July 1881 in History

Events in History

  • Jul 1 1st international telephone conversation, Calais, Maine to St Stephen, New Brunswick
  • Jul 1 US Assay Office in St Louis, Missouri opens
  • Jul 1 General Order 70, the culmination of the Cardwell-Childers reforms of the British Army's organisation, comes into effect

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 2 US President James Garfield shot by Charles J. Guiteau a disappointed office-seeker; Garfield dies 79 days later

20th US President James Garfield
20th US President
James Garfield
Assassin Charles J. Guiteau
Assassin
Charles J. Guiteau

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 4 Booker T. Washington establishes Tuskegee Institute (Alabama)

Education Pioneer Booker T. Washington
Education Pioneer
Booker T. Washington

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 20 Sioux Indian Chief Sitting Bull, surrenders to US federal troops

Lakota Sioux Chief Sitting Bull
Lakota Sioux Chief
Sitting Bull
  • Jul 26 French marines occupy Tunisian harbor city Sfax

Birthdays in History

  • Jul 1 Piet[er] L Kramer, influential Dutch architect (Amsterdam School), born in Amstersam, Netherlands (d. 1961)
  • Jul 2 Royal H. Weller, American politician (d. 1929)
  • Jul 4 Ulysses S. Grant III, American soldier and planner, born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1968)
  • Jul 5 August Hlond, Polish cardinal of the Roman Catholic church, born in BrzÄ™czkowice, German Empire (d. 1948)
  • Jul 6 Josef Winckler, German dentist/writer (Quadriga, Pumpernickel)
  • Jul 12 Ludwig Rubiner, German poet and essayist, born in Berlin (d. 1920)
  • Jul 19 Friedrich Dessauer, German physicist (radiologist), born in Aschaffenburg, Germany (d. 1963)
  • Jul 20 Leon de Smet, Flemish painter
  • Jul 26 Alexander J. Kropholler, Dutch architect and writer, born in Amsterdam (d. 1973)

Person of interestHans Fischer

Jul 27 Hans Fischer, German organic chemist (Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1930), born in Hoechst, Germany (d. 1945)

Physicist and Nobel Laureate Hans Fischer
Physicist and Nobel Laureate
Hans Fischer
  • Jul 30 Smedley Butler, American Marine general, born in West Chester, Pennsylvania (d. 1940)

Deaths in History

  • Jul 4 Johan Vilhelm Snellman, Finnish statesman (b. 1806)
  • Jul 10 Georg Hermann Nicolai, German architect (b. 1812)

Person of interestBilly the Kid

Jul 14 Billy the Kid [William H Bonney], American frontier outlaw, shot by sheriff Pat Garrett and dies of gunshot wounds at 21

Frontier Outlaw Billy the Kid
Frontier Outlaw
Billy the Kid
  • Jul 17 Jim Bridger, American mountain man, Indian fighter, and explorer (b. 1804)
  • Jul 19 Isaac Baumann, Jewish pioneer and trader in Bloemfontein, South Africa, dies at 67
  • Jul 20 Thomas Fermor-Hesketh, English 1st baron of Hesketh, dies
  • Jul 26 George Borrow, writer, dies