On This Day

1945 in History

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 554

  • Jan 1 German air raid on allied airports at Eindhoven/Saint-Trond/Brussels
  • Jan 2 Allied air raid on Nuremberg
  • Jan 2 Radio Orange ends cooperation at Liese-Aktion
  • Jan 3 Allies land on west coast of Burma, conquer Akyab

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 3 British Premier Winston Churchill visits France

Soldier, Author and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Soldier, Author and British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill
  • Jan 3 Cato-Meridian School, New York, installs germicidal lamps in every room
  • Jan 3 Greek General Plastiras forms government
  • Jan 3 John Patrick's "Hasty Heart," premieres in NYC
  • Jan 3 US aircraft carriers attack Okinawa

Victory in BattleRaising the Flag on Iwo Jima

Jan 3 Admiral Chester Nimitz begins planning assaults on Okinawa and Iwo Jima in Japan
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United States Marines raise the U.S. flag atop Mount Suribachi, during the Battle of Iwo Jima
United States Marines raise the U.S. flag atop Mount Suribachi, during the Battle of Iwo Jima
  • Jan 4 Germans execute resistance fighters in Amsterdam
  • Jan 4 US jeep-aircraft carrier Ommaney Bay sinks after Japanese kamikaze attack
  • Jan 5 Surprise attack on Liese-Aktion-office on Marnix St, Amsterdam
  • Jan 7 Lord Haw-Haw (William Joyce) reports total German victory in the Ardennes
  • Jan 7 The last surface engagement between Allies and Japanese in the Pacific campaign, World War II
  • Jan 8 "Youth for Christ" organizes

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 9 US soldiers led by Gen Douglas MacArthur invades Philippines

US WWII General Douglas MacArthur
US WWII General
Douglas MacArthur
  • Jan 10 LA Railway (with 5 streetcar lines) forced to close
  • Jan 12 German forces in Belgium retreat in Battle of Bulge
  • Jan 12 US Task Force 38 destroys 41 Japanese ships in Battle of South China Sea
  • Jan 12 The Soviets begin a large offensive against the Nazis in Eastern Europe
  • Jan 14 In Greece, Communists and the British agree to a cease-fire in the struggle to control Athens (and with it Greece)
  • Jan 15 Every Amsterdammer gets 3 kg of sugar beets
  • Jan 15 Red Army frees Crakow-Plaszow concentration camp

USAManhattan Project

Jan 15 The Manhattan Project's G-5 Group, headed by Physicist's Donald Kerst and Seth Neddermeyer, take their first betatron pictures of a nuclear implosion at the Los Alamos Laboratory
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'Calutron Girls' monitoring a mass spectrometer during the Manhattan Project. Gladys Owens, in the foreground, did not know what she was involved with until seeing this picture on a tour fifty years later.
'Calutron Girls' monitoring a mass spectrometer during the Manhattan Project. Gladys Owens, in the foreground, did not know what she was involved with until seeing this picture on a tour fifty years later.
  • Jan 16 Scottish 52nd land division and 1st Commando brigade-assault at Heinsberg
  • Jan 16 US 1st & 3rd army meet at Houffalise

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 16 Adolf Hitler moves into the Fuhrerbunker, his underground bunker in Berlin

Dictator of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Dictator of Nazi Germany
Adolf Hitler
  • Jan 17 Auschwitz concentration camp begins evacuation
  • Jan 17 Gilbert Dodds, record miler (4:05.3), retires to do gospel work
  • Jan 17 Soviet army enters the devastated city of Warsaw and clears German resistance
  • Jan 17 Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving tens of thousands of Jews from the Nazis, arrested by Soviet secret police in Hungary
  • Jan 18 Soviet Armed Forces enter Krakow, Poland and push Germans out, only to eventually occupy entire country

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 20 Franklin D. Roosevelt sworn-in for an unprecedented (and never to be repeated) 4th term as US President

32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Jan 20 The Hungarian Provisional Government concludes an armistice with the USSR, US, and Britain, agree to pay reparations and to join the war against Germany
  • Jan 21 British troops land on Ramree, near coast of Burma

  • Jan 22 Burma highway reopens
  • Jan 22 Heavy US air raid on Okinawa
  • Jan 23 Dutch Premier Gerbrandy, exiled in London, tenders his resignation

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jan 23 World War II: Karl Dönitz launches Operation Hannibal.

Naval Commander and Nazi leader Karl Dönitz
Naval Commander and Nazi leader
Karl Dönitz
  • Jan 24 Scottish 52nd Lowland division occupies Heinsberg
  • Jan 25 Grand Rapids, Michigan, becomes 1st US city to fluoridate its water
  • Jan 25 Japanese occupiers of Batavia arrest Indo-European youths
  • Jan 25 West Africa 82nd division occupies Myohaung, Burma
  • Jan 26 Soviet forces reach Auschwitz concentration camp
  • Jan 27 Nazi occupiers forbid food transport to West (The Netherlands)
  • Jan 27 Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz and Birkenau Concentration Camps in Poland
  • Jan 27 Wally van Hall, Dutch banker and resistance leader, arrested
  • Jan 28 Dutch airplanes dump pamphlets on Java
  • Jan 28 General "Vinegar Joe" Stillwell and truck convoy reopen Burma Road to China
  • Jan 28 Swedish ships bring food to starving Netherlands
  • Jan 30 "Wilhelm Gustloff" torpedoed off Danzig by Soviet sub-c 9,400 die
  • Jan 30 American Rangers and Filipino resistance fighters liberate over 500 Allied POWs from Japanese at Cabanatuan
  • Jan 31 US 4th Infantry division occupies Elcherrath
  • Jan 31 Soviet troops reach the Oder River, less that 50 miles from Berlin
  • Feb 1 US Army arrives at Siegfriedlinie
  • Feb 2 Escape attempt at Mauthausen concentration camp
  • Feb 3 Almost 1,000 Flying Fortresses drop 3,000 tons of bombs on Berlin

Conference of InterestYalta Conference

Feb 4 Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin meet at Yalta in the Crimea to discuss the final phase of World War II
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Conference of the Big Three at Yalta (from left to right) Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
Conference of the Big Three at Yalta (from left to right) Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
  • Feb 5 British premier Winston Churchill arrives in Yalta, the Crimea
  • Feb 5 US troops under General Douglas MacArthur enter Manilla
  • Feb 6 US 8th Air Force bombs Magdeburg/Chemnitz
  • Feb 6 Russian Red Army crosses the river Oder
  • Feb 7 General Douglas MacArthur returns to Manila
  • Feb 7 Harry Truman appoints Irwin C Mollison judge of US Customs Court
  • Feb 7 US 76th/5th Infantry divisions begin crossing Sauer
  • Feb 7 London, Washington and Moscow discuss final phase of World War II
  • Feb 8 Allied air attack on Goch, Kleef, Kalkar and Reichswald
  • Feb 9 -Feb 10] Germany destroys Ruhrdammen
  • Feb 9 WAAF-corporal flies along the tail of a Spitfire
  • Feb 9 The Battle of the Atlantic: HMS Venturer sinks U-Boat 864 off the coast of Norway
  • Feb 11 1st gas turbine propeller-driven airplane flight tested, Downey, CA
  • Feb 11 Declaration of Liberated Europe signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin after the Yalta Conference
  • Feb 12 SF selected for site of UN Conference

Battle of InterestBombing of Dresden

Feb 13 Allied planes begin bombing Dresden, Germany; a firestorm results and over 22,000 die
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Dresden after the Allied firebombing campaign in 1945
Dresden after the Allied firebombing campaign in 1945
  • Feb 13 Gerbrandy Dutch government refuses Dutch Jewish right to buy
  • Feb 13 USSR captures Budapest, after a 49-day battle with Nazi Germany in which 159,000 die
  • Feb 14 Second day of the bombing of Dresden by Allied air forces
  • Feb 14 Peru, Paraguay, Chile & Ecuador joins UN
  • Feb 14 World War II: Prague is bombed probably due to a mistake in the orientation of the pilots bombing Dresden.
  • Feb 14 World War II: Mostar is liberated by Yugoslav partisans.
  • Feb 16 US forces land on Corregidor, complete conquest on March 3
  • Feb 16 Venezuela declares war on Nazi Germany
  • Feb 19 980 Japanese soldiers reportedly killed by crocodiles in 2 days on Ramree Island, Burma
  • Feb 19 Brotherhood Day-1st celebrated
  • Feb 19 US 5th Fleet launches invasion of Iwo Jima against the Japanese with 30,000 US Marines
  • Feb 21 Dutch Archbishop of Utrecht Johannes de Jong calls for help with war casualties following the Nazi occupation of Netherlands from the allies
  • Feb 21 Operation Veritable: British Army captures Goch from Germany, forcing German retreat away from the Rhineland
  • Feb 21 US 10th Armour division overthrows Orscholz line
  • Feb 22 Arab League forms (Cairo)
  • Feb 22 British troops take Ramree Island, Burma
  • Feb 22 Canadian 3rd Division occupies Moyland
  • Feb 23 2nd Dutch government of Gerbrandy forms in London
  • Feb 23 Canadian troops occupy Kalkar
  • Feb 23 Operation Grenade: US Lieutenant General Simpson's 9th Army crosses Ruhr
  • Feb 23 US Marines raise American flag on top of Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima. Photo of which by Joe Rosenthall later became iconic, inspiring the Marine Corps War Memorial sculpture
  • Feb 24 Egypt & Syria declare war on nazi-Germany
  • Feb 24 Manila freed from Japanese
  • Feb 24 Egyptian Premier Ahmed Maher Pasha is killed in Parliament after reading a decree
  • Feb 25 US aircraft carriers attack Tokyo

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 276

  • Jan 1 Peter Duncan, Australian politician
  • Jan 4 Vesa-Matti Loiri, Finnish entertainer
  • Jan 4 Richard R. Schrock, American chemist, Nobel laureate
  • Jan 6 Barry Lopez, American author (Of Wolves & Men), born in Port Chester, New York
  • Jan 6 Allen Appel, American novelist, born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
  • Jan 7 Dick Marty, Swiss politician & prosecutor, born in Sorengo, Switzerland
  • Jan 7 Raila Odinga, Kenyan politician, Prime Minister of Kenya (2008-2013), born in Maseno, Kenya
  • Jan 10 Gunther von Hagens [Gunther Gerhard Liebchen], German anatomist who invented the plastination technique for preserving tissue specimens, born in Alt-Skalden, Nazi Germany
  • Jan 11 Samdech Preah Sanghareach Bour Kry, Supreme Patriarch of the Cambodian Dhammayutt Order
  • Jan 13 [Eileen] Joy[ce] Chant [Rutter], UK, sci-fi author (High Kings)
  • Jan 14 Einar Hakonarson, Icelandic painter, born in Reykjavik, Iceland
  • Jan 14 Vonetta McGee, American actress, born in San Francisco, California, (d. 2010)
  • Jan 15 Vince Foster, American lawyer, born in Hope, Arkansas (d. 1993)
  • Jan 15 William R. Higgins, USMC colonel, born in Danville, Kentucky (d. 1990)
  • Jan 15 Princess Michael of Kent, British royal, born in Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic
  • Jan 19 Vadim Abdrashitov, director (Fox Hunt, Parade of Planets)
  • Jan 21 Andrew Stein, President of NYC council (D)
  • Jan 23 Mike Harris, Canadian politician
  • Jan 24 D. Todd Christofferson, American LDS apostle, born in American Fork, Utah
  • Jan 24 John Garamendi, American politician, born in Camp Blanding Joint Training Center, Florida
  • Jan 26 Barbara Kruger, American conceptual artist, born in Newark, New Jersey
  • Jan 27 Mairead Corrigan-Maguire, North Irish peace activist (Nobel 1976)
  • Jan 27 Harold Cardinal, Cree political leader (d. 2005)
  • Jan 28 Nick Raynsford, British MP
  • Jan 29 James Nicholson, British MEP
  • Jan 29 Jim Nicholson, Irish politician
  • Jan 30 Michael Dorris, American novelist & scholar, born in Louisville, Kentucky (d. 1997)
  • Jan 31 Brenda Hale, Baroness Hale of Richmond, British judge, 1st woman to head UK Supreme Court, born in Leeds, England
  • Feb 5 Sarah Weddington, American attorney, born in Abilene, Texas
  • Feb 7 Ian Jack, Scottish journalist
  • Feb 9 Mia [Maria] Farrow, LA, actress (Rosemary's Baby, Purple Rose of Cairo)
  • Feb 10 John Hayes, secretary-general (British Law Society)
  • Feb 12 David D Friedman, American economist, physicist, legal scholar, and libertarian theorist (The Machinery of Freedom), born in NYC, New York
  • Feb 13 David Tremlett, English artist, born in Dartford, United Kingdom
  • Feb 14 Hans Adam, prince of Liechtenstein
  • Feb 14 K M Jenkins, British director of personnel (Royal Mail)
  • Feb 14 William Hill Boner, (Rep-D-TN, 1979- )
  • Feb 15 Douglas Hofstadter, American academic and writer
  • Feb 23 Frank Murray, police Officer
  • Feb 25 Shivadhar Srinivasa Naipaul, Trinidad, novelist, essayist (Fireflies)
  • Mar 4 Tara Browne, British socialite (d. 1966)
  • Mar 8 Jim Chapman, American politician (Rep-D-TX, 1985-1997), born in Washington, District of Columbia
  • Mar 8 Anselm Kiefer, German painter
  • Mar 9 Dennis Rader, American serial killer who murdered ten people in Sedgwick County, Kansas, born in Pittsburg, Kansas
  • Mar 10 Birgitta Sellén, Swedish politician
  • Mar 10 Elizabeth Brumfiel, [Elizabeth Stern], American feminist archaeologist, former president of the American Anthropological Association
  • Mar 11 Timothy Mason, consultant (British Arts Council)
  • Mar 12 Sammy "The Bull" Gravano, American mobster who testified against John Gotti, born in Brooklyn, New York
  • Mar 13 Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko, Russian mathematician, born in Stalino, USSR
  • Mar 15 Mark J Green, American lawyer/author (Closed Enterprise System), born in Brooklyn, New York
  • Mar 15 A. K. Faezul Huq, Bengali lawyer and politician (d. 2007)
  • Mar 17 Michael Hayden, General USAF, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
  • Mar 18 Hiroh Kikai, Japanese photographer
  • Mar 20 Tim Yeo, British MP/under-sect (State of Environment)
  • Mar 20 Henry Bartholomay, American fighter pilot
  • Mar 24 Robert T. Bakker, American paleontologist
  • Mar 28 Hans Brunhart, Leader of Liechtenstein (1978-93), born in Balzers, Liechtenstein
  • Mar 28 Count Björn Hamilton, Swedish politician, count and engineer, born in Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Mar 28 Rodrigo Duterte, Philippines politician, President of the Philippines (2016-), born in Maasin, Leyte
  • Mar 29 Hardy Fox, American member of avant-garde band The Residents, born in Longview, Texas (d. 2018)
  • Mar 30 Johnnie Walker [Peter Dingley], British radio DJ, born in Birmingham
  • Apr 2 Roger Bootle-Wilbraham, 7th Baron Skelmersdale, British politician
  • Apr 2 Anne Waldman, American poet, born in Millville, New Jersey
  • Apr 3 Wim Deetman, Dutch politician, Minister of Education, born in The Hague, Netherlands
  • Apr 6 Rodney Bickerstaffe, English trade unionist (National Union of Public Employees), born in London, England (d. 2015)
  • Apr 6 Neal Boortz, American radio host (The Neal Boortz Show), born in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
  • Apr 7 Martin Lewis, British newsreader
  • Apr 7 Joël Robuchon, French chef, world record for Michelin stars (32), born in Poitiers, France (d. 2018)
  • Apr 8 Derrick Walker, Scottish auto racing team owner (President of operations and competition of IndyCar), born in Leven, Scotland
  • Apr 12 Lee Jong-wook, Korean Director-General of the World Health Organization, born in Seoul, South Korea (d. 2006)
  • Apr 13 Carlos Gimenez, Argentine-Venezuelan founder (Theater festival of Caracas) (d. 1993)
  • Apr 14 Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi, 8th Prime Minister of Samoa
  • Apr 15 Jos van Rey, Dutch businessman and politician (VVD), born in Roermond, Netherlands
  • Apr 16 Tom Allen, American politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Maine), born in Portland, Maine
  • Apr 17 Vincent van der Burg, Dutch scientist, lawyer, and politician (CDA), born in Zeist, Netherlands
  • Apr 18 Margaret Hassan, Irish aid worker in Iraq, born in Dalkey, County Dublin, Ireland (d. 2004)
  • Apr 22 Alan Dukes, Irish Fine Gael politician, born in Drimnagh, Dublin, Ireland
  • Apr 22 Donald E. Graham, American businessman (Graham Holdings Company, Facebook), born in Baltimore, Maryland
  • Apr 22 Gielijn Escher, Dutch postage stamp artist, born in Oegstgeest, Netherlands
  • Apr 22 Robert Key, British Conservative Party politician (MP for Salisbury), born in Plymouth, Devon, England
  • Apr 24 Larry Tesler, American computer scientist (invented copy, cut, paste), born in The Bronx, New York (d. 2020)
  • Apr 25 Jean Purdy, British embryologist and nurse (pioneer in developing IVF), born in Cambridge, England (d. 1985)
  • Apr 26 Sylvain Simard, Canadian politician (Parti Québécois), born in Chicoutimi, Quebec, Canada
  • Apr 27 August Wilson, American playwright (Fences, Pulitzer 1987), born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (d. 2005)
  • Apr 29 Hugh Hopper, rocker (Soft Machine)
  • Apr 30 Annie Dillard, American writer (An American Childhood), born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • Apr 30 Claude van de Berge, Flemish writer (Graph Theory), born in Assenede, Belgium
  • Apr 30 Michael J. Smith, American astronaut (51L-Challenger disaster), born in Beaufort, North Carolina (d. 1986)
  • Apr 30 Mimi Fariña, American rocker (Reflections in a Crystal Wind), born in Palo Alto, California (d. 2001)
  • May 3 Jeffrey C. Hall, American geneticist (Nobel Prize 2017 behavioral rhythms of the fly), born in New York City
  • May 4 Monika van Paemel, Belgian writer (Accursed Fathers), born in Poesele, Belgium
  • May 4 Narasimhan Ram, Indian journalist (The Hindu), born in Madras, British India
  • May 5 Jiří Svoboda, Czech director and politician (2nd Chairman of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia), born in Kladno, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
  • May 7 Wim A. Mateman, Dutch politician (CDA), born in Aalten, Netherlands
  • May 8 Arthur Docters van Leeuwen, jurist (Holland's secret service)
  • May 10 John Laws, Lord Justice of Appeal (1999- )
  • May 12 Patrick Ricard, French businessman and CEO of Pernod Ricard, born in Marseille, France (d. 2012)
  • May 15 Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, heir to the Portuguese crown
  • May 16 Brewster H Shaw Jr, Mich, Col USAF/astro (STS-9, STS 61B, STS-28)
  • May 16 James Moran, (Rep-D-Virginia)

Weddings in History

  • Jan 6 Future US President George H. W. Bush marries Barbara Pierce at the First Presbyterian Church in Rye NY

LoveWedding of Interest

Jan 6 Future 41st US President George H. W. Bush (20) weds Barbara Pierce (19) at the First Presbyterian Church in Rye, New York

US First Lady Barbara Bush
US First Lady
Barbara Bush
41st US President George H. W. Bush
41st US President
George H. W. Bush

LoveWedding of Interest

Apr 29 Adolf Hitler (56) marries Eva Braun (33) in the Führerbunker, Berlin

Dictator of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Dictator of Nazi Germany
Adolf Hitler

LoveWedding of Interest

May 22 Paranormal investigator Lorraine Warren (18) weds partner Ed Warren (18)

Paranormal Investigator Lorraine Warren
Paranormal Investigator
Lorraine Warren
Paranormal Investigator Ed Warren
Paranormal Investigator
Ed Warren

LoveWedding of Interest

Sep 1 Author Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (23) weds childhood sweetheart Jane Marie Cox

LoveWedding of Interest

Sep 21 Publisher Malcolm Forbes (26) weds Roberta Remsen Laidlaw

Publisher Malcolm Forbes
Publisher
Malcolm Forbes

LoveWedding of Interest

Oct 22 Argentine military officer and politician Juan Perón (50) weds actress Eva Duarte (26) at a civil ceremony in Junin

First Lady of Argentina Eva Perón
First Lady of Argentina
Eva Perón
General and President of Argentina Juan Perón
General and President of Argentina
Juan Perón

LoveWedding of Interest

Oct 25 Painter Jackson Pollock (33) weds painter Lee Krasner (27)


Divorces in History


Broken heartDivorce of Interest

Dec 21 American author and journalist "The Old Man and the Sea" Ernest Hemingway and journalist Martha Gellhorn divorce after 5 years of marriage.


Deaths in History

Deaths 1 - 100 of 190

  • Jan 2 Betram Home Ramsay, Engl admiral (Normandy), dies at 61
  • Jan 3 Edgar Cayce, American psychic (b. 1877)
  • Jan 3 Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski, Polish writer (Lenin: God of the Godless), dies at 68
  • Jan 6 Vladimir Vernadsky, Russian mineralogist (b. 1863)
  • Jan 6 Edith Frank, mother of Holocaust diarist Anne Frank, dies from starvation at the age of 44
  • Jan 8 Jac[obus] P. Thijsse, Dutch biologist and educator (Omgang met planten), dies at 79
  • Jan 8 Karl Krafft, Swiss astrologer who was manipulated by the Nazi regime (b. 1900)
  • Jan 9 Jüri Uluots, Estonian Prime Minister (b. 1890)
  • Jan 10 Rudolf Borchardt, writer, dies at 67
  • Jan 16 Dennis Donnini, British rifleman (Victoria Cross), dies in battle at 19
  • Jan 19 Ernest B Allo, French theologist, dies at 71
  • Jan 21 Rash Behari Bose, Indian revolutionary leader against the British Raj in India, dies at 58
  • Jan 22 Alfred Wolfenstein, German writer, dies at 61
  • Jan 22 Johan Eykman, theologist (World Church), dies at 52
  • Jan 22 Else Lasker-Schuler, German-born poet (b. 1869)
  • Jan 23 Helmuth J Moltke, German politician ("July 20th Plot"), executed at 37
  • Jan 27 Antal Szerb, Hungarian author and historian, dies at 43
  • Jan 30 Gottlieb Haberlandt, Austrian botanist, dies at 90
  • Jan 31 Eddie Slovik, 1st US executed for desertion since Civil War at 25
  • Feb 1 Johan Huizinga, Dutch culture historian (Homo Ludens), dies at 72
  • Feb 2 Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, German Leipzig mayor and Nazi regime opponent (20th July plot), hanged at 60
  • Feb 3 Roland Freisler, German Nazi judge (July 20th plotter case) and politician, dies at 51
  • Feb 5 Violette Szabo, French WWII secret agent, is executed by Nazis at 23
  • Feb 6 Jan Bos, Dutch resistance fighter, executed
  • Feb 6 Paul Bos, Dutch resistance fighter, executed
  • Feb 9 George Maduro, Dutch Antillian resistance fighter (Madurodam), dies in Dachau at 28
  • Feb 9 Jan Bakker, resistance fighter, executed at 26
  • Feb 10 Anacleto Diaz, Filipino jurist (b. 1878)
  • Feb 11 J S H Lokerman, Dutch resistance fighter, dies in Neugengamme
  • Feb 12 Henrietta Szold, founder (Hadassah, Youth Aliyah), dies
  • Feb 12 Walraven [Wally] van Hall, Dutch banker/resisted Nazis, executed at 39
  • Feb 12 Antonio Villa-Real, Filipino jurist (b. 1880)
  • Feb 16 Rudolf Vornlund, Swedish playwright (Upproret), dies at 45
  • Feb 18 Ivan Chernyakhovsky, Russian general (youngest ever Soviet general of the army), dies at 38
  • Feb 19 Wim Speelman, Dutch resistance fighter, executed at 26
  • Feb 19 John Basilone, American Marine (Medal of Honor at the Battle for Henderson Field), is killed in action at Iwo Jima at 26
  • Feb 22 Osip Brik, Russian writer (b. 1888)
  • Feb 23 Aleksei Tolstoi, Russian poet and writer (Pjotr Peroyj), dies at 62
  • Feb 23 Aubrey Cousins, Canadian sergeant (Victoria Cross), dies in battle
  • Feb 24 Ahmed Maher Pasha, Egypt's PM, assassinated in parliament
  • Feb 25 Mário de Andrade, Brazilian writer, photographer and modernist, dies of a heart attack at 51
  • Feb 27 HJ Lochtman, Dutch chaplain/resistance fighter, dies in Bergen-Belsen
  • Mar 2 Emily Carr, Canadian painter, dies at 73
  • Mar 3 Arthur Vanderpoorten, Flemish Internal minister (1940), dies at 61
  • Mar 5 Lena Baker, American murderer, convicted of capital murder of her employer, Ernest Knight, dies at 44
  • Mar 6 Jan Thijssen, Dutch resistance fighter, executed at Savage Farm
  • Mar 7 Adolf Bartels, German journalist and poet, dies at 82
  • Mar 8 H J Jamin, Dutch resistance fighter, dies in Buchenwald
  • Mar 8 Jan Beekes, resistance fighter, executed at 26

Person of interestAnne Frank

Mar 12 Anne Frank, Dutch Diarist and Jewish victim of the Nazi Holocaust (Diary of Anne Frank), dies of typhus in the Belsen concentration camp at 15

Jewish Victim & Diarist of the Holocaust Anne Frank
Jewish Victim & Diarist of the Holocaust
Anne Frank
  • Mar 15 Herman Bernard Wiardi Beckman, Dutch resistance fighter and politician (SDAP), dies at 41
  • Mar 16 Pierre Drieu la Rochelle, French writer/poet, commits suicide at 52
  • Mar 16 Börries von Münchhausen, German poet (b. 1874)
  • Mar 19 Fritz Fromm, German supreme commander of Reserve army, executed
  • Mar 21 J Woortman, Dutch resistance fighter, dies in Bergen-Belsen at 39
  • Mar 21 Arthur Nebe, German SS officer, dies at 50
  • Mar 22 J Postuma, Dutch resistance fighter, dies
  • Mar 24 J S Nicklin, Lt-Col/Canada's 1st parachutist, dies
  • Mar 24 Thomas Rennie, Gen-Maj (Dutch command 51st Highland Division), dies
British Prime Minister David Lloyd George
British Prime Minister
David Lloyd George
  • Mar 26 Isaack Stouten, resistance fighter, shot to death at 29
  • Mar 26 Boris Shaposhnikov, Russian military commander, dies at 62
  • Mar 27 Jorgen Nielsen, Danish writer (romance), dies at 42
  • Mar 29 Karl T Sapper, German geographer/geologist (Vulkankunde), dies at 79

Person of interestHans Fischer

Mar 31 Hans Fischer, German organic chemist (Nobel Prize for Chemistry 1930), commits suicide at 63

Physicist and Nobel Laureate Hans Fischer
Physicist and Nobel Laureate
Hans Fischer
  • Mar 31 Maurice Rose, 1st US general in Nazi Germany, killed in action at 45
  • Mar 31 Maurice Donnay, French playwright (Lovers), dies at 85
  • Apr 3 Josef Weinheber, Austrian poet and writer (Vienna Verbatim), dies at 43
  • Apr 5 Karl Otto Koch, German SS officer who was commandant at Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen and Majdanek concentration camps, is executed by the SS for corruption at 47
  • Apr 9 Dietrich Bonhoeffer, German theologist/antifascist, hanged
  • Apr 9 Hans Oster, German major general, spy and "July 20th plot", hanged at 57
  • Apr 9 Hans von Dohnanyi, "July 20th plotter", hanged
  • Apr 9 Wilhelm Canaris, Admiral/headed Germany Abwehr, hanged
  • Apr 9 Georg Elser, German failed assassin of Hitler, dies at Dachau concentration camp at 42
  • Apr 10 Hendrik Nicolaas Werkman, Dutch artist (The Blue Barge) and resistance fighter, executed at 63
  • Apr 10 Charles Nordhoff, English-born writer (b. 1887)
  • Apr 11 Kamiel van Baelen, Flemish author and resistance fighter (Mensch op Weg), dies at 29

Person of interestFranklin D. Roosevelt

Apr 12 Franklin Roosevelt, 32nd US President (Democrat: 1933-1945), dies in office with the war almost won of a stroke at 63

32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Apr 13 Ernst Cassirer, German philosopher & educator (Essay on Man), dies at 70
  • Apr 17 Hannie Schaft, Dutch communist resistance fighter known as the "Girl with red hair", executed at 24
  • Apr 17 Ion Pillat, Romania poet/senator (Umbra timpului), dies
  • Apr 17 Walter Model, German fieldmarshal, commits suicide at 54
  • Apr 18 John Ambrose Fleming, English electrical engineer & physicist, dies at 95
  • Apr 18 Ernie Pyle, American journalist and war correspondent during WW II (Pulitzer Prize 1944), dies at 44
  • Apr 19 J P Heyboer, resistance fighter, executed
  • Apr 21 John Poston, British major/Montgomery's ADC, dies in battle at 25
  • Apr 22 Kathe Kollwitz, German graphic artist, dies at 77
  • Apr 23 Albrecht Haushofer, writer, dies at 42
  • Apr 24 Anton de Kom, Suriname resistance fighter, dies at 47
  • Apr 24 Antoon Schweigmann, Dutch religious poet and resistance fighter, dies at 51
  • Apr 26 Pavlo Skoropadsky, Ukrainian politician & general, dies at 71
  • Apr 26 Sigmund Rascher, Nazi doctor, dies at 36

Person of interestBenito Mussolini

Apr 28 Benito Mussolini [Il Duce], Fascist Italian dictator (1922-43), shot by communist partisans at 61

Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini
Italian Dictator
Benito Mussolini
  • Apr 28 Claretta Petacci, Italian mistress of Mussolini, executed at 33
  • Apr 28 Hans Bloesch, Swiss author, dies at 67
  • Apr 28 Roberto Farinacci, Italian fascist, dies at 52
  • Apr 29 Matthias Kleinheisterkamp, German SS officer (b. 1893)

Person of interestAdolf Hitler

Apr 30 Adolf Hitler, German politician, Leader of the Nazi Party, German Dictator (1933-45), commits suicide by shooting himself at 56

Dictator of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Dictator of Nazi Germany
Adolf Hitler
  • Apr 30 Eva Braun, German mistress and wife of Hitler, commits suicide by cyanide tablet at 33

Person of interestJoseph Goebbels

May 1 Joseph Goebbels, German Nazi Minister of Propaganda, commits suicide aged 47 with his wife (43) and arranges the death of their 6 children, Heidrun (4), Hedwig (6), Holdine (8), Helmut (9), Hildegard (11), and Helga (12)

Nazi Minister of Propaganda and Information Joseph Goebbels
Nazi Minister of Propaganda and Information
Joseph Goebbels