1883 in History

Events in History

  • Jan 2 Battle of Boschberg takes place in South Africa as part of the Mapoch War
  • Jan 10 Fire at uninsured Newhall Hotel in Milwaukee, Wisconsin kills 71. General Tom Thumb of P T Barnum fame, escapes unhurt
  • Jan 13 Fire in Circus Ferroni in Berditschoft, Poland, kills 430
  • Jan 13 Henrik Ibsen's "En Folkefiende" premieres in Oslo
  • Jan 16 Pendleton Act creates basis of US Civil Service system

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 19 The first electric lighting system employing overhead wires, built by Thomas Edison, begins service at Roselle, New Jersey

Inventor Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
  • Jan 20 Billy Barnes takes a hat-trick, England v Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground
  • Jan 22 England complete 1st innings victory in Tests v Australia at MCG
  • Jan 30 England team presented with ashes of a bail after Sydney Test
  • Feb 1 French Lt-Colonel Gustave Borgnis-Desbordes reaches Bamako on the Niger
  • Feb 7 Lt-colonel Borgnis-Desbordes founds Fort Bamako, Niger
  • Feb 8 Louis Waterman begins experiment to invent the fountain pen
  • Feb 10 Fire at un-insured New Hall Hotel in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, kills 71
  • Feb 14 1st state labor union legislation; New Jersey legalizes unions
  • Feb 16 "Ladies Home Journal" begins publishing
  • Feb 17 A Ashwell patents free-toilet in London
  • Feb 21 2nd French government of Ferry begins
  • Feb 23 Alabama becomes 1st US state to enact an antitrust law
  • Feb 23 American Anti-Vivisection Society organized (Philadelphia)
  • Feb 27 Oscar Hammerstein patents 1st cigar-rolling machine
  • Feb 28 1st US vaudeville theater opens (Boston)
  • Mar 3 Congress authorizes the 1st steel vessels in US navy
  • Mar 16 Susan Hayhurst becomes 1st US woman graduate of a pharmacy college
  • Mar 19 Jan Matzeliger invents first machine to manufacture entire shoes
  • Mar 20 Unity treaty of Paris signed: protects industrial property
  • Mar 24 1st telephone call between NY & Chicago
  • Mar 31 1st performance of Caesar Franck's "Le Chasseur Maudit"
  • Mar 31 Utrecht begins water pipe system
  • Apr 2 Battle at Bamako: French assault on Fabous arm forces attack
  • Apr 6 Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Speckled Band" (BG)
  • Apr 12 French troops under lt-colonel Borgnis-Desbordes occupy Bamako Senegal
  • Apr 13 US prospecter Alfred Packer convicted of manslaughter though accused of cannibalism
  • Apr 16 Paul Kruger chosen as President of Transvaal
  • Apr 23 John Heemskerk Azn forms Dutch government
  • Apr 24 28 Surinamers depart to Amsterdam World's Fair
  • May 1 "Buffalo Bill" Cody puts on his 1st Wild West Show
  • May 1 Amsterdam World's Fair opens
  • May 4 John Gordon Cashmans publishes 1st edition "Vicksburg Evening Post" (Mississippi)
  • May 15 Italy signs military treaty with Austria-Hungary & Germany
  • May 17 Buffalo Bill Cody's 1st wild west show premieres in Omaha

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 24 Brooklyn Bridge opened by President Arthur and NY Governor Cleveland

21st US President Chester A. Arthur
21st US President
Chester A. Arthur
  • May 27 Tsar Alexander III crowned in Moscow
  • May 30 Stampede caused by a rumor that the Brooklyn Bridge was going to collapse kills 12
  • May 31 French fleet under Pierre begins siege of Tamatave, Madagascar
  • Jun 2 Chicago's "El" opens to traffic
  • Jun 16 The Victoria Hall theatre panic in Sunderland, England kills 183 children
  • Jul 1 ANWB forms in Utrecht, the Netherlands
  • Jul 3 SS Daphne sinks on Clyde River Scotland; 195 die
  • Jul 4 Buffalo Bill Cody presents 1st wild west show, North Platte, Nebraska
  • Jul 24 Arabi Pasha declares a holy war in Egypt
  • Jul 28 Shocks triggered by volcano Epomeo (Isle of Ischia, Italy) destroyed 1,200 houses at Casamicciola killing 2,000

  • Aug 1 A papyrus offered to British Museum for £10,000 (forgery)
  • Aug 1 Amsterdam's Grand Hotel Krasnapolsky gets electric lights
  • Aug 1 Inland postal service begins in Great Britain
  • Aug 12 The last quagga (zebra subspecies) dies at the Artis Magistra zoo in Amsterdam.
  • Aug 17 The first public performance of the Dominican Republic's national anthem, Himno Nacional.
  • Aug 27 Krakatoa volcano, west of Java in Indonesia, erupts with a force of 1,300 megatons and kills approximately 40,000 people
  • Aug 29 Seismic sea waves created by Krakatoa eruption create a rise in English Channel 32 hrs after explosion
  • Sep 6 Cub's Burns (extra bases), Williamson & Pfeiffer get 3 hits in 1 inn
  • Sep 8 Northern Pacific RR's last spike driven at Independence Creek, Mont
  • Sep 11 James Cutler patents postal mail chute
  • Sep 21 First direct US-Brazil telegraph connection
  • Sep 24 National black convention meets in Louisville, Kentucky
  • Oct 4 The Orient Express departs on its first official journey from Paris to Instanbul
  • Oct 4 First meeting of the Boys' Brigade in Glasgow, Scotland.
  • Oct 15 Supreme Court declares Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional
  • Oct 20 Max Bruch's "Kol Nidre" 1st performed
  • Oct 20 Treaty of Ancon, Peru cedes Tarapaca to Chile
  • Oct 22 1st NY Horse Show held (Madison Sq Garden)
  • Oct 30 Austria-Hungary, Germany and Romania sign military treaty
  • Nov 3 Race riots in Danville Virginia (4 blacks killed)
  • Nov 3 US Supreme Court decides federal courts have no jurisdiction over Native American tribal Council (Ex parte Crow Dog)
  • Nov 3 American Old West: Self-described "Black Bart the poet" gets away with his last stagecoach robbery, but leaves an incriminating clue that eventually leads to his capture
  • Nov 5 Battle at El Obeid Sudan: Mahdi's army destroys Egyptian army
  • Nov 6 NYAC organizes 1st American cross-country championship race
  • Nov 8 English freighter Nisero stranded at Atjeh (crew taken hostage)
  • Nov 10 Toronto Argonauts defeat Ottawa FC 9-7, for 1st ORFU Championship

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Nov 14 "Treasure Island" by Robert Louis Stevenson is first published as a book by Cassell & Co.

  • Nov 18 Antonin Dvorák's "Husitska" premieres
  • Nov 18 Standard time zones forms by railroads in US & Canada
  • Dec 3 48th US Congress (1883-85) convenes
  • Dec 9 New Brunswick adopts Eastern Standard Time (until 1902)
  • Dec 16 Tonkin Campaign: The French capture the citadel in Hanoi
  • Dec 20 Intl cantilever railway bridge opens at Niagara Falls
  • Dec 22 August Strindberg's "Lycko-Pers Reja" premieres
  • Dec 26 The Harbour Grace Affray between Irish Catholics and Protestant Orangemen causes five deaths in Newfoundland.

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 126

  • Jan 1 Federigo Tozzi, Italian writer/journalist (La Torre, Tre Croci)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jan 3 Clement Attlee, British Prime Minister (L-1945-51), born in Putney, London (d. 1967)

British Prime Minister Clement Attlee
British Prime Minister
Clement Attlee
  • Jan 4 Johanna Westerdijk, botanist/Neth 1st female prof (Utrecht, 1917-52)
  • Jan 4 Max Eastman, American critic/essayist and editor of The Masses (d. 1969)
  • Jan 6 Khalil Gibran, Lebanon, mystic poet (The Prophet, Broken Wings)
  • Jan 7 Andrew Browne, Irish/British admiral (WWII)
  • Jan 8 Pavel Filonov, Russian painter (d. 1941)
  • Jan 8 Patrick J. Hurley, United States Secretary of War (d. 1963)
  • Jan 10 Aleksei Tolstoi, Russian poet/writer (Pjotr Peroyj) [NS]
  • Jan 20 Betram Home Ramsay, English admiral/Commander Allied Naval Forces
  • Jan 21 Olav Aukrust, Norwegian poet
  • Jan 21 Amang Rodriguez, Filipino politician (d. 1964)
  • Feb 3 Clarence Mulford, Ill, western writer (Hopalong Cassidy)
  • Feb 7 Paul de Backer, Belgian radiologist
  • Feb 8 Joseph A Schumpeter, Austria/US economist/minister of finance
  • Feb 15 Sax Rohmer (real name Arthur Henry Sarsfield Ward), English author of Dr Fu Manchu novels (d. 1959)
  • Feb 16 Elizabeth Craig, British writer (d. 1980)
  • Feb 20 Shiga Naoya, Japan, novelist (Road Through Dark Night)
  • Feb 22 Alfred Wikenhauser, German RC exegetist (John-Apokalyps)
  • Feb 23 Karl Jaspers, Oldenburg Germany, existentialist philosopher
  • Feb 25 Princess Alice of Albany, Countess of Athlone (d. 1981)
  • Feb 26 Erich R Jaensch, German psychologist (eidetism)
  • Mar 3 Cyril Burt, educational psychologist (d. 1971)
  • Mar 5 Marius Barbeau, French Canadian ethnographer and folklorist (b. 1969)
  • Mar 9 Umberto Saba, Italian writer, born in Trieste, Austria-Hungary (d. 1957)
  • Mar 12 Zoltán Meskó, Hungarian Nazi (d. 1959)
  • Mar 16 Ethel Anderson, Australian poet (d. 1958)
  • Mar 17 Urmuz, Romanian writer (d. 1923)
  • Mar 19 Joseph W Stilwell, US general (China)
  • Mar 23 Faisal I ibn Hussein ibn Ali, 1st king of Iraq/Syria
  • Mar 24 James I Wedgwood, British theosophist and bishop (Liberal Catholic Church), born in London (d. 1951)
  • Mar 27 Marie Under, Estonian author and poet (d. 1980)
  • Mar 29 Donald Dexter Van Slyke, US chemist (Micromanometric analysis)
  • Mar 30 Jo Davidson, American sculptor (Woodrow Wilson, Walt Whitman)
  • Apr 6 Mien Labberton, Dutch poetress
  • Apr 7 Gino Severini, Italian painter (d. 1966)
  • Apr 8 R. P. Keigwin, English academic (d. 1972)
  • Apr 12 Imogen Cunningham, photographer (1965 ASMP award)
  • Apr 13 Demjan Bednyi, Russian writer and satirist, born in Hubivka, Ukraine (d. 1945)
  • Apr 15 Stanley Bruce, eighth Prime Minister of Australia (d. 1967)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Apr 19 Getulio Vargas, President of Brazil (1930-45, 1951-54), modernizer and dictator, born in São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazilian Empire (d. 1954)

President and Dictator of Brazil Getulio Vargas
President and Dictator of Brazil
Getulio Vargas
  • Apr 19 Richard von Mises, Austrian-born mathematician (d. 1953)
  • Apr 24 Jaroslav Hasek, Czech writer (Brave soldier Schweik) [or April 30]
  • Apr 25 Elsa Maxwell, writer (Jack Paar Show), born in Keokuk, Iowa
  • Apr 27 Hubert Harrison, St Croix Virgin Island, writer/freedom fighter
  • May 5 Archibald Wavell, British general (d. 1950)
  • May 6 Jose Ortega y Gasset, Spanish philosopher/author [or May 9]
  • May 7 Martin Albertz, German theologist (Church Jesus Christ)
  • May 13 Henk JFM Sneevliet, leader RSAP/editor Spartacus (Dutch-Indies)
  • May 13 Georgios Papanikolaou, Greek doctor, inventor of the Pap smear (d. 1962)
  • May 14 Jan Olieslagers, Belgian aviation pioneer (Antwerp Devil)
  • May 14 Julian Eltinge, Mass, vaudeville star/greatest female impersonator
  • May 18 Walter Gropius, architect (Bauhaus school of design), born in Berlin, Germany
  • May 19 Henricus WJM Keuls, Dutch lawyer/poet (Dancing Lamp)
  • May 20 Paul Arntzenius, painter/graphic artist/etcher
  • May 28 Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Indian activist (d. 1966)
  • May 28 Clough Williams-Ellis, Welsh architect (d. 1978)
  • May 31 Lauri Kristian Relander, 2nd President of Finland (d. 1942)
  • Jun 2 Bokke R S Pollema, Dutch Frisian journalist/author (Lock of Hair)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jun 5 John Maynard Keynes, English economist whose ideas changed the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, born in Cambridge, England (d. 1946)

  • Jun 7 Sylvanus Morley, U.S. archaeologist and spy (d. 1948)
  • Jun 11 Frank O King, Cashton Wisc, cartoonist (Gasoline Alley)
  • Jun 14 Lucien Cerfaux, Belgian bible expert
  • Jun 21 Feodor Gladkov, Russian socialist writer (Cement) (d. 1958)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jun 28 Pierre Laval, Prime Minister of France (1931-32 and 1935-36) and Head of Vichy France (1942-44), born in Châteldon, France (d. 1945)

Prime Minister of France and Head of Vichy France Pierre Laval
Prime Minister of France and Head of Vichy France
Pierre Laval
  • Jul 1 Arthur Borton, English soldier (d. 1933)
  • Jul 3 Alfred Korzybski, Polish scientist (Science & Sanity)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 3 Franz Kafka, Czech author (Metamorphosis, Trial, Amerika), born in Prague, Austria-Hungary (d. 1924)

Writer Franz Kafka
Franz Kafka
  • Jul 3 Moses Leverock Crossley, US bio-chemist
  • Jul 4 Alan Brooke, English general [or Jul 23]

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 4 Rube Goldberg, cartoonist (who made the easy outrageously difficult) Pulitzer Prize 1948, born in San Francisco, California

Cartoonist Rube Goldberg
Rube Goldberg
  • Jul 10 Johann Blaskowitz, German general
  • Jul 17 Bart de Ligt, anti militarist theologist (Acting Peace)
  • Jul 23 Alan Francis Brooke, 1st viscount Alanbrooke fieldmarshal [or Jul 4]

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Jul 29 Benito Mussolini [Il Duce], Fascist Italian dictator (1922-43), born in Predappio, Forlì, Italy (d. 1945)

Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini
Italian Dictator
Benito Mussolini
  • Jul 29 Porfirio Barba-Jacob, Colombian poet and writer (d. 1942)
  • Aug 6 Scott Nearing, US sociologist/pacifist/author (The Good Life)
  • Aug 7 Joachim Ringelnatz [Hans Bötticher], German writer and artist, born in Wurzen, Saxony (d. 1934)
  • Aug 11 Ernst Stadler, German poet (Der Aufbruch), born in Colmar, Alsace-Lorraine (d. 1914)
  • Aug 12 Jan Schouten, Dutch co-founder (Daily Trouw)/chairman (ARP)
  • Aug 14 Ernest Everett Just, African-American embryologist known for his pioneering work in the physiology of development, especially fertilization and cell division, born in Charleston, South Carolina (d. 1941)
  • Aug 15 Ivan Meštrović, Croatian sculptor and architect, born in Vrpolje, Croatia (d. 1962)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Aug 19 Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel, French fashion designer (Chanel), born in Saumur, France (d. 1971)

Fashion Designer Coco Chanel
Fashion Designer
Coco Chanel
  • Aug 19 José Mendes Cabeçadas, 95th Prime Minister of Portugal and 9th President of Portugal (d. 1965)
  • Aug 19 Leonid Kulik, Tartu Estonia, Russian Minerologist who led the first research expedition to study the Tunguska meteor site, the largest impact event in recorded history
  • Aug 23 Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV, American army officer, born in Fort Walla Walla, Washington (d. 1953)
  • Aug 30 Theo Van Doesburg, [Christian EM Kupper], painter/architect (Style)
  • Sep 2 Archduchess Elisabeth Marie of Austria, "The Red Archduchess" (d. 1963)
  • Sep 10 Euphemia "Phemia" Molkenboer, Dutch author/poster artist
  • Sep 11 Grogorij J Zinovjev, [Gerson Radomyslski], Russian
  • Sep 14 Martin Dibelius, German theologist (Die Lade Jahwes)
  • Sep 15 Esteban Terradas i Illa, Spanish mathematician and engineer (d. 1950)
  • Sep 16 T. E. Hulme, English writer (d. 1917)
  • Sep 17 William Carlos Williams, American poet
  • Sep 20 John G van Dillen, historian (Of Wealth & Oligarchists)
  • Sep 20 Maria Baers, Flemish social female worker/senator
  • Sep 30 Robert H Lightfoot, English theologist/exegetist (St John's Gospel)
  • Sep 30 Bernhard Rust, Nazi education minister (d. 1945)
  • Oct 8 Otto Heinrich Warburg, German physician (Nobel-1931), born in Freiburg, Baden, Germany (d. 1970)
  • Oct 14 Adrianus PHA de Kleyn, throat/nose/otologist (ear doctor)

Weddings in History

HeartWedding of Interest

May 7 US Senator Albert B. Fall (21) weds Emma Garland Morgan in Clarksville, Texas

United States Senator Albert B. Fall
United States Senator
Albert B. Fall

HeartWedding of Interest

Dec 9 Poet Rabindranath Tagore (22) weds Mrinalini Devi in an arranged marriage

Deaths in History

  • Jan 4 Antoine Eugène Alfred Chanzy, French general (b. 1823)
  • Jan 5 Charles Tompson, first Australian published poet (b. 1806)
  • Jan 10 Dr Samuel A. Mudd, American medical doctor (b. 1833)
  • Jan 23 Gustave Doré, French artist, engraver, and illustrator (b. 1832)
  • Feb 1 Pavel Melnikov, Russian historian and author (In the Forests), dies at 64 [NS=Feb 13]
  • Feb 13 Pavel Melnikov, Russian historian and author (In the Forests), dies at 64 [OS=Feb 01]
  • Feb 17 Vasudeo Balwant Phadke, Indian revolutionary (b. 1845)
  • Feb 26 Alexandros Koumoundouros, Greek politician, Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1817)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 4 Alexander H. Stephens, Vice President US Confederate States, dies at 71

Confederate States VP Alexander H. Stephens
Confederate States VP
Alexander H. Stephens
  • Mar 9 Arnold Toynbee, English economic historian and social reformer, dies at 30

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Mar 14 Karl Marx, German philosopher (Communist Manifesto), dies at 64

Communist Philosopher Karl Marx
Communist Philosopher
Karl Marx
  • Apr 4 Peter Cooper, American industrialist, inventor and philanthropist (Cooper Union, steam locomotive), dies at 92
  • Apr 6 Benjamin Wright Raymond, American politician (b. 1801)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Apr 30 Édouard Manet, French impressionist painter (Olympia, The Luncheon on the Grass) dies at 51

Impressionist painter Edouard Manet
Impressionist painter
Edouard Manet
  • May 17 Lydia Estes Pinklham, patent-medicine manufacturer, dies
  • May 20 William Chambers, author/publisher, dies
  • May 23 Cyprian K Norwid, Polish painter/poet/playwright (Wanda), dies
  • May 24 Abdel Kadir, Algerian leader (b. 1808)
  • May 26 Abdelkader El Djezairi, Algerian leader, scholar and national hero (b.1808)
  • May 26 Edward Sabine, Irish astronomer (b. 1788)
  • May 29 Albrecht of Prussia, mistress of John van Rossum, dies at 73
  • May 29 WFLC Marianne, princess of Orange-Nassau, dies
  • Jun 14 Edward FitzGerald, English poet (b. 1809)
  • Jun 20 Olivier Gloux, [Gustave Aimard], French world explorer, dies at 64
  • Jul 15 Tom Thumb, famous small person (40"), dies of a stroke at 44
  • Jul 27 Montgomery Blair, American lawyer (Dred Scott V Sandford), dies at 70
  • Aug 1 Karl Wilhelm Dindorf, classic scholar, dies
  • Aug 12 Last Quagga, (zebra with less slashes), dies in Amsterdam zoo
  • Aug 19 Jeremiah S. Black, American statesman (b. 1810)
  • Sep 3 Iwan Turgenjew, writer, dies at 64
  • Sep 15 Joseph AF Plateau, Belgium physicist (Blue Moon), dies
  • Sep 21 Johannes van Vloten, Dutch man of letters/theologist, dies at 65
  • Oct 22 Thomas Mayne Reid, Irish-American novelist (b. 1818)
  • Oct 31 Swami Dayananda Saraswati, founder of Arya Samaj
  • Nov 5 William Hicks, British col/commander (Egyptian army), dies in battle
  • Nov 18 Wilhelm Siemens, German/British physicist (steam engine), dies

Person of interestPerson of Interest

Nov 26 Sojourner Truth, US abolitionist/women's rights advocate, dies at 96

Abolitionist and Women's Rights Advocate Sojourner Truth
Abolitionist and Women's Rights Advocate
Sojourner Truth
  • Dec 13 Victor de Laprade, French poet and critic (b. 1812)