On This Day

1919 in History

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 235

  • Jan 1 Belorussian SSR established

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 1 Edsel Ford succeeds his father, Henry Ford, as president of the Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company Founder Henry Ford
Ford Motor Company Founder
Henry Ford

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 1 British naval officer David Beatty is promoted to full admiral

British Admiral of the Fleet David Beatty
British Admiral of the Fleet
David Beatty

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 3 Herbert Hoover is placed in charge of war relief in Europe

31st US President Herbert Hoover
31st US President
Herbert Hoover
  • Jan 3 The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement, which was a short-lived agreement for the development of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, is signed by the King of Iraq and the President of the World Zionist Organization
  • Jan 5 German Workers' Party forms, precursor to the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi)
  • Jan 5 Left-wing Spartacus organization instigates a revolt in Berlin; terrified by the spread of Bolshevism, German troops brutally suppress the uprising
  • Jan 7 The Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union of South Africa is founded, led by Clements Kadalie
  • Jan 7 Montenegrin guerrilla fighters rebel, but fail to prevent Serbia's annexation of Montenegro
  • Jan 11 3 year old German communist party (Spartacus) crushed
  • Jan 11 Romania annexes Transylvania
  • Jan 15 Two million gallons of molasses flood Boston Massachusetts in the "Great Molasses Flood" when a storage tank burst, drowning 21 and injuring 150
  • Jan 15 Semana Tragica (Tragic Week): Bloodbath in Buenos Aires
  • Jan 15 W Collison & O Harbach's "Up in Mabel's Room" premieres in NYC
  • Jan 15 Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, two of the most prominent socialists in Germany, are tortured and murdered by the Freikorps

USAProhibition is Ratified

Jan 16 The 18th Amendment to the US Constitution, authorizing the prohibition of alcohol, is ratified by a majority of US states

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The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which established prohibition
The Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which established prohibition
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  • Jan 18 Bentley Motors Limited is founded by Walter Owen Bentley in London, England
  • Jan 18 The Paris peace conference (aka the Versailles peace conference) opens to draw up the treaties formally ending the Great War (WWI)
  • Jan 19 National elections held in Germany to form a National Constituent Assembly and draft a constitution
  • Jan 21 Irish militant nationalist party Sinn Féin creates its own parliament in Dublin and declares Ireland independent of Great Britain, sparking the Irish War of Independence
  • Jan 25 Founding of League of Nations, 1st meeting 1 year later
  • Jan 25 The Hotel Pennsylvania, at the time the world's largest, opens in Manhattan
  • Jan 30 Reds hire Pat Moran as manager as Christy Mathewson, is still in France with US Army
  • Jan 31 The Battle of George Square takes place in Glasgow, Scotland: troops deployed against protesters for fear of a Bolshevik uprising
  • Feb 2 Monarchist riot in Portugal
  • Feb 3 Socialist conference convenes (Berne, Switzerland)
  • Feb 3 The Bolshevik army is defeated in a series of clashes with the White Russians, who are fighting to reclaim the government after the 1917 revolution
  • Feb 4 City of Bremen's Soviet Republic overthrown
  • Feb 5 NL President John Heydler dismisses charges that Hal Chase bet against his team and threw games in collusion with gamblers
  • Feb 6 1st day of 5-day Seattle general strike
  • Feb 6 The first day of the Weimar Republic which, because of its support of the Treaty of Versailles, does not receive proper allegiance from the German nation
  • Feb 11 Friedrich Ebert (SPD) elected president of Germany
  • Feb 14 United Parcel Service forms
  • Feb 14 The Polish-Soviet War begins.
  • Feb 15 American Legion organizes in Paris

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 19 Pan-African Congress, organized by W.E.B. Du Bois (Paris)

Civil Rights Activist W.E.B. Du Bois
Civil Rights Activist
W.E.B. Du Bois

MurderAssassination Attempt

Feb 20 French Prime Minister Georges Clémenceau injured during assassination attempt

Prime Minister of France Georges Clémenceau
Prime Minister of France
Georges Clémenceau
  • Feb 21 German National Meeting accepts Anschluss: incorporation of Austria
  • Feb 21 Revolutionary strike in Barcelona

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Feb 23 Fascist Party formed in Italy by Benito Mussolini

Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini
Italian Dictator
Benito Mussolini
  • Feb 25 Oregon is 1st state to tax gasoline (1 cent per gallon)
  • Feb 26 Acadia National Park forms (as Lafayette N P), Maine
  • Feb 26 Congress forms Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona
  • Feb 27 1st public performance of Holst's "Planets"
  • Feb 27 American Association for Hard of Hearing forms (NYC)
  • Mar 1 The March 1st, or Samil Movement, begins in Korea: it is a demonstration of resistance to Japanese occupation
  • Mar 2 1st congress of Communist International opens at the Kremlin
  • Mar 3 1st international air mail service from US, Seattle-Victoria, BC
  • Mar 3 Communist Party in Germany announces a general strike
  • Mar 11 General strike in Germany crushed
  • Mar 12 Austrian National Meeting affirms Anschluss (incorporate into Germany)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 12 George Bernard Shaw's "Augustus Does His Bit" premieres in NYC

  • Mar 15 American Legion forms (Paris)
  • Mar 17 Dutch steel workers strike for 8 hr day & minimum wages
  • Mar 18 Order of DeMolay forms in Kansas City

Book releaseHistoric Publication

Mar 19 Literary Magazine "Littérature", edited by André Breton, Philippe Soupault, and Louis Aragon publishes its first issue

Writer and Surrealist André Breton
Writer and Surrealist
André Breton

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 23 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party re-establishes a five-member Politburo which becomes the center of political power in the Soviet Union. Original members Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, Lev Kamenev and Nikolai Krestinsky

Marxist Revolutionary and Soviet Leader Vladimir Lenin
Marxist Revolutionary and Soviet Leader
Vladimir Lenin
Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin
Soviet General Secretary
Joseph Stalin
Russian Revolutionary Leon Trotsky
Russian Revolutionary
Leon Trotsky

Conference meetingConference of Interest

Mar 25 Woodrow Wilson's dream of a League of Nations becomes a reality after the League Covenant is adopted at the Paris Peace Conference

28th US President Woodrow Wilson
28th US President
Woodrow Wilson
  • Mar 30 Belgian Army occupies Düsseldorf

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Mar 30 Gandhi announces resistance against Rowlatt Act

Pacifist and Spiritual Leader Mahatma Gandhi
Pacifist and Spiritual Leader
Mahatma Gandhi
  • Mar 30 Paul Claudel's "Tête d'Or" premieres in Paris
  • Mar 31 Strike against Ruhrgebied government of Scheidemann
  • Apr 3 Austria expels all Habsburgers

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 5 Eamon de Valera becomes President of Dail Eireann

Revolutionary and President of Ireland Éamon de Valera
Revolutionary and President of Ireland
Éamon de Valera
  • Apr 5 Polish Army executes 35 young Jews
  • Apr 6 Bavaria proclaims itself a soviet republic
  • Apr 6 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi orders a General Strike
  • Apr 7 1st parcel of land is purchased for Cleveland Metroparks
  • Apr 10 Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead by government forces in Morelos
  • Apr 11 The International Labour Organization is founded.
  • Apr 12 British Parliament passes a 48-hour work week with minimum wages
  • Apr 13 British troops open fire on demonstrators in Amritsar, India, killing 350
  • Apr 13 Establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
  • Apr 19 French assembly decides on 8 hour work day
  • Apr 19 Leslie Irvin of US makes first premeditated free-fall parachute jump
  • Apr 20 Polish Army captures Vilno, Lithuania from Soviet Army
  • Apr 20 King Nicholas of Montenegro abdicates under duress
  • Apr 28 1st jump with US Army Air Corps (rip-cord type) parachute (Les Irvin)
  • May 1 Mount Kelud (Indonesia) erupts, boiling crater lake which broke through crater wall killing 5,000 people in 104 small villages

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 1 "L'Ordine Nuovo" Italian socialist weekly newspaper established in Turin by Antonio Gramsci, Angelo Tasca and Palmiro Togliatti

Marxist Theorist and Politician Antonio Gramsci
Marxist Theorist and Politician
Antonio Gramsci
  • May 1 British naval officer David Beatty is promoted to Admiral of the Fleet
  • May 3 Afghanistan Emir Amanoellah begins war against Great Britain
  • May 4 Demonstrates organised by students erupt in China, after news from the Paris Peace Conference that the Allies intend to give Shangtung to Japan
  • May 6 Paris Peace Conference disposes of German colonies; German East Africa is assigned to Britain and France, German South West Africa to South Africa
  • May 7 A draft of the Versailles Treaty is shown to Germans
  • May 8 1st transatlantic flight take-off by a navy seaplane

Victory in BattleEnd of World War I

May 8 Edward George Honey first proposes the idea of a moment of silence to commemorate The Armistice of World War I, leads to the creation of Remembrance Day

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This painting depicts the signing of the armistice which ended World War I in Compiegne, France
This painting depicts the signing of the armistice which ended World War I in Compiegne, France
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  • May 10 Race riot in Charleston, South Carolina, 2 blacks killed
  • May 12 The Transvaal British Indian Association calls a mass meeting to organise opposition to the proposed Asiatics (Land and Trading) Amendment Act; in the Act, Transvaal Indians are prohibited from owning shares in limited companies
  • May 14 Pope Benedictus XV publishes encyclical In hac tanta
  • May 17 UK War Department orders use of National Star Insignia on all airplanes
  • May 19 Kelud volcano on Java, erupts killing 5,160

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 19 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Black Sea coast, beginning the Turkish War of Independence

President and Founder of the Republic of Turkey Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
President and Founder of the Republic of Turkey
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 22 A. E. Douglass establishes the relative dates of two archaeological sites using ancient wood samples, marking a major step forward in the dating of archaeological sites

Archaeologist and Astronomer A. E. Douglass
Archaeologist and Astronomer
A. E. Douglass
  • May 26 The Supreme Council of Allies, meeting at Versailles, decides to recognize two White Russian leaders, Admiral Kolchak and General Denikin, and support them against the Bolsheviks
  • May 27 1st transatlantic flight ends; US Navy flying boat takes 11 days
  • May 29 Charles Strite files patent for the pop-up toaster

DiscoveryHistoric Expedition

May 29 Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity, that when light passes a large body, gravity will bend the rays confirmed by Arthur Eddington's expedition to photograph a solar eclipse on the island of Principe, West Africa

Theoretical Physicist Albert Einstein
Theoretical Physicist
Albert Einstein

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 216


Person of interestJ. D. Salinger

Jan 1 J[erome] D[avid] Salinger, American novelist (Catcher in the Rye), born in NYC, New York (d. 2010)

Novelist J. D. Salinger
Novelist
J. D. Salinger
  • Jan 4 Al "Jazbo" Collins, American DJ (Tonight! America After Dark), born in NYC, New York
  • Jan 4 Havelock Henry Trevor Hudson, underwriter (Lloyd's of London)
  • Jan 14 Giulio Andreotti, Italian politician & statesman (Prime Minister, 1989–1992), born in Rome, Italy (d. 2013)
  • Jan 23 Hans Hass, Austrian zoologist and underwater scientist, born in Vienna, Austria (d. 2013)
  • Jan 24 Nora Beloff, English journalist & author, born in London, United Kingdom (d. 1997)
  • Jan 27 David Seville [Ross Bagdasarian], (Alvin & Chipmunks), born in Fresno, California
  • Jan 27 H D Halsey, Bishop of Carlisle
  • Jan 29 Norman F Simpson, British playwright (One Way Pendulum)
  • Jan 30 Nikolay Glazkov, Russian poet, born in Lyskovo, Russia (d. 1979)
  • Jan 31 Robert Lowry, Baron Lowry. Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland and a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary.
  • Feb 4 Frank van Klingeren, Dutch architect (De Meerpaal, Dronten)
  • Feb 5 Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece (1981-89, 1993-96), born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA (d. 1996)
  • Feb 6 Louis Heren, English foreign correspondent & writer (China's Three Thousand Years), born in London, United Kingdom (d. 1995)
  • Feb 23 Derek Ezra [Baron Ezra], British politician and Liberal Democrat Life Peer
  • Feb 24 Alan Hugh Iliffe, psychologist
  • Feb 24 Henry Kitchener, British peer, 3rd and last Earl of Khartoum (d. 2011)
  • Feb 25 F de Jong Edz, Dutch historian
  • Feb 25 Karl H. Pribram, Austrian neuroscientist
  • Mar 6 Maurice Grosse, British paranormal investigator (d. 2006)
  • Mar 7 Jocelyn Hambro, British financier (Hambros Bank), born in London, England (d. 1994)
  • Mar 7 Mochtar Lubis, Indonesian writer (Twilight in Jakarta), born in Padang, Dutch East Indies (d. 2004)
  • Mar 13 Faye Glenn Abdellah, American pioneer in nursing research and US government official (health services), born in NYC, New York (d. 2017)
  • Mar 14 Max Shulman, novelist (Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, Tender Trap)
  • Mar 19 Cornelis Berkhouwer, Member of 2nd chamber (Dutch Liberal Party)
  • Mar 21 Geoffrey Pinnington, journalist
  • Mar 23 Michael Lyne, British air Vice-marshal
  • Mar 23 Carl Graffunder, mid-century modernist architect
  • Mar 24 Lawrence Ferlinghetti, American beat poet (Coney Island of the Mind), born in Bronxville, New York (d. 2021) [1]
  • Mar 24 John J Duncan Jr, (Rep-R-TN, 1965- )
  • Mar 24 Robert Heilbroner, American economist (d. 2005
  • Mar 27 Julian Amery, British conservative politician and minister, born in London (d. 1996)
  • Mar 30 McGeorge Bundy, national security adviser (JFK), born in Boston, Massachusetts
  • Apr 1 Joseph Murray, American surgeon, Nobel laureate, (d. 2012)
  • Apr 2 Antoon Hubben, Dutch Mayor of Maasbree and trade union leader, born in Nieuwenhagen, Netherlands (d. 1992)
  • Apr 3 Duke of Grafton, 11th Duke of Grafton, born in Cape Town (d. 2011)
  • Apr 5 Douglas Henley, British auditor-general, born in Beckenham, Kent (d. 2003)
  • Apr 5 Les Munro, New Zealand WWII pilot (Dambusters), born in Gisbourne (d. 2015)
  • Apr 8 [Douglas] Ian Smith, premier of Rhodesia (1964-79), born in Selukwe, Rhodesia (d. 2007)
  • Apr 9 J. Presper Eckert, Jr., American engineer and co-inventor (1st electronic computer-ENIAC), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1995)
  • Apr 11 Hugh Carey, American politician and attorney (Gov-D-NY), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 2011)
  • Apr 11 Sir Raymond Carr, English historian and warden (St Antony's College Oxford), born in Bath, Somerset
  • Apr 12 Lady Ricketts, CEO (National Association of Citizens' Advice Bureaux)
  • Apr 12 Maurice Girodias, French publisher and founder (Olympia Press), born in Paris (d. 1990)
  • Apr 13 Madalyn Murray O'Hair, American atheist who opposed prayer in school and was murdered in 1995, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (d. 1995)
  • Apr 13 Roland Gaucher, French journalist, born in Paris (d. 2007)
  • Apr 15 Clive Beadon, British RAF Wing Commander and pilot (WWII), born in Conoor near Poona, India (d. 1996)
  • Apr 15 Meriol Trevor, English novelist and biographer (Civil Prisoners), born in London (d. 2000)
  • Apr 16 Merce Cunningham, American choreographer (Acrobat in Every Soul is a Circus), born in Centralia, Washington (d. 2009)
  • Apr 16 Tom Willmore, English geometer, born in Gillingham, England (d. 2005)
  • Apr 17 Gilles Lamontagne, Canadian politician, 24th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (1984-90), born in Montreal, Quebec (d. 2016)
  • Apr 17 Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado, Cuban communist politician and 14th President of Cuba (1959-76), born in Cienfuegos, Cuba (d. 1983)
  • Apr 20 Richard Hillary, Australian Spitfire pilot and author (The Last Enemy), born in Sydney, Australia (d. 1943)
  • Apr 21 Franc [Franklin E] Essed, Suriname agricultural eng, Oper Grasshopper)
  • Apr 22 Donald J. Cram, American biochemist (development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity - Nobel 1987), born in Chester, Vermont (d. 2001)
  • Apr 23 Oleg Penkovsky, Soviet military intelligence (GRU), born in Vladikavkaz, Russia (d. 1963)
  • Apr 27 Walter Ritchie, British sculptor (Man's Struggle), born in Coventry, England (d. 1997)
  • Apr 30 Valeer van Kerkhove, Flemish writer (De Bungalow), born in Sleidinge, Belgium (d. 1982)
  • May 3 John Cullen Murphy, American comic strip artist, born in NYC, New York (d. 2004)
  • May 5 Georgios Papadopoulos, Greek dictator (head of the military coup d'état that took place in Greece on 21 April 1967), born in Elaiohori, Greece (d. 1999)
  • May 6 Frank Ereaut, Bailiff of Jersey (1975-85), born in London (d. 1998)

Person of interestMordecai Anielewicz

May 8 Mordecai Anielewicz, Jewish commander of Warsaw ghetto uprising, born in Wyszków, Second Polish Republic (d. 1943)

Leader of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Mordecai Anielewicz
Leader of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Mordecai Anielewicz
  • May 8 Leon Festinger, American psychologist, born in New York (d. 1989)
  • May 10 Ella Grasso, (Gov-D-Ct)
  • May 10 Louis Sen A Kaw, Surinam dam builder
  • May 14 Heloise Bowles, columnist Heloise's mother (Hints from Heloise)
  • May 14 Maarten Vrolijk, Dutch soc-dem party minister (CRM 1965-66)
  • May 14 Solange Chaput-Rolland, French-Canadian journalist and politician (d. 2001)
  • May 14 John Hope, American meteorologist (d. 2002)
  • May 16 Richard Mason, English author (The World of Suzie Wong), born near Manchester (d. 1997)
  • May 16 Ramon Margalef, Spanish scientist (d. 2004)
  • May 17 Merle Miller, American biographer (d. 1986)
  • May 19 Mitja Ribičič, Trieste, Italian Prime Minister of Yugoslavia (1969-71), (d. 2013)
  • May 21 Lord Maxwell, senator/prof (college of Justice Scotland)
  • May 21 Mark Wood, bishop (Ludlow)
  • May 22 Paul Vanden Boeynants, Prime Minister of Belgium (1966-68, 1978-79), born in Forest, Belgium (d. 2001)
  • May 23 Robert KJE Antonissen, South African literary
  • May 23 Gayatri Devi, 3rd Maharani consort of Jaipur, India (1940-49), born in London, England (d. 2009)
  • May 24 Sid Couchey, American comic book artist (Richie Rich), born in Cleveland, Ohio (d. 2012)
  • May 26 Peter Raleigh, English foreign correspondent and television executive, born in Barnstaple (d. 1996)
  • May 28 Charles John Robert Manners, 10th Duke of Rutland, British land owner/multimillionaire
  • May 30 René Barrientos, President of Bolivia (d. 1969)
  • Jun 2 Nat Mayer Shapiro, American painter (d. 2005)
  • Jun 4 Dorothy Howell Rodham, Mother of US First Lady, Senator and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 2011)
  • Jun 5 Richard Scarry, children's author and illustrator (What Do People Do All Day?), born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1994)
  • Jun 6 Charles Pringle, British air marshal, born in Dublin, Ireland (d. 2012)
  • Jun 6 Lord Carrington [Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington], British conservative politician, former British Foreign Secretary (1979-82) and NATO Secretary General (1984-8), born in Chelsea, London (d. 2018)
  • Jun 10 Haidar Abdel-Shafi, Palestinian Negotiator and community leader (d. 2007)
  • Jun 15 Van T. Barfoot, American Army colonel and Medal of Honour recipient, born in Edinburg, Mississippi (d. 2012)
  • Jun 16 Lord Aberdare, committee chairman (House of Lords)
  • Jun 17 Kingman Brewster, American educator and president of Yale University, born in Longmeadow, Massachusetts (d. 1988)
  • Jun 17 Max Dendermonde [Hendrik Hazelhoff], Dutch literary, born in Winschoten, Netherlands (d. 2004)
  • Jun 18 TedLeadbitter, British politician (Labour), born in Easington, England (d. 1996)
  • Jun 18 Edwin Clarke, British neurologist, medical historian,and museum keeper, born in Felling-on-Tyne, England (d. 1996)
  • Jun 18 Jerome Karle, American chemist (Nobel 1985) and Manhattan Project member, born in New York (d. 2013)
  • Jun 21 Gérard Pelletier, French-Canadian journalist, politician, and diplomat, born in Victoriaville, Canada (d. 1997)
  • Jun 21 Paolo Soleri, Italian-American architect, born in Turin, Italy (d. 2013)
  • Jun 23 Muhammad Boudiaf, Algerian political leader (d. 1992)
  • Jun 26 Lord Rawlinson, British attorney general (Ewell) (d. 2006)
  • Jun 29 Lloyd Richards, Canadian-American theaterical director (Joe Turner’s Come and Gone), born in Toronto, Ontario (d. 2006)

Weddings in History

  • May 31 1st wedding held in an aircraft (over Houston, Texas)

LoveWedding of Interest

Jun 2 Theoretical Physicist Albert Einstein (40) weds his cousin Elsa Lowenthal (43)

Theoretical Physicist Albert Einstein
Theoretical Physicist
Albert Einstein

LoveWedding of Interest

Jun 28 33rd US President Harry Truman (35) weds Elizabeth Truman (34) in Independence

US First Lady Bess Truman
US First Lady
Bess Truman
33rd US President Harry Truman
33rd US President
Harry Truman

LoveWedding of Interest

Jul 10 Author Aldous Huxley (25) weds epidemiologist Maria Nys in Bellem, Belgium

LoveWedding of Interest

Sep 26 German chancellor Konrad Adenauer (43) weds Auguste Zinsser in Cologne, Germany

Chancellor of West Germany Konrad Adenauer
Chancellor of West Germany
Konrad Adenauer

Divorces in History


Broken heartDivorce of Interest

Feb 14 Theoretical Physicist Albert Einstein (39) divorces Mileva Maric after 16 years of marriage

Theoretical Physicist Albert Einstein
Theoretical Physicist
Albert Einstein

Deaths in History

  • Jan 1 Mikhail Drozdovsky, Russian general, dies at 39
  • Jan 4 Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (1917-18), dies at 75

Person of interestTheodore Roosevelt

Jan 6 Theodore Roosevelt, 26th US President (R: 1901-09; Nobel 1906), dies in NY at 60

26th US President Theodore Roosevelt
26th US President
Theodore Roosevelt
  • Jan 6 Max Heindel, Danish-American Christian occultist, astrologer and mystic, dies at 54
  • Jan 7 Henry Ware Eliot, American industrialist, philanthropist and the father of T. S. Eliot, dies at 75
  • Jan 8 Peter Altenberg, writer, dies at 59
  • Jan 15 Karl Liebknecht, German Marxist revolutionary (Sparta Party), murdered at 47
  • Jan 15 Rosa Luxemburg, Polish-German Marxist revolutionary and founder of the Spartacus League, murdered by the Freikorps at 47
  • Jan 16 Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves, President of Brazil (b. 1848)
  • Jan 18 Prince John of the United Kingdom, youngest son of English king George V, dies at 13
  • Jan 21 Gojong, Emperor Gwangmu of Korea (1897-1907), dies at 66
  • Jan 22 Carl Larsson, Swedish painter (Midwinter Sacrifice - Swedish National Museum of Fine Arts), dies at 65
  • Jan 27 Endre Ady, Hungarian lyric poet (Még egyzer, Uj versek), dies from complications related to alcoholism at 41
  • Jan 30 Sam Steele, Canadian soldier, dies from influenza at 71
  • Jan 31 Paul Lindau, German playwright/critic (Estimate), dies at 79
  • Feb 3 Charles Edward Pickering, American astronomer and pioneered American spectroscopist, dies at 72
  • Feb 3 Maria Theresa of Austria-Este, Queen of Bavaria, dies at 69
  • Feb 5 Vasili V Rozanov, Russian philosopher & writer, dies at 62
  • Feb 6 Friedrich Wilhelm Mengelberg, German-Dutch sculptor and architect of church interiors, dies at 81
  • Feb 7 William Halford, American naval officer and Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1841)
  • Feb 13 Matteo Albertone, Italian general who fought in the Italo-Ethiopian War, dies at 78
  • Feb 15 Pieter K Pel, Dutch internist (Pel-Ebstein fever), dies at 66
  • Feb 21 Habibullah Khan, Emir of Afghanistan (1901-19), murdered at 46
  • Feb 21 Karl von Hohenzollern, Prince of Belgium, dies
  • Feb 21 Kurt Eisner, premier Bayern (soc), murdered at 51
  • Feb 21 Mary Edwards Walker, American surgeon and feminist, only woman awarded Medal of Honor (US Civil War), dies at 86
  • Mar 2 Melchora Aquino, Filipino revolutionary hero (b. 1812)
  • Mar 10 Amelia E. Barr, British-born American writer (Remember the Alamo), dies at 87
  • Mar 14 Roger Atkinson Pryor, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), dies at 90
  • Apr 4 William Crookes, English chemist and physicist (Crookes-pipe, thallium), dies at 86
  • Apr 8 Loránd Eötvös, Hungarian physicist, dies at 70 (b. 1848)
  • Apr 10 Emiliano Zapata, Mexican leader, murdered at 39
  • Apr 13 Phoebe Hearst, American philanthropist & suffragist, dies at 76
  • Apr 15 Jane Delano, American nurse & educator (Red Cross Nursing Service during WWI), dies at 57
  • May 2 Gustav Landauer, German socialist, dies
  • May 4 Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Slovak politician, French general and astronomer (b. 1880)
  • May 6 Lyman Frank Baum, American author (The Wonderful Wizard of Oz), dies at 62

Person of interestHenry John Heinz

May 14 Henry John Heinz, German-American entrepreneur who founded prepared-foods company (H.J. Heinz Company-57 varieties), dies at 74

Founder of Heinz Henry John Heinz
Founder of Heinz
Henry John Heinz
  • May 17 Guido von List, Austrian-German occultist and novelist (Jung Diethers Heimkehr), dies at 70
  • May 17 José Santos Zelaya, President of Nicaragua (1893-1910), dies at 65
  • May 20 Jacob Verdam, philosopher, dies
  • May 21 Victor A D Segalen [Max Anely], French ship's doctor/writer, dies
  • May 21 Yevgraf Fyodorov, Russian mathematician (b. 1853)
  • May 24 Amado Nervo [Juan Crisóstomo Ruiz de Nervo], Mexican writer and poet, dies at 48

Person of interestMadam C. J. Walker

May 25 Madam C. J. Walker [Sarah Breedlove], African American entrepreneur (First American self-made female millionaire, Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company), dies of kidney failure complications at 51

Cosmetics Mogul Madam C. J. Walker
Cosmetics Mogul
Madam C. J. Walker
  • May 27 Kandukuri Veeresalingam, Indian social reformer from Andhra Pradesh, dies at 71
  • May 29 Robert Bacon, American politician (39th United States Secretary of State), dies at 58
  • Jun 23 Amy G C A Bonet-Maury, French reformed theologist, dies
  • Jun 29 José Gregorio Hernández Venezuelan physician (b. 1864)

Person of interestJohn William Strutt

Jun 30 John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, English physicist and discoverer of argon (Nobel Prize 1904), dies at 76

Physicist and Nobel Laureate John William Strutt
Physicist and Nobel Laureate
John William Strutt
  • Jul 2 Anna Howard Shaw, American suffragette, dies at 72
  • Jul 7 Paul Deusen, German philosopher/CEO (Schopenhauer-Gesellschaft), dies

Person of interestEmil Fischer

Jul 15 [Hermann] Emil Fischer, German chemist, discovered Fischer esterification (Nobel Prize 1902), commits suicide at 66

Chemist and Nobel Laureate Emil Fischer
Chemist and Nobel Laureate
Emil Fischer
  • Jul 26 Sir Edward Poynter, British painter (b. 1836)
  • Aug 9 Ernst Haeckel, German biologist (Causes of Evolution) and philosopher (Social Darwinism), dies at 85

Person of interestAndrew Carnegie

Aug 11 Andrew Carnegie, Scottish-American industrialist, steel tycoon, philanthropist and one of the richest Americans ever, dies of bronchial pneumonia at 83

Industrialist and Philanthropist Andrew Carnegie
Industrialist and Philanthropist
Andrew Carnegie
  • Aug 18 Joseph E. Seagram, Canadian distillery founder (Seagram Distilleries), dies at 78

Person of interestLouis Botha

Aug 27 Louis Botha, 1st Prime Minister of South Africa (1910-19), dies at 56

1st Prime Minister of South Africa Louis Botha
1st Prime Minister of South Africa
Louis Botha
  • Aug 30 Jóhann Sigurjónsson, Icelandic writer (Dr Rung), dies at 39
  • Sep 6 Pier Pander, Dutch sculptor, dies at 55
  • Sep 12 Leonid Andreyev, Russian journalist and writer (Red Laugh, Seven Hangs), dies at 48
  • Oct 7 Alfred Deakin, 2nd Prime Minister of Australia, dies at 63
  • Oct 8 Eugene Demolder, Belgian writer (Sous la Robe), dies
  • Oct 13 Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Danish writer, Nobel laureate (b. 1857)
  • Oct 14 Wilhelm von Siemens, German industrial/son of Werner, dies
  • Oct 22 Bruce Frederick Cummings, English author (Journal of a Disappointed Man), dies at 30
  • Oct 27 Theodoor H de Meester, premier (1905-08), dies
  • Oct 29 Soen Shaku, Zen abbot of Engakuji monastery in Kamakura, dies at 60
  • Oct 29 A. B. Simpson, Canadian preacher (b. 1843)
  • Oct 30 Ella Wheeler Wilcox, American author and poet (Poems of Passion), dies at 68
  • Nov 7 Hugo Haase, German MP (SPD), murdered at 56
  • Nov 9 Eduard Müller, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1848)
  • Nov 15 Alfred Werner, Swiss chemist (Nobel 1913), dies at 52
  • Nov 15 Mohammad Farid, an influential Egyptian political figure.
  • Nov 18 Ferdinand Domela Newenhouse, anarchist (free socialist), dies
  • Nov 18 Adolf Hurwitz, German mathematician (Riemann–Hurwitz formula), dies at 60
  • Nov 22 Francisco Moreno, Argentine explorer, dies at 67
  • Dec 2 Henry Clay Frick, built largest coke & steel operation, dies at 69

Person of interestPierre Auguste Renoir

Dec 3 Pierre Auguste Renoir, French Impressionist painter and sculptor (Bal du moulin de la Galette, Luncheon of the Boating Party), dies at 78

Painter & Sculptor Pierre Auguste Renoir
Painter & Sculptor
Pierre Auguste Renoir
  • Dec 13 Woldemar Voigt, German physicist (b. 1850)
  • Dec 18 John Alcock, English pilot (1st non-stop flight across Atlantic Ocean), dies in crash at 27
  • Dec 27 Theodoor H de Meester, Dutch lib premier (1905-08), dies at 68
  • Dec 28 Johannes Rydberg, Swedish physicist (Rydberg formula), dies at 65
  • Dec 29 William Osler, Canadian physician and author (circulatory system), dies at 70