On This Day

July 1944 in History

Events in History

  • Jul 1 2,500+ killed in London/SE England by German flying bombs

Conference of Interest

Jul 1 Bretton Woods Conference starts, dominated by Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes and leads to establishment of the IMF and the World Bank

  • Jul 1 Graf (Count) Claus von Stauffenberg promoted to colonel

Historic Event

Jul 1 General Eisenhower visits front in Normandy

  • Jul 1 US headquarter moves to Colombières Normandy
  • Jul 1 Von Rundstedt against Keitel: "Sign peace, idiots!"
  • Jul 2 German Field Marshal Günther von Kluge replaces General von Rundstedt
  • Jul 3 US V-III-E Army corp opens assault on Coutances Cotentin
  • Jul 4 1,100 US guns fire 4th of July salute at German lines in Normandy
  • Jul 4 Allied assault on Carpiquet airport at Caen
  • Jul 4 Gestapo arrests German Social Democrat Julius Leber
  • Jul 5 Harry Crosby takes 1st rocket airplane, MX-324, for maiden flight

Historic Event

Jul 6 French General Charles de Gaulle arrives in Washington, D.C.

Historic Event

Jul 6 US General Patton lands in France

  • Jul 6 World's largest circus tent catches fire at Ringling Brother's - Barnum & Bailey 2nd performance, 168 die (Hartford, Connecticut)
  • Jul 7 RAF Bomber Command drop 2,572 tons of bombs on Caen, France
  • Jul 7 Heavy Japanese counter offensive on Saipan
  • Jul 8 British troops march into Caen, Normandy
  • Jul 8 Japanese kamikaze attacks on US lines at Saipan
  • Jul 9 In World War II, US troops secure Saipan as Japan falls
  • Jul 9 U-740 sunk by depth charges from a British Liberator aircraft
  • Jul 10 German submarine U-821 sunk by RAF

Historic Event

Jul 10 "Father of Medicare" Tommy Douglas becomes the 7th Premier of Saskatchewan

Historic Event

Jul 11 Franklin Roosevelt announces that he will run for a fourth term as President of the United States

  • Jul 12 Theresienstadt Family camp disbands, with 4,000 people gased
  • Jul 12 US government recognizes authority of French General Charles de Gaulle
  • Jul 13 Vilnius, Lithuania, liberated
  • Jul 14 Attempt to liberate prisoners in Amsterdam fails, John Post arrested
  • Jul 14 US assault on Coutances Cotentin
  • Jul 15 Greenwich Royal Observatory in London damaged by WW II flying bomb [1]
  • Jul 17 2 ammunition ships explode at Port Chicago, California, killing 322
  • Jul 17 Soviet troops cross Bug River and march into Poland
  • Jul 18 7:45 Operation Goodwood: British assault east of Caen
  • Jul 18 Allies air raid railways at Vaires, Paris
  • Jul 18 Arne Andersson runs world record 1 mile (4:01.6)
  • Jul 18 RAF Mosquitos attack Cologne and Berlin
  • Jul 18 British air raid on German convoy SW of Heligoland
  • Jul 18 British troops occupy Bourquebus hill range, Normandy
  • Jul 18 Polish troops under General Anders occupy Ancona Italy
  • Jul 18 US troop march into St Lo
  • Jul 19 1,200+ 8th US Air Force bombers bomb targets in SW Germany
  • Jul 19 500 15th US Air Force Liberators/Flying Fortresses bomb Munich vicinity
  • Jul 19 Allied troops occupy Faubourg de Vaucelles, at Caen
  • Jul 19 Danish resistance fails in assault on Taarbaek Fort near Copenhagen
  • Jul 19 Democratic convention opens in Chicago, goes on to nominate President Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Jul 19 Earl Claus von Stauffenberg visits RC church in Berlin-Dahlem

Historic Event

Jul 19 US general Omar Bradley flies to England

  • Jul 19 Japanese aircraft carriers Taiho and Shokaku sink in Marianas
  • Jul 19 NY archbishop Spellman flies to Europe

Meeting of Interest

Jul 19 Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg 1st meets Adolf Eichmann

  • Jul 20 British and Canadian troops occupy Hill 67/Ifs/Bras/Frenouville, Normandy
  • Jul 20 Canadian Cameron Highlanders conquer St Andre
  • Jul 20 Death March of 1,200 Jews from Lipcani Moldavia begins
  • Jul 20 Fieldmarshal von Kluge consults with German commandant at Caen
  • Jul 20 Flying Fortresses of US 8th Air Force attack Leipzig/Dessau
  • Jul 20 General Eisenhower visits Montgomery's headquarter in Normandy
  • Jul 20 Heavy storm hampers British offensive at Caen
  • Jul 20 Japanese aircraft carrier Hijo sunk by US air attack
  • Jul 20 Liberators of US 8th Air Force attack Gotha Russelsheim/Eisenach
  • Jul 20 US President FDR nominated for an unprecedented 4th term at Democratic convention
  • Jul 20 US 15th Air Force attacks Friedrichshaven Memmingen
  • Jul 20 US 9th Air Force bombs railroad at Chaulnes Sable-sur-Sarthe/Dreux
  • Jul 20 US invades Japanese-occupied Guam
  • Jul 20 Violent battles in Verrieres-hill (Normandy)
  • Jul 20 Fifty are hurt in rioting in front of the presidential palace in Mexico City

Assassination Attempt

Jul 20 Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt led by German army officer Claus Von Stauffenberg

Meeting of Interest

Jul 21 British premier Winston Churchill flies to France, meets Montgomery

  • Jul 21 General Koiso becomes Premier of Japan
  • Jul 21 US forces land on Guam during its recapture from the Japanese (Operation Forager)
  • Jul 21 Field Marshal Günther von Kluge warns Hitler of impending collapse of front in Normandy
  • Jul 22 Soviets set up Polish Committee of National Liberation
  • Jul 23 Conference of Bretton Woods signed; IMF operations begin
  • Jul 23 Soviet Army marches into Lublin, Poland
  • Jul 23 US forces invade Japanese-held Tinian in WW II
  • Jul 23 US troops occupy Pisa, Italy
  • Jul 24 300 allied bombers drop fire bombs on Allied/German positions at Saint-Lô, France
  • Jul 24 Soviet forces liberate concentration camp Majdanek
  • Jul 24 US troops land on Tinian
  • Jul 25 Japanese banzai-attack on Guam
  • Jul 25 1st jet fighter used in combat (Messerschmitt 262)
  • Jul 25 Operation Cobra: US forces begin major offensive in Normandy with air bombardment
  • Jul 25 World War II: Operation Spring - one of Canada's bloodiest days, 18,444 casualties and 5,021 killed
  • Jul 26 Japanese suicide attack on US lines in Guam
  • Jul 26 Soviet troops arrive in Weichsel
  • Jul 26 US offensive at St-Lo/2nd Armour div occupies St Gilles
  • Jul 26 The first German V-2 rocket hits Great Britain (nicknamed "gasometer").
  • Jul 27 1st British jet fighter used in combat (Gloster Meteor)
  • Jul 27 Soviet Army frees Majdanek concentration camp
  • Jul 27 US troops occupy le Mesnil-Herman/Hill 183 Normandy
  • Jul 28 Adolf Hitler routes 4 division of South France to Normandy
  • Jul 28 US 8th Army corp occupies Coutances France
  • Jul 29 Allied air force bomb Germany for 6 hours
  • Jul 29 Frank McCormick (Reds) HR off Ace Adams (Giants) in both games of DH
  • Jul 29 US 4th Armour division occupiers Avranches
  • Jul 30 Heavy battles at Tessy-sur-Vire & Villebaudon Normandy
  • Jul 30 US 30th division reaches suburbs of St-Lo Normandy

Historic Event

Jul 31 Last deportation train out Mechelen departs to Auschwitz

  • Jul 31 Transport #77 departs with French Jews to Nazi Germany
  • Jul 31 US troops occupy Sansapor, New Guinea

Birthdays in History

  • Jul 9 Glen Cook, American sci-fi author (Shadowline, Star's End), born in NYC, New York
  • Jul 10 Beaky, rocker (Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick & Tich)
  • Jul 11 Peter de Savary, English financier/multi-millionaire
  • Jul 11 Myra Gale Brown, American writer, first cousin once removed and former wife of Jerry Lee Lewis, born in Vicksburg, Mississippi
  • Jul 12 Bill McCollum Jr., American lawyer and politician (U.S. House of Representatives from Florida), born in Brooksville, Florida

Ernő Rubik

Jul 13 Ernő Rubik, Hungarian inventor (Rubik's cube), born in Budapest, Hungary

  • Jul 20 Wim Van Drimmelen, Dutch sect Science Council of Government policy
  • Jul 21 Buchi Emecheta, Nigerian English writer (Price of Bride), born in Lagos (d. 2017)
  • Jul 21 Paul Wellstone, American politician (Sen-D-Minnesota 1991-2002), born in Washington D.C. (d. 2002)
  • Jul 21 John Atta Mills, President of Ghana (2009-2012), born in Tarkwa, Gold Coast (d. 2012)
  • Jul 23 Judith Bosch, Dutch radio and TV-hostess (Tweekamp, Zeskamp), born in Leiden, Netherlands
  • Jul 25 Molly Bennett Aiken, American foundation administrator (riding for the handicapped), born in Hollywood, California
  • Jul 26 Rimantas Stankevičius, Lithuanian cosmonaut, born in Marijampolė, Lithuania (d. 1990)
  • Jul 31 Robert C. Merton, American economist and Nobel laureate in Economics, born in NYC, New York

Deaths in History

  • Jul 7 Erich Salomon, German photographer, dies at 58
  • Jul 7 Georges Mandel [Louis Rothschild], French politician and resistance leader, is executed by the Milice at 59
  • Jul 11 Wolfgang Redlich, German major/pilot, dies in battle
  • Jul 16 Johannes Post, Dutch farmer and resistance fighter (passage fight), executed at 37
  • Jul 17 Hugh Rigby, English portrait painter (King George V 1928-32), dies
  • Jul 17 William James Sidis, American mathematician and child prodigy, dies from a cerebral hemorrhage at 46
  • Jul 18 George A Hartland, British politician (MP, Norwich, 1931-35), dies at 60
  • Jul 18 Thomas Sturge Moore, English poet (Centaurs' Booty), dies at 74
  • Jul 19 Carl Bock, Danish Gestapo agent, liquidated
  • Jul 19 Harry CA Eyres, British diplomat (Constantinople, Albania), dies at 87
  • Jul 20 Arthur J Treadwell, English mayor of Stoke Newington, dies at about 71
  • Jul 20 Brandt, col/German staff chief, dies in bombing
  • Jul 20 Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg, count/German antifascist colonel, dies
  • Jul 20 Friedrich Olbricht, German general (July 20th plotter), executed
  • Jul 20 Korten, chef gen of Germany Luftwaffe, dies in bomb explosion
  • Jul 20 Ludwig Beck, German general (July 20th plot), dies at 64
  • Jul 20 Mertz, German colonel (July 20th plotter), executed
  • Jul 20 Rudolf Schmundt, German general /Hitler's Army adjunct, dies from wounds in attempt to assassinate Hitler at 48
  • Jul 20 Werner von Haeffen, German lieutenant (July 20th plotter), executed
  • Jul 21 Gerrit van den Bosch, led illegal Dutch CPN party, dies in Dachau
  • Jul 21 Henning von Tresckow, Gen-Maj, "July 20th plotter", commits suicide
  • Jul 23 Max Nettlau, German anarchist and historian, dies at 79
  • Jul 23 Helmuth James von Moltke, German earl (July 20th plotter), executed by the Nazis for treason at 37
  • Jul 24 Jan Postma, leader of illegal Dutch party (CPN), executed at 49
  • Jul 25 Lesley J McNair, US Lieutenant General killed by friendly fire at St-Lo
  • Jul 26 Rezā Shāh Pahlavi [Rezā Khan], Shah of Iran (1925-41), dies of a heart ailment at 66
  • Jul 31 Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, French writer, poet and pioneering aviator (The Little Prince), dies during a reconnaissance mission at 44