1878 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 4 Sofia is emancipated from Ottoman rule.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 8 Secret meeting of King Leopold II's agent & Henry Morton Stanley

Journalist and Explorer Henry Morton Stanley
Journalist and Explorer
Henry Morton Stanley
  • Jan 9 Umberto I becomes King of Italy.
  • Jan 10 US Senate proposes female suffrage
  • Jan 14 US Supreme court rules race separation on trains unconstitutional
  • Jan 16 Captain Burago with a squadron of Russian Imperial army dragoons liberates Plovdiv from Ottoman rule
  • Jan 24 Revolutionary Vera Zasulich shoots at Fyodor Trepov, Governor of Saint Petersburg
  • Jan 28 1st telephone exchange (New Haven, Connecticut)
  • Jan 28 George W Coy hired as 1st full-time telephone operator
  • Jan 28 Yale Daily News published, 1st college daily newspaper
  • Feb 2 Greece declares war on Turkey
  • Feb 10 Pact of Zanjón signed between Cubans rebels and the Spanish bringing the 10 Years War to an end
  • Feb 11 1st weekly weather report published in UK
  • Feb 16 Silver dollar became US legal tender
  • Feb 17 1st telephone exchange in San Francisco opens with 18 phones
  • Feb 18 John Tunstall is murdered by outlaw Jessie Evans, sparking the Lincoln County War in Lincoln County, New Mexico.

InventionHistoric Invention

Feb 19 Thomas Edison is granted a patent for his gramophone (phonograph)

Inventor Thomas Edison
Inventor
Thomas Edison
  • Feb 21 World's 1st telephone directory issued, 50 subscribers (New Harbor, Connecticut)
  • Feb 22 Greenback Labor Party forms (Toledo, Ohio)
  • Feb 28 US congress authorizes large-size silver certificate
  • Mar 1 First winter ascent of Aneto, highest mountain in the Pyrenees
  • Mar 3 Bulgaria liberated from Turkey (Peace of San Stefano)
  • Mar 24 British frigate Eurydice sunk; 300 lost
  • Mar 26 Hastings College of Law founded in California
  • Mar 26 Sabi Game Reserve opens in South Africa, the world's 1st officially designated game reserve
  • Apr 2 1st issue of Rotterdam's Newspaper
  • Apr 10 California Street Cable Car Railroad Co starts service
  • Apr 15 Harley Procter introduces Ivory Soap
  • Apr 21 First Lady Lucy Hayes begins egg rolling contest on White House lawn
  • Apr 21 NY installs 1st firehouse pole
  • Apr 21 Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Inscrutabili
  • Apr 21 Ship Azor leaves Charleston with 206 blacks for Liberia
  • Apr 23 1st Dutch test drive of steam tram
  • May 2 US stops minting 20 cent coin

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 8 David Edward Hughes' paper on the idea for a microphone is read before the Royal Society of London by Thomas Henry Huxley

  • May 14 Vaseline is granted a patent (U.S. Patent 127,568)
  • May 19 Blanche Kelso Bruce appointed register of treasury by President Garfield
  • May 23 Attorney John Henry Smyth named US minister to Liberia
  • May 24 CA Parker (Harvard) wins 1st American bike race at Beacon Park in Boston
  • May 31 German battleship SMS Grosser Kurfürst sinks, 284 killed
  • May 31 US Congress accepts decrease in dollar circulation

  • Jun 4 Cyprus ceded by Turkey to Britain for administrative purposes
  • Jun 11 DC is given a new government by Congress, 3 commissioners appointed by president (change in 1974)
  • Jun 13 Congress of Berlin begins, determines the territories of the states in the Balkan peninsula following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78
  • Jul 1 Canada joins the Universal Postal Union.
  • Jul 5 The coat of arms of the Baku governorate was established
  • Jul 7 Social-Democratic United forms in Amsterdam
  • Jul 9 An improved corncob pipe patents by Henry Tibbe, Washington, Missouri
  • Jul 12 Fever epidemic in New Orleans begin, it will kill 4,500
  • Jul 13 Congress of Berlin ends, redrawing the terms of Treaty of San Stefano to give Russia less influence in old Ottoman Empire
  • Jul 17 Nqwiliso, tribal chief of Western Pondoland and eldest son of Ndamase, signs a treaty with H.G. Elliott ceding sovereign rights and shipping in the Umzimvubu River mouth to the Cape government, Southern Africa
  • Jul 20 1st telephone introduced in Hawaii
  • Jul 26 In California, poet and American West outlaw calling himself "Black Bart" makes his last clean getaway when he steals a safe box from a Wells Fargo stagecoach. The empty box found later with a taunting poem inside.
  • Jul 30 German anti-semitism begins during the Reichstag election
  • Aug 21 American Bar Association organizes at Sarasota, NY
  • Sep 1 1st female telephone operator starts work (Emma Nutt in Boston)
  • Sep 3 British passenger paddle steamer Princess Alice sunk in a collision on the River Thames with the collier Bywell Castle; 645 die
  • Sep 12 Cleopatra Needle installed in London
  • Sep 25 British physician Dr. Charles Drysdale warns against the use of tobacco in a letter to The Times newspaper in one of the earliest public health announcements on the dangers of smoking
  • Sep 30 1st Portuguese immigrants arrive in Hawaii
  • Sep 30 Great Flood hits New Zealand's South Island
  • Oct 15 Edison Electric Light Company incorporated

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Oct 17 After serving as the opposition for five years, John A. Macdonald is re-elected as Prime Minister of Canada

Prime Minister of Canada John A. Macdonald
Prime Minister of Canada
John A. Macdonald
  • Oct 18 Edison makes electricity available for household use
  • Oct 18 Anti-socialist laws are ratified in Germany

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 21 German republic chancellor Bismarck delegates end of "Socialism"

German Statesman Otto von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto von Bismarck
  • Nov 1 Edward Scripps & John Sweeney found Penny Press (Cleveland Press)
  • Nov 6 Henrik Ibsen's "Samfundets Stotter" premieres in Oslo
  • Nov 10 Aleksandr Ostrovsky's "Bespridannitsa" premieres in Moscow
  • Nov 17 First assassination attempt against Umberto I of Italy
  • Dec 1 1st White House telephone installed
  • Dec 3 Settlers arrive at Petach Tikvah, Israel
  • Dec 9 Joseph Pulitzer buys St Louis Dispatch for $2,500
  • Dec 12 Joseph Pulitzer begins publishing "St Louis Dispatch"
  • Dec 18 French SS Byzantin sinks after collision in Dardanelles, 210 killed
  • Dec 18 John Kehoe, the last of the Molly Maguires, is executed in Pennsylvania
  • Dec 26 1st US store to install electric lights, Philadelphia
  • Dec 28 Pope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Quod apostolici muneris (socialism)

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 120

  • Jan 1 Agner Krarup Erlang, Danish scientist and engineer (d. 1929)
  • Jan 4 Alfred Edgar Coppard, England, writer (Black Dogs & Other Stories)
  • Jan 4 Augustus John, Welsh painter (d. 1961)
  • Jan 6 Carl Sandburg, American poet/biographer of Lincoln (The People, Yes)
  • Jan 9 John Broadus Watson, Travelers Rest South Carolina, American Psychologist (behaviorism approach)
  • Jan 11 Theodoros Pangalos, Greek general and dictator (1926), born in Salamis, Greece (d. 1952)
  • Jan 12 Ferenc Molnar, Hungarian/US playwright (A Pal Utrai Fiuk)
  • Jan 13 Lionel Groulx, Canadian nationalist, born in Vaudreuil, Quebec, Canada (d. 1967)
  • Jan 14 Victor A D Segalen, [Max Anely], French writer
  • Jan 16 Robert Garbe, German poet (Gorniek)
  • Jan 18 Hendrik Baels, Belgian politician
  • Jan 23 Oton Zupancic, Slovenian poet (Zimzelen pod Snegom)
  • Jan 25 Ernst Alexanderson, Swedish-American television pioneer (Alexanderson alternator), born in Uppsala, Sweden (d. 1975)
  • Jan 29 Barney Oldfield, Ohio, daredevil
  • Jan 30 Anton Hansen Tammsaare, Estonian author (Truth and Justice), born in Vetepere, Governorate of Estonia, Russian Empire (d. 1940)
  • Jan 31 Willem J M van Eysinga, Dutch international law jurist
  • Feb 1 Hattie Wyatt Caraway, politician/teacher/1st woman elected to senate
  • Feb 1 Milan Hodža, Slovak politician (d. 1944)
  • Feb 2 Christian Gauss, educator/writer (Phi Beta Kappa award namesake)
  • Feb 3 Joseph Gordon Coates, Prime Minister of New Zealand (1925-28), born in Ruatuna, New Zealand (d. 1943)
  • Feb 5 André Citroën, French automobile pioneer (d. 1935)
  • Feb 8 Martin Buber, Austrian-Israeli dialogue philosopher and theologist (Ich und Du), born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary (d. 1965)
  • Feb 14 Julius Nieuwland, Belgian-American chemist (inventor of neoprene), born in Hansbeke, Belgium (d. 1936)
  • Feb 21 Mirra Richard [The Mother], French-born Indian spiritual leader (Sri Aurobindo), born in Paris, France (d. 1973)
  • Feb 22 Walter Ritz, Swiss physicist (d. 1909)
  • Feb 23 Kazimir Malevich, Ukrainian painter and art theorist (d. 1935)
  • Feb 27 Alvan T. Fuller, 50th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1958)
  • Feb 28 Pierre Fatou, French mathematician (d. 1929)
  • Mar 2 Wander J de Haas, Dutch physicist/son-in-law of Lorentz
  • Mar 2 William Kissam Vanderbilt II, member of the Vanderbilt family (d. 1944)
  • Mar 4 Peter D. Ouspensky, Russian philosopher (d. 1947)
  • Mar 7 Boris Kustodiev, Russian painter (d. 1927)
  • Mar 10 Karel van de Woestijne, Flemish writer/poet (God at Sea)
  • Mar 12 Gemma Galgani, Italian saint
  • Mar 14 Carel T Scharten, Dutch poet and writer (Forces of the Future), born in Middelburg, Netherlands (d. 1950)
  • Mar 15 Rezā Shāh Pahlavi [Rezā Khan], Shah of Iran (1925-41)
  • Mar 16 Clemens A Graaf von Galen, cardinal/bishop of Munster/anti-nazi
  • Mar 24 Top Naeff, [Anthonetta van Rhijn-N-Naeff], Dutch writer
  • Apr 1 Carl Sternheim, German playwright (Hyperion/Tabula Rasa)
  • Apr 2 Émilie Charmy, French avant-garde artist, born in Saint-Etienne, France (d. 1974)
  • Apr 6 Erich Mühsam, German author (d. 1934)
  • Apr 7 Jozef C Bittremieux, Flemish theologist (Virgin & Mother of God)
  • Apr 12 Richard B Goldschmidt, German-American zoologist (butterflies), born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany (d. 1958)
  • Apr 15 Robert Walser, Swiss writer, born in Biel (d. 1956)
  • Apr 21 Albert Weisgerber, German painter and graphic artist
  • Apr 22 Kitty Gordon, Folkestone England, entertainer
  • Apr 24 Jean Crotti, Swiss-French artist, born in Bulle, Fribourg, Switzerland (d. 1958)
  • Apr 26 Saint Rafael Guízar Valencia, Mexican Catholic bishop
  • May 10 Gustav Stresemann, German chancellor (1923, Nobel 1926)
  • May 11 Jan Machiel Reyskens, oldest male resident of the Netherlands, (d. 1990 aged 111)
  • May 21 Glenn Hammond Curtiss, American inventor (hydroplane)
  • May 21 Louis de Visser, Dutch politician (CPN)
  • May 24 Lillian Moller Gilbreth, American psychologist and industrial engineer (CIOS Gold Medal-1954), born in Oakland, California (d. 1972)
  • May 28 Paul Pelliot, French sinologist (d. 1945)
  • Jun 1 John Masefield, British writer and poet (Salt-Water Ballads), Poet Laureate (1930-67), born in Ledbury, Herefordshire (d. 1967)
  • Jun 4 Frank N D Buchman, US theologist (Moral Rearmament)
  • Jun 5 Pancho Villa [José Doroteo Arango Arámbula], Mexican revolutionary general and guerrilla leader, born in La Coyotada, San Juan del Río, Durango, Mexico (d. 1923)
  • Jun 6 Vincent de Moro-Giafferi, French criminal attorney, born in Paris (d. 1956)
  • Jun 12 James Oliver Curwood, American journalist and writer (Kazan the wolfdog), born in Owosso, Michigan (d. 1927)
  • Jun 17 Albert Thomas, French socialist politician (Minister of Armament WW1), born in Champigny-sur-Marne (d. 1932)
  • Jun 19 James M Kilroe, priest of St Mary Star of the Sea, in the Bronx
  • Jun 27 Jean François van Royen, Dutch bibliophile, secretary-general of PTT, born in Arnhem, Netherlands (d. 1942)
  • Jul 6 Eino Leino, Finnish poet (d. 1926)
  • Jul 15 Willem Paerels, Neth/Belgian painter and graphic artist
  • Jul 19 Robert Herman Woltjer, Dutch Minister of Education, born in Groningen, Netherlands (d. 1955)
  • Jul 22 Lucien Febvre, French historian (Un destin: Martin Luther)
  • Jul 22 Janusz Korczak [Henryk Goldszmit], Polish-Jewish educator and pedagogue (ran an orphanage in the Warsaw Ghetto), born in Warsaw, Congress Poland (or in 1879, d. 1942)
  • Jul 24 Edward Plunkett, 18th Baron of Dunsany, Irish sci-fi writer (Time & Gods), born in London (d. 1957)
  • Jul 29 Don Marquis, Ill, journalist/poet (archy & mehitabel) (d. 1937)
  • Aug 2 Aino Kallas, Finnish writer (White Ship, Estonian Tales), born in Kiiskilä, Viipuri Province, Grand Duchy of Finland (d. 1956)
  • Aug 2 Princess Ingeborg of Sweden, wife of Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland, born in Charlottenlund Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark (d. 1958)
  • Aug 10 Alfred Döblin, German writer (d. 1957)
  • Aug 13 Salomon "Sam" de Wolff, Dutch zionist and socialist theorist, born in Sneek, Netherlands (d. 1960)
  • Aug 14 Harald Kidde, Danish writer (Aage og Else)
  • Aug 15 Pjotr N Wrangel, Russian baron/general (White Armies, WW II)

Person of interestManuel L. Quezon

Aug 19 Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, Second President of the Philippines (1935-42), born in Baler, Aurora, Philippines (d. 1944)

2nd President of the Philippines Manuel L. Quezon
2nd President of the Philippines
Manuel L. Quezon
  • Aug 28 George Whipple, American physician and biomedical researcher (Nobel-1934), born in Ashland, New Hampshire (d. 1976)
  • Aug 30 Paul Hazard [Paul-Gustave-Marie-Camille Hazard], French critic and literature historian, born in Nordpeene, France (d. 1944)
  • Sep 1 Princess Alexandra of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (d. 1942)
  • Sep 2 Werner von Blomberg, German minister of Reichswehr
  • Sep 9 Adelaide Crapsey, American poet (d. 1914)
  • Sep 9 Sergio Osmeña, 4th President of the Philippines (d. 1961)
  • Sep 16 Karl Albiker, German sculptor (German Art, female nudes), born in Ühlingen-Birkendorf, Germany (d. 1961)

Person of interestUpton Sinclair

Sep 20 Upton Beall Sinclair, American writer (Jungle), born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 1968)

  • Sep 22 Shigeru Yoshida, Japanese Prime Minister (1946-54), born in Yokosuka (d. 1967)
  • Sep 24 Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz, Swiss writer (Le Petit Village), born in Lausanne, Switzerland (d. 1947)
  • Oct 1 Othmar Spann, Austrian economist and sociologist (Geschichtsfilosofie), born in Vienna (d. 1950)
  • Oct 2 François Conrad Schlumberger, French physicist, born in Guebwiller, Upper Rhine (d. 1936)
  • Oct 12 Karl Buresch, Austrian lawyer and politician, born in Groß-Enzersdorf, Austria (d. 1936)
  • Oct 13 Patrick Joseph Hartigan, Australian Roman Catholic priest, born in O'Connell Town, Yass, New South Wales (d. 1952)
  • Oct 15 Paul Reynaud, Premier of France (May-June 1940), born in Barcelonette, France (d. 1966)
  • Oct 18 James Truslow Adams, historian (Pul-1921, Founding of New England)
  • Oct 19 Hermann Claudius, German folk poet (Meister Bertram), born in Langenfelde near Hamburg (d. 1980)
  • Oct 25 Nico van Suchtelen, Dutch writer and publisher, born in Amsterdam (d. 1949)
  • Oct 29 Alex E von Falkenhausen, German general (China, WW II)

Person of interestCarlos Saavedra Lamas

Nov 1 Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Argentine politician (Nobel Peace Prize 1936), born in Buenos Aires, Argentina (d. 1959)

Nobel Peace Laureate Carlos Saavedra Lamas
Nobel Peace Laureate
Carlos Saavedra Lamas
  • Nov 1 Konrad Mägi, Estonian painter (d. 1925)
  • Nov 7 Lise Meitner, Austrian-Swedish physicist (Protactinium), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1968)
  • Nov 13 John C Kielstra, Dutch economist and governor of Suriname (1933-44)
  • Nov 13 Max Dehn, German mathematician (Dehn’s lemma), born in Hamburg, Germany (d. 1952)

Weddings in History


HeartWedding of Interest

Mar 20 53rd UK Prime Minister Archibald Primrose (31) weds heiress Hannah de Rothschild (27) at the Board of Guardians in Mount Street, London

British Prime Minister Archibald Primrose
British Prime Minister
Archibald Primrose

HeartWedding of Interest

Dec 4 Novelist Bram Stoker (31) weds Florence Balcombe (20) in Dublin, Ireland

Novelist Bram Stoker
Novelist
Bram Stoker

Deaths in History

  • Jan 7 François-Vincent Raspail, French chemist (b. 1794)

Person of interestVictor Emmanuel II

Jan 9 Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia (1849-61) and Italy (1861-78), dies at 57

King of Sardinia and Italy Victor Emmanuel II
King of Sardinia and Italy
Victor Emmanuel II
  • Jan 18 Antoine César Becquerel, French physicist who pioneered the study of electric and luminescent phenomena, dies at 89
  • Jan 19 Henri V. Regnault, French physicist and chemist, dies at 67
  • Feb 1 George Cruikshank, English caricaturist and illustrator (Grimm), dies at 85
  • Feb 7 Pius IX, "Pio Nono", [Giovanni Ferretti], Pope (1846-78), dies at 85
  • Feb 8 Elias M. Fries, Swedish botanist (System mycologicum), dies at 83
  • Feb 10 Claude Bernard, French physiologist involved in the founding of modern physiology (blind experiments), dies at 64
  • Feb 17 José Amador de los Ríos, Spanish historian and poet, dies at 59
  • Feb 18 Peter D Regout, industrialist (Sphinx, Maastricht), dies at 76
  • Feb 19 Charles F Daubigny, French restaurateur/painter, dies at 61
  • Feb 25 Townsend Harris, American diplomat (1st Western consul to reside in Japan), dies at 73
  • Mar 3 Joseph Bonomi the Younger, English artist and Egyptologist, dies at 81
  • Mar 16 William Banting, English undertaker, dies
  • Mar 20 Julius Robert von Mayer, German physician and physicist (first law of thermodynamics), dies at 63
  • Mar 27 Dobri Voynikov, Bulgarian teacher, playwright and journalist (The Phoney Civilization), dies at 44
  • Mar 27 George Gilbert Scott, architect, dies
  • Apr 1 John Corry Wilson Daly, Canadian politician (b. 1796)
  • Apr 4 Richard Brewer, American gunslinger/cowboy (b. 1850)

Person of interestBoss Tweed

Apr 12 William Magear Tweed "Boss Tweed", New York corrupt politician dies in prison at 55

Politician Boss Tweed
Politician
Boss Tweed
  • Apr 23 Friedrich Preller, landscape painter, dies
  • Apr 25 Anna Sewell, English author (Black Beauty), dies at 58
  • May 12 Catherine Beecher, American educator (championed higher education for women), dies at 77
  • May 14 Ookubo Toshimichi, Japanese statesman, samurai, and one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration (b. 1830)

Person of interestJohn Russell

May 28 John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, British Prime Minister (Whig: 1846-52 and 1865-66), dies at 85

British Prime Minister John Russell
British Prime Minister
John Russell
  • Jun 6 Robert Stirling, Scottish inventor (b. 1790)
  • Jun 12 Hendrik Jut, Dutch murderer (Head of Jut), dies at 26
  • Jun 12 William Cullen Bryant, American poet, dies at 83
  • Jun 16 Crawford Long, American physician (b. 1815)
  • Jun 23 George Back, English sea officer and explorer (Back River), dies at 81
  • Jun 26 Mercedes of Orleans, queen of Spain (b. 1860)
  • Jul 7 Yegor Ivanovich Zolotarev, Russian mathematician (b. 1847)
  • Jul 17 Aleardo [Gaetano] Aleardi, Italian/Aust poet (Tre Fiumi), dies at 65
  • Jul 21 Sam Bass, American Old West train robber and outlaw, dies at 27
  • Jul 23 Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky, Bohemian physician (b. 1804)
  • Jul 28 George Law Curry, Newspaper publisher and Governor of Oregon (b. 1820)
  • Aug 17 Richard Upjohn, US architect, died
  • Aug 22 Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, Queen of Spain (1829-33), dies at 72
  • Sep 12 Friedrich August von Alberti, German geologist (Triasic Age), dies at 83
  • Oct 5 George B. Vashon, American, lawyer, academic and poet, first African American lawyer, dies of yellow fever at 54
  • Nov 28 Orson Hyde, American religious leader (b. 1805)
  • Dec 10 Henry Wells, American businessman and founder (American Express Co & Wells Fargo & Co), dies at 72
  • Dec 14 Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, Grand Duchess of Hesse, dies at 35
  • Dec 19 Bayard Taylor, American author and poet (b. 1825)
  • Dec 25 Anna Claypoole Peale, US painter of miniatures, dies