 29 Winfield Scott, American army general (Union) and presidential candidate, dies at 79
  • May 29 Henry Darwin Rogers, American Geologist (theory of mountain building, first geological mapping of Pennsylvania), dies at 57
  • Jun 5 John McDouall Stuart, Australian explorer (b. 1815)
  • Jun 7 Chief Seattle, Native American leader
  • Jun 16 Joseph Méry French poet (b. 1798)
  • Jun 17 Lewis Cass, American military officer and politician (U.S. Senator-Michigan), dies at 83
  • Jun 18 Jacobus T Abels, painter, dies at 62
  • Jun 23 Samuel Sarphati, Amsterdam physician/social activist, dies at 53
  • Jun 25 Alexander von Nordmann, Finnish zoologist, dies at 63
  • Jul 11 James Henry Lane, US General during Civil War (Union) and Senator (Kansas), commits suicide at 52
  • Jul 20 Faa di Bruno, Italian captain (Er d'italia, Lissa), commits suicide
  • Jul 20 G F Berhard Riemann, German mathematician (zeta-function), dies
  • Aug 1 John Ross (aka. Kooweskoowe), Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation (b. 1790)
  • Aug 6 John Mason Neale, English divine, scholar and hymnwriter (b. 1818)
  • Aug 22 George Shillibeer, pioneer of London's 1st bus service, dies
  • Sep 3 Konstantin Flavitsky, Russian painter (b. 1830)
  • Sep 9 Gergely Czuczor, Hungarian/Czech poet/translator, dies at 65
  • Sep 26 Carl Almqvist, Swedish author (Amorina), dies at 72
  • Oct 26 John Kinder Labatt, Irish-Canadian brewer (Labatt Brewing Company) (b. 1803)
  • Nov 14 Miguel I, King of Portugal (1828-34), dies at 64
  • Dec 1 George Everest, Welsh surveyor and namesake of Mt. Everest, dies at 76
  • Dec 26 Samuel Ryan Curtis, Union general-major, dies at 49