On This Day

On This Day in History for April 11

Events in History

  • 491 Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, as Anastasius I - often called the first Byzantine Emperor
  • 672 Deusdedit II begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 1079 Bishop Stanislaus of Krakow is executed by order of Bolesław II of Poland

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1471 Wars of the Roses: King Edward IV of England seizes London from Henry VI

King of England Edward IV
King of England
Edward IV

Battle of InterestBattle of Ravenna

1512 Battle of Ravenna: French forces under Gaston de Foix defeat the Holy League in a major battle of the Italian Wars

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The Battle of Ravenna, fought between forces of the Holy League and France
The Battle of Ravenna, fought between forces of the Holy League and France
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  • 1551 English premier John Dudley appointed Duke of Northumberland
  • 1564 England & France sign Peace of Troyes
  • 1564 Liege prince-bishop Robert van Bergen resigns
  • 1567 Dutch prince William of Orange flees from Antwerp to Breda
  • 1579 Venlo joins Union of Utrecht
  • 1580 Drenthe joins Union of Utrecht
  • 1612 Last public burning at the stake in England - Edward Wrightman for heresy in Lichfield

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1677 Battle at Montcassel, French troops beat Prince William III

King of England William III
King of England
William III
  • 1689 King William III and Queen Mary II crowned as joint rulers of England, Scotland and Ireland
  • 1713 Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, Prussia, Savoy, Portugal & France agree the Treaty of Utrecht; France cedes Maritime provinces in North America to Britain
  • 1783 Hostilities formally cease in the American Revolutionary War
  • 1801 Johann von Schiller's "Die Jungfrau von Orleans" premieres in Leipzig

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1814 Napoleon Bonaparte abdicates unconditionally and he is exiled to the island of Elba in the Mediterranean

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • 1828 Foundation of Bahia Blanca, Argentina
  • 1848 Hungary becomes constitutional monarchy under King Ferdinand of Austria
  • 1856 Battle of Rivas; Costa Rica beats William Walker's invading Nicaraguans
  • 1862 Confederates surrender at Fort Pulaski, Georgia
  • 1863 Battle of Suffolk, Virginia (Norfleet House)
  • 1865 Battle of Mobile, Alamaba evacuated by Confederates

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1865 Abraham Lincoln urges a spirit of generous conciliation during reconstruction

16th US President Abraham Lincoln
16th US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • 1868 The Shogunate is abolished in Japan
  • 1876 Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks organizes in New York City
  • 1876 Sir Charles Gordon ends religious tolerance in Sudan
  • 1881 River ferry "Princess Victoria" sinks in Thames River, Ontario, 180 die
  • 1881 Spelman College founded as Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary in basement of Friendship Baptist Church, Atlanta
  • 1890 Ellis Island, New York, designated as an immigration station
  • 1891 8-year old Jewish tailor's daughter disappears in Greece, rumor spreads that she was a Christian girl ritually killed by Jews
  • 1895 Anaheim completes its new electric light system

Spain Declares War Against the United StatesSpain Declares War Against the United States

1898 President McKinley asks for Spanish–American War declaration

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Colonel ‘Teddy’ Roosevelt (centre, with glasses and holstered gun) with his ‘Rough Riders’ after victory at the Battle of San Juan Hill.
Colonel ‘Teddy’ Roosevelt (centre, with glasses and holstered gun) with his ‘Rough Riders’ after victory at the Battle of San Juan Hill.
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  • 1899 Treaty of Paris ratifies ends war; Spain cedes Puerto Rico to US

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1900 The first modern submarine designed and built by John Philip Holland is purchased by the U.S. Navy

  • 1902 Second Boer War: British forces defeat Boer commandos in Battle of Rooiwal, South Africa
  • 1909 Establishment of Tel Aviv by Jewish settlers (named 1910)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1912 RMS Titanic leaves Queenstown, Ireland, for NY

Captain of the Titanic Edward Smith
Captain of the Titanic
Edward Smith
  • 1912 Cornerstone of Technion laid in Haifa, Palestine
  • 1912 The UK Parliament introduce a Irish home rule bill, granting Ireland its own bicameral parliament and be required to send a representative to the British House of Commons; Protestants in Ulster resist
  • 1914 Mexican President Huerta breaks off diplomatic relations with the US
  • 1919 The International Labour Organization is founded.
  • 1921 Iowa imposes 1st state cigarette tax
  • 1921 Turkestan ASSR forms in Russian SFSR
  • 1921 The Emirate of Transjordan created
  • 1924 Socialists win Danish parliamentary elections
  • 1924 WLS-AM in Chicago IL begins radio transmissions
  • 1925 Abd el-Krims Rifkabylen beats French army in Morocco
  • 1926 Flemish Economic Covenant (VEV) forms in Ghent
  • 1927 Chilean general Carlos Ibáñez names himself president
  • 1929 KLO-AM in Ogden UT begins radio transmissions
  • 1929 Loetafoon celluloid film system demonstrated in Amsterdam

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1933 Hermann Goering becomes Premier of Prussia

Nazi Politician Hermann Goering
Nazi Politician
Hermann Goering
  • 1939 Hungary leaves League of Nations
Buckingham Palace is bombed. Churchill, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth inspect the damage. Photo: NPA Rota
Buckingham Palace is bombed. Churchill, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth inspect the damage. Photo: NPA Rota
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  • 1941 Jewish Weekly newspaper taken control by Nazis
  • 1941 Nazi occupiers in Netherlands confiscate Jewish assets
  • 1942 US Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal established
  • 1943 Frank Piasecki, Vertol founder, flies his 1st (single-rotor) craft
  • 1944 RAF bombs census bureau in The Hague
  • 1945 Allied troops liberate Basket-Compascuum
  • 1945 SS burns & shoots 1,100 at Gardelegen
  • 1945 US captures Tsugen Shima
  • 1945 Four soldiers in the Sixth Armored Division of the US Third Army liberate the Nazi concentration camp, Buchenwald
  • 1945 US troops conquers Mulheim, Oberhausen, Bochum, Unna, Essen

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1950 Prince Rainier III becomes ruler of Monaco

Prince of Monaco Rainier III
Prince of Monaco
Rainier III
  • 1950 US B-29 bomber shot down over Latvia

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1951 US President Harry Truman relieves General Douglas MacArthur of command in Korea

US WWII General Douglas MacArthur
US WWII General
Douglas MacArthur
33rd US President Harry Truman
33rd US President
Harry Truman
  • 1952 The Battle of Nanri island takes place.
  • 1953 Oveta Culp Hobby becomes 1st at Health, Education, & Welfare
  • 1953 US Department of Health, Education and Welfare created

MurderAssassination Attempt

1955 Chartered Air India plane the "Kashmir Princess" is bombed and crashes into the South China Sea in a failed assassination attempt on Zhou Enlai by a Kuomintang secret agent

Premier of the People's Republic of China Zhou Enlai
Premier of the People's Republic of China
Zhou Enlai
  • 1956 French government decides to send 200,000 reservists to Algeria

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1957 Pablo Neruda arrested in Buenos Aires

  • 1957 Ryan X-13 Vertijet becomes 1st jet to take-off & land vertically
  • 1957 Britain agrees to Singaporean self-rule.
  • 1958 Brooks Hall in Civic Center dedicated in San Francisco
  • 1959 Dutch Prince Bernhard visits Lockheed factory

Execution'The Banality of Evil'

1961 Trial of Adolf Eichmann for war crimes in World War II begins in Jerusalem, Israel

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Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann sits in the dock at his 1961 trial in Jerusalem
Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann sits in the dock at his 1961 trial in Jerusalem
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  • 1961 Austrian 4th & last government of Raab resigns

BeatificationCatholic Encyclical

1963 Pope John XXIII publishes encyclical "Pacem in terris", that peace between all peoples must be based on truth, justice, love and freedom

  • 1963 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1965 40 tornadoes strike US midwest killing 272 & injuring 5,000

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

1967 Harlem (NYC) voters defy Congress and reelect Adam Clayton Powell Jr.

Music releaseTheater Premiere

1967 Tom Stoppard's play "Rosencrantz & Guildenstern are Dead" debuts in London at the Old Vic

Playwright and Screenwriter Tom Stoppard
Playwright and Screenwriter
Tom Stoppard
  • 1968 Polish Marshal Spychalski succeeds Ochab as president

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1968 US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs 1968 Civil Rights Act

36th US President Lyndon B. Johnson
36th US President
Lyndon B. Johnson
  • 1968 W Berlin student Rudi Dutschke seriously wounded at demonstration
  • 1970 Apollo 13 launched to Moon; unable to land, returns in 6 days
  • 1970 San Francisco beats Cincinnati 2-1, only day Reds aren't in 1st place in 1970
  • 1971 "Johnny Johnson" opens/closes at Edison Theater NYC for 1 performance
  • 1972 Benjamin L Hooks named to FCC
  • 1972 USSR performs underground nuclear test
  • 1974 WW II war criminal JP Philippa arrested

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1976 The Apple I computer, created by Steve Wozniak is released

Co-founder of Apple Steve Wozniak
Co-founder of Apple
Steve Wozniak
  • 1977 Ireland sets fishing zone at 50 mile

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1979 Tanzanian army captures Kampala, the capital of Uganda forcing Ugandan dictator Idi Amin to flee into exile in Libya

Ugandan Dictator Idi Amin
Ugandan Dictator
Idi Amin
  • 1980 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulates sexual harassment
  • 1981 Race riot in London area of Brixton

Birthdays in History

Person of interestSeptimius Severus

146 Lucius Septimius Severus, Roman Emperor (193-211), born in Leptis Magna, modern day Libya (d. 211)

Roman Emperor Septimius Severus
Roman Emperor
Septimius Severus
  • 1348 Andronikos IV Palaiologos, Byzantine Emperor, born in Constantinople, Byzantine Empire (d. 1385)
  • 1357 John I, King of Portugal (1383-1433), born in Lisbon, Portugal (d. 1433)
  • 1370 Frederick I the Warlike, Elector of Saxony, born in Dresden, Electorate of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire (d. 1428)
  • 1374 Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, heir to the throne of England, born in Usk, Monmouthshire (d. 1398)
  • 1492 Marguerite of Navarre, Queen of Navarre, wife of Henry II of Navarre, born in Angoulême, France (d. 1549)
  • 1592 John Eliot, English parliament leader, born in Port Eliot, Cornwall, England (d. 1632)
  • 1661 Antoine Coypel, French painter and poet, born in Paris (d. 1722)
  • 1721 David Zeisberger, Moravian clergyman and missionary, born in Zauchtenthal, Moravia (d. 1808)
  • 1722 Christopher Smart, English poet & journalist (Ceremony of Carols), born in Shipbourne, England (d. 1771)
  • 1746 Wentworth Cheswell, American auditor and teacher, 1st African American elected to public office in the US, born in Newmarket, New Hampshire (d. 1817)
  • 1755 James Parkinson, English physician (First description of Parkinson's disease) and political activist, born in Shoreditch, London (d. 1824)

Person of interestGeorge Canning

1770 George Canning, British Prime Minister (Tory: 1827) and Foreign Secretary, born in London, England (d. 1827)

British Prime Minister George Canning
British Prime Minister
George Canning
  • 1772 Manuel Jose Quintana, Spanish author and poet (El Duque de Viseo), born in Madrid, Spain (d. 1857)
  • 1793 Nicolaas Christiaan Kist, Dutch Reformed theologian and church historian, born in Woerden, Netherlands (d. 1859)
  • 1794 Edward Everett, American statesman and orator, born in Dorchester, Massachusetts (d. 1865)
  • 1798 Macedonio Melloni, Italian physicist (radiant light), born in Parma, Italy (d. 1854)
  • 1801 Claude Tillier, French journalist and writer (My Uncle Benjamin), born in Clamecy, Nièvre, France (d. 1844)
  • 1810 Henry Rawlinson, British army officer and oriental scholar (major role in deciphering cuneiform), born in Chadlington, England (d. 1895)
  • 1815 Clara Fey, German Roman Catholic Nun and the founder of the Sisters of the Poor Child Jesus, born in Aachen, Prussia (d. 1894)
  • 1825 Ferdinand Lassalle, French socialist and political activist (Allgemeiner), born in Breslau, Prussia (d. 1864)
  • 1837 Elmer E. Ellsworth, American soldier who was the 1st Union officer killed in the American Civil War, born in Malta, New York (d. 1861)
  • 1856 Constantly Lievens, Flemish missionary in India, born in Moorslede, Belgium (d. 1893)
  • 1862 Charles Evans Hughes, American statesman, Republican politician and 11th Chief Justice of Supreme Court (1930-41), born in Glens Falls, New York (d. 1948)
  • 1862 William Wallace Campbell, American astronomer and Director of Lick Observatory, born in Hancock County, Ohio (d. 1938)
  • 1866 Carla Ford, wife of industrialist Henry Ford
  • 1866 Bernard O'Dowd, Australian poet, born in Beaufort, Australia (d. 1953)
  • 1867 John Paulus Lotsy, Dutch botanist and geneticist (Resumptio Genetics), born in Dordrecht, Netherlands (d. 1931)
  • 1867 Mark Keppel, Superintendent of Los Angeles County Schools from 1902-1928, born in Butte County, California (d. 1928)
  • 1869 Kasturba Gandhi, Wife of Mahatma Gandhi, born in Gujarat, India (d. 1944)
  • 1869 Gustav Vigeland, Norwegian sculptor, born in Mandal, Norway (d. 1943)
  • 1873 Edward Lawson, Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross, born in Newcastle upon Tyne, England (d. 1955)
  • 1876 Paul Henry, Northern Irish artist, born in Belfast, Ireland (d. 1958)
  • 1879 Leendert Round, Dutch sculptor (entrance Rotterdam Zoo)
  • 1890 Donna Rachele Mussolini, wife of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, born in Predappio, Romagna, Kingdom of Italy (d. 1979)
  • 1893 Dean Acheson, American statesman and U.S. Secretary of State (1949-53), born in Middletown, Connecticut (d. 1971)
  • 1893 Johannes Theodoor Thijsse, Dutch director of Delft Hydraulics Laboratory, born in Amsterdam (d. 1984)
  • 1896 Léo-Paul Desrosiers, Quebec novelist (Les Engagés du Grand Portage), born in Berthier, Canada (d. 1967)
  • 1897 Caspar Neher, Austrian-German set designer and librettist, born in Augsburg, Germany (d. 1962)

Person of interestPercy Lavon Julian

1899 Percy Lavon Julian, African American chemist who received 130 patents, pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs from plants, born in Montgomery, Alabama (d. 1975)

  • 1900 Sándor Márai, Hungarian writer (A gyertyák csonkig égnek), born in Kassa, Hungary (d. 1989)
  • 1901 Adriano Olivetti, Italian engineer and manufacturer (typewriter), born in Ivrea, Italy (d. 1960)
  • 1901 Glenway Wescott, American writer (Apartment in Athens), born in Kewaskum, Wisconsin (d. 1987)
  • 1904 Arthur Ernest Mourant, British hematologist, born in La Hougue Bie, Jersey (d. 1994)
  • 1905 József Attila, Hungarian poet, born in Ferencváros, Budapest, Austria-Hungary (d. 1937)
  • 1906 Dalia "Dale" Messick, American cartoonist (Brenda Starr, Reporter), born in South Bend, Indiana (d. 2005)
  • 1907 Ivor Spencer-Thomas, English farmer, entrepreneur and inventor, born in Llanymynech, Powys (d. 2001)
  • 1908 Masaru Ibuka, Japanese electronics industrialist (Sony Corp), born in Nikkō City, Japan (d. 1997)
  • 1908 Jane Bolin, first African American female judge, born in Poughkeepsie, New York (d. 2007)
  • 1910 António de Spínola, Portuguese general and conservative President of Portugal (1974), born in Estremoz, Portugal (d. 1996)
  • 1910 Henry William Collins, English artist, born in Colchester, Essex (d. 1994)
  • 1913 Oleg Cassini, American fashion designer (for Jackie Kennedy), born in Paris, France (d. 2006)
  • 1917 David Westheimer, American novelist (Von Ryan's Express), born in Houston, Texas (d. 2005)
  • 1918 Jean-Claude Servan-Schreiber, French journalist, born in Paris
  • 1918 Richard Wainwright, English politician, Liberal MP for Colne Valley (1966–70), born in Leeds (d. 2003)
  • 1919 Hugh Carey, American politician and attorney (Gov-D-NY), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 2011)
  • 1919 Sir Raymond Carr, English historian and warden (St Antony's College Oxford), born in Bath, Somerset
  • 1920 Marlen Haushofer, Austrian writer (The Wall), born in Frauenstein, Austria (d. 1970)
  • 1920 Emilio Colombo, Italian Prime Minister (1970-72), born in Potenza, Basilicata (d. 2013)
  • 1921 Martin Buckmaster, 3rd Viscount Buckmaster, British diplomat
  • 1922 Antoine Blondin, French writer (L'Europe buissonnière), born in Paris (d. 1991)
  • 1923 Theodore Isaac Rubin, American psychiatrist and author credited with popularising psychotherapy, born in Brooklyn, New York City (d. 2019)
  • 1925 Johan van Zonderen, Dutch painter, born in Amsterdam (d. 1996)
  • 1925 Rik Kuijpers, Belgian director (Sea gulls die in the harbor), born in Mortsel, Belgium
  • 1925 Pierre Péladeau, Canadian businessman and founder of Quebecor, born in Montreal (d. 1997)

Person of interestEthel Kennedy

1928 Ethel Kennedy (née Skakel), American human-rights campaigner (wife of Bobby Kennedy), born in Chicago, Illinois

Bobby Kennedy's Wife Ethel Kennedy
Bobby Kennedy's Wife
Ethel Kennedy
  • 1929 Lawrence Coughlin, American lawyer and politician, U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania, born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania (d. 2001)
  • 1930 Clive Exton, British scriptwriter and playwright, born in Islington, London
  • 1930 James Ferman, American director and secretary (British Board of Film Classification), born in New York (d. 2002)
  • 1930 Joseph Burnett-Stuart, CEO (Robert Fleming Holdings)
  • 1930 Nicholas F. Brady, American politician and U.S. Secretary of Treasury (1988-93), born in NYC, New York
  • 1930 Bill Hefner, American politician, Democratic U.S. Congressman from North Carolina, born in Elora, Tennessee (d. 2009)
  • 1930 Anton LaVey, American founder of the Church of Satan, born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1997)
  • 1932 Francis G. Neubeck, USAF pilot and astronaut, born in Washington, D.C.
  • 1933 Tony Brown, American journalist (Tony Brown's Journal), born in Charleston, West Virginia
  • 1933 Denis Goldberg, South African anti-apartheid activist (convicted alongside Mandela), born in Cape Town (d. 2020)
  • 1934 Dame Anne Poole, British chief nursing officer (Department of Health)
  • 1934 Mark Strand, American poet, editor and translator (Another Republic), born in Summerside, Prince Edward Island, Canada (d. 2014)
  • 1934 Richard A. Garland, artist and photographer (d. 1994)

Person of interestRichard Kuklinski

1935 Richard Kuklinski, American mafia hit-man, born in Jersey City, New Jersey (d. 2006)

Contract Killer Richard Kuklinski
Contract Killer
Richard Kuklinski
  • 1936 Janet Allen, Headmistress (Benenden School)
  • 1938 Michael Deaver, Reagan Administration Deputy White House Chief of Staff, born in Bakersfield, California (d. 2007)
  • 1941 Frederick "Rick" Hauck, American astronaut (STS-7, STS 51-A, STS-26), born in Long Beach, California
  • 1941 Ellen Goodman, American political columnist (Pulitzer 1980), born in Newton, Massachusetts
  • 1942 Anatoly Nikolayevich Berezovoi, Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz T-5), born in Enem, Russia (d. 2014)
  • 1943 Egbert Dommering, Dutch lawyer
  • 1943 John Montagu, 11th Earl of Sandwich, British entrepreneur, politician and nobleman
  • 1944 R. J. B Knight, British deputy director (National Maritime Museum)
  • 1946 Bob Harris, English radio presenter (The Old Grey Whistle Test, Time Out), born in Northampton, England
  • 1947 Michael Hindley, British politician, Member of the European Parliament, born in Blackburn, England
  • 1947 Michael Wright, British academic, Vice-Chancellor of Aston University
  • 1947 Lev Bulat, Russian physicist, born in Chernovtsy, Ukraine
  • 1948 Marcello Lippi, Italian football coach, born in Viareggio, Italy
  • 1951 Doris Angleton, American socialite and murder victim (d. 1997)
  • 1951 James Patrick Kelly, American sci-fi author (Think Like a Dinosaur), born in Mineola, New York
  • 1953 Andrew Wiles, British mathematician (number theory), born in Cambridge, England
  • 1953 Guy Verhofstadt, 47th Prime Minister of Belgium (1999-2008), born in Dendermonde, Belgium
  • 1955 Piers J Sellers, English astronaut and climate scientist, born in Sussex (d. 2016)
  • 1955 Kevin Brady, American politician (Rep Texas (R) 1997-), born in Vermillion, South Dakota
  • 1963 Chris Ferguson, American professional poker player, born in Los Angeles, California

Weddings in History

LoveWedding of Interest

1799 Politician Henry Clay (21) weds Lucretia Hart in Lexington, Kentucky

Legislator and Orator Henry Clay
Legislator and Orator
Henry Clay

LoveWedding of Interest

1888 Industrialist Henry Ford (24) weds Clara Jane Bryant (22) in Greenfield Township, Michigan

Ford Motor Company Founder Henry Ford
Ford Motor Company Founder
Henry Ford

LoveWedding of Interest

1969 Future South African president F. W. de Klerk marries Marike Willemse

South African President F. W. de Klerk
South African President
F. W. de Klerk

Deaths in History

  • 678 Donus, Italian Pope (676-78), dies
  • 1034 Romanus III Argyrus, Byzantine emperor (1028-34), assassinated by wife at 66 or 67
  • 1240 Llywelyn ab Iorwerth the Great, monarch of Wales (1194-1240), dies
  • 1500 Michael T Marullus, Greeks poet, drowns
  • 1512 Gaston de Foix, French pretender to Navarra throne, dies in battle
  • 1554 Thomas Wyatt the younger, English rebel (b. 1521)
  • 1612 Edward Wightman, English Baptist preacher, burnt at the stake in Lichfield for heresy (b. 1566)
  • 1626 Marin Getaldić, Croatian mathematician (b. 1568)
  • 1712 Richard Simon, French Biblical critic (b. 1638)
  • 1723 John Robinson, English diplomat and prelate, dies at 72
  • 1783 Nikita I Panin, Russian earl/ambassador in Denmark, dies at 64
  • 1798 Karl Wilhelm Ramler, German poet (b. 1725)
  • 1812 Gottlieb Schick, German painter (Opfer Noachs), dies at 35
  • 1838 Piet [Petrus Lafras] Uys, South African pioneer (Great Pull), murdered at 40
  • 1839 John Galt, Scottish novelist (Annals of the Parish), dies at 59
  • 1842 John England, bishop of Charleston Carolina, dies
  • 1854 Karl Adolph von Basedow, German artist (Ziekte van Basedow), dies at 55
  • 1856 Juan Santamaría, national hero of Costa Rica (b. 1831)
  • 1861 Francisco González Bocanegra, Mexican poet (b. 1824)
  • 1873 Edward Canby, U.S. general (b. 1817)
  • 1875 Heinrich Schwabe, discoverer (11-year sunspot cycle), dies
  • 1881 Kristian Mandrup Elster, Norwegian author (Torn Trondal), dies at 40
  • 1884 Charles Reade, English novelist (Cloister & Hearth), dies at 69
  • 1890 Joseph Merrick, "The Elephant Man", dies of asphyxia at 27
  • 1894 Constantin Lipsius, German architect (b. 1832)
  • 1895 Julius Lothar Meyer, German Chemist, dies at 64
  • 1900 Seth Barton, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), dies at 70
  • 1902 General Jacobus Potgieter, South African Boer commander, dies in Second Boer War Battle of Rooiwal, South African Republic
  • 1903 Gemma Galgani, Italian saint, dies at 25

Person of interestJames Anthony Bailey

1906 James Anthony Bailey, American circus ringmaster and showman (Barnum & Bailey), dies at 58

Circus Showman and Businessman James Anthony Bailey
Circus Showman and Businessman
James Anthony Bailey
  • 1906 Francis Pharcellus Church, American editor and publisher (The New York Sun - "Yes, Virginia, There Is A Santa Claus"), dies at 67
  • 1916 Richard Harding Davis, American journalist and author (Soldiers of Fortune, The King's Jackal), dies of a heart attack at 52
  • 1921 Augusta Victoria, Queen of Prussia, wife of Emperor Wilhelm II, dies at 62

Person of interestLuther Burbank

1926 Luther Burbank, American horticulturist who developed more than 800 strains and varieties of plants, dies of gastrointestinal complications at 77

Horticulturist Luther Burbank
Luther Burbank
  • 1934 John Collier, English painter (Lady Godiva) and writer, dies at 84
  • 1939 S.S. Van Dine [pseudonym for William Huntingdon Wright], American critic and detective writer (Philo Vance), dies at 50
  • 1945 Kamiel van Baelen, Flemish author and resistance fighter (Mensch op Weg), dies at 29
  • 1947 Louise Peete, American convicted serial killer, dies at 66
  • 1958 Konstantin Yuon, Russian painter, dies at 82
  • 1967 Donald Sangster, Jamaican prime-minister (b. 1911)
  • 1970 John H O'Hara, American journalist (Pal Joey, Rage to Live), dies at 65
  • 1980 Charlotte Henry, dies
  • 1981 Marie Ney, dies at 85

Person of interestEnver Hoxha

1985 Enver Hoxha, Albanian post-war communist leader and dictator of Albania (1944-85), dies at 76

Dictator of Albania Enver Hoxha
Dictator of Albania
Enver Hoxha
  • 1987 Erskine Caldwell, American novelist (Tobacco Road, God's Little Acre), dies at 83
  • 1987 Primo Levi, Italian chemist and writer (Survival in Auschwitz), dies at 67
  • 1989 Henk van Galen Last, Dutch journalist, dies at 68
  • 1990 Xenophon Zolotas, Greek economist, Prime Minister of Greece, dies at 86
  • 1992 Eve Merriam [Moskovitz], American writer and poet (Inner City Mother Goose), dies of liver cancer at 75
  • 1992 Alejandro Obregón, Colombian painter, dies of a brain tumor at 71
  • 1992 Robert Houben, Belgian politician (Minister of Public Health, 1958), dies at 86
  • 1993 Mohammed el-Himi, brigade-general of Egyptian police, murdered
  • 1993 Rahmon Nabiyev, Tajik politician (First Secretary of The Communist Party, 1982-85; President of Tadzjikistan, 1991-92), dies at 63
  • 1994 John Nicolaas Block, Dutch aviation pioneer (Martinair, Transavia), dies at 64
  • 1996 Daniel Wolf, American journalist, dies at 80
  • 1996 Edwin Clarke, British neurologist, medical historian,and museum keeper, dies of pancreatic cancer at 76
  • 1996 Jessica Dubroff, American aviator (attempting to become the youngest person to fly a light utility aircraft across the United States), crashed at 7
  • 1996 Louis Osman, British artist, goldsmith, architect, and craftsman, dies at 82
  • 1996 Marcel Bleustein-Blanchet, French advertising magnate and Founder of Publicis Groupe, dies at 89
  • 1997 Michael Dorris, writer, commits suicide at 52
  • 2003 Cecil Howard Green, British geophysicist and businessman (b. 1900)
  • 2005 André François, Hungarian-French cartoonist, dies at 89
  • 2005 Maurice R. Hilleman, American microbiologist who developed over 36 vaccines including measles, mumps, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, chickenpox, meningitis, pneumonia, dies at 85

Person of interestKurt Vonnegut

2007 Kurt Vonnegut Jr, American author, dies from head trauma at 84

  • 2007 Ronald Speirs, American Army officer (CO of Easy Company), dies at 86
  • 2007 Janet McDonald, American novelist (b. 1954)
  • 2008 Merlin German, United States Marine
  • 2009 Corín Tellado, Spanish romance novelist, sold the most books in Spanish (400 million), dies at 81
  • 2012 Ahmed Ben Bella, Algerian politician, first president of Algeria (1963-65), dies at 93
  • 2013 Hilary Koprowski, Polish virologist and immunologist, dies at 96
  • 2018 Gillian Ayres, British abstract painter and printmaker, dies at 88
  • 2019 Frances Swem Anderson, American technologist (nuclear medicine), dies at 105