On This Day

On This Day in History for April 12

Events in History

  • 467 Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire
  • 1065 Pilgrims under bishop Gunther of Bamberg reach Jerusalem
  • 1204 4th Crusade occupies and plunders Constantinople
  • 1229 Queen Blanche of Castile & Earl Raymond VII of Toulouse sign peace
  • 1545 French King Francois I orders protestants of Vaudois to be killed
  • 1557 Cuenca is founded in Ecuador
  • 1606 England adopts the Union Flag, replaced in 1801 by current Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack
  • 1648 University of Harderwijk Neth solemn opens
  • 1654 Ordinance of Union between England and Scotland passed by the Council of State
  • 1713 Dutch State-Gen signs peace with France: Netherlands loses Orange Princedom
  • 1770 British parliament repeals the Townshend Revenue Acts, which had fueled opposition to British rule in colonial America
  • 1776 Halifax resolution for independence adopted by North Carolina

Victory in BattleBattle of the Saintes

1782 Battle at Les Saintes: British fleet under Admiral George Rodney defeats the French fleet under Comte de Grasse off Dominica in the West Indies. Prevents a planned French and Spanish invasion of Jamaica.

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The French flagship, the Ville de Paris on the right, in action against HMS Barfleur
The French flagship, the Ville de Paris on the right, in action against HMS Barfleur
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  • 1787 Philadelphia's Free African Society forms
  • 1811 1st US colonists on Pacific coast arrive at Cape Disappointment, Washington
  • 1820 Alexander Ypsilantis is declared leader of Filiki Eteria, a secret organization to overthrow Ottoman rule over Greece.
  • 1844 Texan envoys sign Treaty of Annexation with the United States
  • 1857 French novelist Gustave Flaubert's first novel and masterpiece "Madame Bovary" is published in book form
  • 1859 Hibernia Savings & Loan Society of San Francisco incorporates

Battle of InterestBattle of Fort Sumter

1861 Fort Sumter in South Carolina is attacked by the Confederacy, beginning the American Civil War

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The Confederate bombardment of Fort Sumter, the first battle of the American Civil War
The Confederate bombardment of Fort Sumter, the first battle of the American Civil War
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  • 1862 James Andrews steals Confederate train (General) at Kennesaw, Georgia
  • 1862 Union troops occupy Fort Pulaski, Georgia
  • 1863 -14] Gunboat battle at Bayou Teche, Louisiana
  • 1864 Battle of Blair's Landing, Louisiana

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1864 Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest captures Fort Pillow, Tennessee

Confederate General and KKK Grand Wizard Nathan Bedford Forrest
Confederate General and KKK Grand Wizard
Nathan Bedford Forrest
  • 1869 North Carolina legislature passes anti-Ku Klux Klan Law

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1872 Jesse James gang robs bank in Columbia, Kentucky (1 dead/$1,500)

Outlaw Jesse James
Jesse James
  • 1877 British annex Transvaal, South Africa
  • 1883 French troops under lt-colonel Borgnis-Desbordes occupy Bamako Senegal

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1887 Henrik Ibsen's "Rosmersholm" premieres in Oslo

Playwright Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
  • 1892 George C Blickensderfer patents portable typewriter
  • 1893 "Massacre of Hoornkrans": Curt von François, colonial Governor of German South West Africa (now Nambia), leads attack by 225 Schutztruppe soldiers on Nama leader Hendrik Witbooi's headquarters at Hoornkrans; shelling of the village causes tremendous civilian casualties. Witbooi escapes and wages several months of guerrilla warfare against the German forces.
  • 1894 British & Belgian secret accord on dividing Central Africa
  • 1898 US Army transfers Yerba Buena Island in San Francisco Bay to Navy
  • 1900 The US Congress passes the Foraker Act, establishing Puerto Rico as an unincorporated territory (effective 1 May)
  • 1905 French Dufaux brothers test helicopter
  • 1905 Hippodrome arena opens (NYC)
  • 1907 Belgium government of De Stain de Naeyer resigns
  • 1907 In Switzerland, parliament passes a new army bill reorganizing the nation's forces into a standing militia, with training required for all males
  • 1908 Fire at the Boston Blacking Company (producer of leather dyes), spreads by high wind, kills 19 and makes 17,000 homeless in Chelsea, Massachusetts
  • 1911 1st non-stop London-Paris flight (Pierre Prier in 3h56m)
  • 1916 Irish nationalist activist and poet Roger Casement boards submarine U-19 at Wilmshaven, Germany, bound for a rendezvous with the Aud at Tralee
  • 1917 Bijou Theater opens at 222 W 45th St NYC (Demolished 1982)
  • 1917 Domenico Scarlatti & Jeab Cocteaus ballet premieres in Rome
  • 1919 British Parliament passes a 48-hour work week with minimum wages
  • 1924 WLS-AM in Chicago begins radio transmissions
  • 1926 Dutch Catholic Radio Broadcast (KRO) forms

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1927 Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek begins counter revolution in Shanghai

Chinese Military and Political Leader Chiang Kai-shek
Chinese Military and Political Leader
Chiang Kai-shek
  • 1931 Spanish voters reject the monarchy
  • 1932 Emmanuel Chabriers & Balanchines ballet premieres in Monte Carlo
  • 1933 Moffatt Field air station commissioned
  • 1934 Second highest ever wind speed of 372 km/h (231 mph) recorded on Mt Washington
  • 1934 The US Auto-Lite Strike begins, culminating in a five-day melee between Ohio National Guard troops and 6,000 strikers and picketers.
  • 1935 Germany prohibits publishing "not-Arian" writers
  • 1935 Royal Proclamation sets design of Canada's new Jubilee Silver Dollar
  • 1935 First flight of the Bristol Blenheim
  • 1938 1st US law requiring medical tests for marriage licenses (NY)
  • 1940 Italy annexes Albania

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1941 Vichy-France's head of government Admiral François Darlan consults with Adolf Hitler

Admiral and Prime Minister of Vichy France François Darlan
Admiral and Prime Minister of Vichy France
François Darlan
Dictator of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Dictator of Nazi Germany
Adolf Hitler
  • 1942 Japan kills about 400 Filipino officers in Bataan
  • 1943 Allies conquer Soussa, North-Africa
  • 1943 Dutch Catholic University Nijmegen closed

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1944 Lillian Hellman's "Searching Wind" premieres in NYC

Playwright Lillian Hellman
Lillian Hellman
  • 1945 Canadian troops liberate Nazi concentration camp Westerbork, Netherlands

Person of InterestDeath of FDR

1945 US President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies in office and Vice President Harry Truman is sworn in as 33rd US President

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The famous unfinished portrait of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, started by Elizabeth Shoumatoff on the day of his death
The famous unfinished portrait of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, started by Elizabeth Shoumatoff on the day of his death
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  • 1946 Syria gains independence from France
  • 1951 Israeli Knesset officially designates April 13 as Holocaust Day
  • 1952 Salaheddine Baccouche forms Tunisian government
  • 1953 Keizo Yamada runs fastest marathon to date, at Boston
  • 1954 Belgian Van Houtte government resigns
  • 1954 Joe Turner releases "Shake, Rattle & Roll"

Historic DiscoveryPolio

1955 Polio vaccine tested by Jonas Salk announced to be 'safe and effective' and is given full approval by the US Food and Drug Administration

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Children with polio in a US hospital, inside an iron lung. In about 0.5% of cases, patients suffered from paralysis, sometimes resulting in the inability to breathe. More often, limbs would be paralyzed.
Children with polio in a US hospital, inside an iron lung. In about 0.5% of cases, patients suffered from paralysis, sometimes resulting in the inability to breathe. More often, limbs would be paralyzed.
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  • 1956 S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike's government takes office in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka)
  • 1957 Jim Spalding set a 2,088 pin nine-game bowling record
  • 1957 USSR performs atmospheric nuclear test
  • 1958 Flemish Open air museum opens in Bokrijk
  • 1959 13th Tony Awards: J B & Redhead win
  • 1959 France Observator reports torture practice by French army in Algeria
  • 1960 Bert Haanstra wins Oscar for "Glass"

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1961 Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first person to orbit Earth (Vostok 1)

Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Gagarin
  • 1962 San Mateo County withdraws from BART (San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit) district
  • 1963 Police in Birmingham, Alabama, use dogs & cattle prods on peaceful demonstrators
  • 1966 1st B-52 bombing on North Vietnam
  • 1973 France recognizes North Vietnam
  • 1973 Sudan adopts constitution
  • 1973 Swaziland suspends constitution
  • 1975 Six Catholic civilians are killed in a Ulster Volunteer Force gun and grenade attack on Strand Bar in Belfast, North Ireland
  • 1976 India set 403 to win by WI They get them, 6 wkts 7 overs spare

Book releaseHistoric Publication

1976 Anne Rice's debut novel "Interview with a Vampire" is published by Knopf

Author Anne Rice
Anne Rice
  • 1979 Soyuz 33 returns to Earth
  • 1980 BCMA, Black Consciousness Movement of Azania, forms
  • 1980 Samuel Doe takes control of Liberia in a coup d'etat, ending over 130 years of national democratic presidential succession.
  • 1981 Maiden voyage Space Transit System-space shuttle Columbia launched
  • 1983 Harold Washington elected Chicago's 1st black mayor
  • 1983 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1985 16th Shuttle Mission (51D)-Discovery 4 launched-with Senator Jake Garn
  • 1986 20,000 mine workers protest closing of Hasselt Belgium mines
  • 1987 Texaco files for bankruptcy
  • 1988 Harvard University patents a genetically engineered mouse (1st for animal life)
  • 1988 Sonny Bono elected mayor of Palm Springs California

Birthdays in History

  • 599 BC Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism (d. 527 BC)
  • 812 Muhammad at-Taqi, Muslim Shia Imam, born in Medina, Abbasid Empire (d. 835)
  • 1484 Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, Italian architect, born in Florence (d. 1546)
  • 1500 Joachim Camerarius [Liebhard Kammerer], German classical scholar, born in Bamberg, Germany (d. 1574)
  • 1526 Marc-Antoine de Muret, French humanist, born in Muret, France (d. 1585)
  • 1550 Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, Lord Great Chamberlain of England, born in Hedingham Castle, Essex, England (d. 1604)
  • 1577 Christian IV of Denmark, King of Denmark and Norway (1588-1648), born in Frederiksborg Palace, Denmark (d. 1648)
  • 1579 François de Bassompierre, marshal of France, born in Haroué, France (d. 1646)
  • 1695 Caspar Burman, Dutch historian and Mayor of Utrecht, born in Utrecht, Netherlands (d. 1755)
  • 1705 William Cookworthy, English chemist, born in Kingsbridge, Devon (d. 1780)
  • 1713 Guillaume Thomas François Raynal, French writer, born in Lapanouse, France (d. 1796)
  • 1724 Lyman Hall, American physician and signer (Declaration of Independence), born in Wallingford, Connecticut (d. 1790)
  • 1748 Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, French botanist (Classification of flowering plants), born in Lyon, France (d. 1836)
  • 1764 Dirk van den Boetzelaer, Regent of Holland, born in Leiden, Netherlands (d. 1819)

Person of interestHenry Clay

1777 Henry Clay, American politician known as "the Great Compromiser", born in Hanover County, Virginia (d. 1852)

Legislator and Orator Henry Clay
Legislator and Orator
Henry Clay
  • 1791 Francis Preston Blair, American journalist and newspaper editor (Washington Globe), born in Abingdon, Virginia (d. 1876)
  • 1792 John George Lambton, British statesman (1st Earl of Durham), born in London, England (d. 1840)
  • 1794 Germinal Pierre Dandelin, Belgian mathematician (geometry), born in Paris (d. 1847)
  • 1796 George N. Briggs, American lawyer and politician, 19th Governor of Massachusetts, born in Adams, Massachusetts (d. 1861)
  • 1799 Henri Druey, Swiss politician and a founding father of constitutional democracy in Switzerland, born in Faoug, Switzerland (d. 1855)
  • 1801 Henry de Cock, Dutch reformed vicar and secession leader, born in Veendam, Groningen, the Netherlands (d. 1842)
  • 1802 Francis Libermann, French religious leader (Congregation of Heart), born in Saverne, France (d. 1852)
  • 1823 Aleksandr Ostrovsky [Alexander Ostrovsky], Russian playwright (Artists & Admirers), born in Moscow, Russian Empire (d. 1886)
  • 1831 Constantin Meunier, Belgian painter and sculptor, born in Etterbeek, Belgium (d. 1905)
  • 1831 George B. Anderson, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Hillsborough, North Carolina (d. 1862)

Person of interestGrenville M. Dodge

1831 Grenville M. Dodge, American railroad engineer (Transcontinental Railroad-Union Pacific) and Major General (Union Army), born in Danvers, Massachusetts (d. 1916)

Railroad Engineer and Union General Grenville M. Dodge
Railroad Engineer and Union General
Grenville M. Dodge
  • 1838 John Shaw Billings, American librarian and surgeon, born in Allensville, Switzerland County, Indiana (d. 1913)
  • 1848 José Gautier Benítez, Puerto Rican poet, born in Caguas, Puerto Rico (d. 1880)
  • 1852 Ferdinand von Lindemann, German mathematician (Proving π ["pi"] is a transcendental number), born in Hanover, German Confederation (now Germany) (d. 1939)
  • 1856 William Conway, 1st Baron Conway of Allington, English historian and explorer (Spitzbergen), born in Rochester, Kent (d. 1937)
  • 1863 Raul Pompeia, Brazilian writer (O Ateneu), born in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (d. 1895)
  • 1868 Akiyama Saneyuki, Japanese officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy, born in Matsuyama, Iyo Province, Japan (d. 1918)
  • 1869 Henri Désiré Landru, French sex murderer, born in Paris (d. 1922)
  • 1871 Ioannis Metaxas, Greek general and dictator (1936-41), born in Ithaca, Greece (d. 1941)
  • 1878 Richard B Goldschmidt, German-American zoologist (butterflies), born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany (d. 1958)
  • 1879 Frederic G. Melcher, American publisher and editor who founded children's book week, born in Malden, Massachusetts (d. 1963)
  • 1883 Imogen Cunningham, American photographer (1965 ASMP award), born in Portland, Oregon (d. 1976)
  • 1884 Otto Meyerhof, German psychologist and biochemist (Nobel 1922), born in Hannover, Germany (d. 1951)
  • 1885 Robert Delaunay, French artist, born in Paris, France (d. 1941)
  • 1885 R. D. Banerji, Indian archaeologist and historian (discovered ancient Indus city of Mohenjo-daro), born in Berhampore, British India (d. 1930) [1]
  • 1894 Francisco Craveiro Lopes, 12th President of Portugal (1951-58), born in Lisbon, Portugal (d. 1964)
  • 1901 Lowell Stockman, American politician, U.S. House of Representatives from Oregon, born in Helix, Oregon (d. 1962)
  • 1902 Louis J. M. Beel, Prime Minister of Netherlands (1946-48, 58-59), born in Roermond, Netherlands (d. 1977)
  • 1903 Jan Tinbergen, Dutch economist (Plan of Labor, Nobel 1969), born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1994)
  • 1904 Harald Penrose, British test pilot, born in Hereford, England (d. 1996)
  • 1907 Felix de Weldon, Austrian-American sculptor (Marine Corps War Memorial), born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary (d. 2003)
  • 1908 Carlos Lleras Restrepo, President of Colombia (1966-70), born in Bogotá, Colombia (d. 1994)
  • 1908 Robert Lee Scott, Jr., American General and Air Force pilot, born in Waynesboro, Georgia (d. 2006)
  • 1910 Jürgen Rausch, German philosopher and author (End of the Playboys), born in Bremen, Germany (d. 1995)
  • 1911 Darrell A. Amyx, American classical archaeologist (Greek Ceramics), born in Exeter, California (d. 1997)
  • 1911 Mahmoud Younis, Suez Canal nationalization engineer, born in Cairo, Egypt (d. 1976)
  • 1912 Georges Franju, French film director (Judex; Les Yeux sans visage - Eyes Without A Face), born in Fougères, Ille-et-Vilaine, France (d. 1987)
  • 1912 Harold Maguire, British air marshal, born in Kilkishen, Ireland (d. 2001)
  • 1913 Keiko Fukuda, Japanese-born American martial artist, born in Tokyo, Japan (d. 2013)
  • 1914 Armen Alchian, American economist and professor (University of California), born in Fresno, California (d. 2013)
  • 1915 Emil Petaja, American sci-fi author (Star Mill, Tramontane), born in Milltown, Missoula County, Montana (d. 2000)
  • 1916 Beverly Cleary, American Newberry Medal winning writer of children's and young adult fiction (Ramona series, 1955-99), born in McMinnville, Oregon (d. 2021)
  • 1916 Benjamin Libet, American scientist (human consciousness), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 2007)
  • 1919 Lady Ricketts, CEO (National Association of Citizens' Advice Bureaux)
  • 1919 Maurice Girodias, French publisher and founder (Olympia Press), born in Paris (d. 1990)
  • 1920 H R Hewitt, CEO (Johnson Matthey)
  • 1920 Robert Fizdale, American pianist (Misia), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1995)
  • 1921 Alfred Mabbs, British archivist (Public Records Office), born in London (d. 2009)
  • 1924 Julius Moormann, Dutch student and resistance fighter (WWII), born in Nijmegen, Netherlands (d. 1944)
  • 1924 Peter Safar, Austrian physician (pioneered cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 2003)
  • 1925 Johnny Jordan, English cameraman (You Only Live Twice), born in Oxfordshire, England (d. 1969)
  • 1925 Evelyn Berezin, American computer pioneer, invented first word processor, born in the Bronx, New York (d. 2018)
  • 1927 Patrick Meehan, Scottish petty criminal, wrongly convicted of murder
  • 1928 Brooklyn Supreme, Belgian stallion, heaviest known horse (1450 kg)
  • 1928 Uwe Kitzinger, President (Templeton College, Oxford), born in Nuremberg, Germany
  • 1928 Russell L. Rogers, American electrical engineer and astronaut (X-20), born in Lawrence, Kansas (d. 1967)
  • 1930 Patrick Edmund Pery, 6th Earl of Limerick, Irish peer and public servant, born in London
  • 1930 Louw de Graaf, Dutch Assistant Secretary of Social Affairs (VDA)
  • 1930 Manuel Neri, American sculptor (life-size figurative sculptures), born in Sanger, California
  • 1932 Jack Gelber, American playwright (The Connection, Apple), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 2003)
  • 1932 Dennis Banks, American activist (leader of the American Indian Movement), born in Leech Lake Indian Reservation, Minnesota (d. 2017)
  • 1932 Lakshman Kadirgamar, Sri Lankan politician (Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sri Lanka), born in Colombo, British Ceylon (d. 2005)
  • 1934 Charlie Robertson, American politician (mayor of York, Pennsylvania 1994-2002), born in York, Pennsylvania, (d. 2017)
  • 1935 Wendy Savage, British obstetrician and gynaecologist, born in Surrey, England
  • 1936 Kennedy Simmonds, Prime Minister of Saint Kitts & Nevis (1983-95), born in Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • 1937 Igor Volk, Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz T-12) and test pilot, born in Zmiiv, Ukraine (d. 2017)
  • 1939 Alan Ayckbourn, English playwright and director, born in London, England
  • 1940 John Hagee, American pastor and televangelist, born in Goose Creek, Texas

Person of interestJacob Zuma

1942 Jacob Zuma, South African politician, President of South Africa (2009-18), born in Nkandla, South Africa

President of South Africa Jacob Zuma
President of South Africa
Jacob Zuma
  • 1944 Lisa Jardine, British historian and writer, born in Oxford, England (d. 2015)
  • 1945 Lee Jong-wook, Korean Director-General of the World Health Organization, born in Seoul, South Korea (d. 2006)
  • 1947 Tom Clancy, American author (Rainbow Six, The Hunt for Red October), born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 2013)
  • 1947 Antonin Kratochvil, Czech-American photojournalist (VII Photo Agency), born in Litoměřice, Czechoslovakia
  • 1948 Joschka Fischer, German politician and Foreign Minister of Germany (1998-2005), born in Gerabronn, Germany
  • 1949 Scott Turow, American lawyer and author (Presumed Innocent), born in Chicago, Illinois
  • 1950 Kari Palaste, Finnish architect, born in Kajaani, Finland
  • 1950 Flavio Briatore, Italian businessman and F1 team principal (Renault F1), born in Verzuolo, Italy
  • 1950 Joyce Banda, President of Malawi (2012-2014), born in Malemia, Nyasaland
  • 1973 J. Scott Campbell, American comic book artist, born in East Tawas, Michigan
  • 1981 Tulsi Gabbard, American politician (Rep (D) Hawaii 2013-) 1st American-Samoan and Hindu member of Congress, born in Leloaloa, American Samoa

Person of interestDavid Hogg

2000 David Hogg, American gun control activist and author (#NeverAgain: A New Generation Draws the Line) who as a student survived the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting, born in Parkland, Florida

Author and Gun Control Activist David Hogg
Author and Gun Control Activist
David Hogg

Weddings in History

  • 1385 Duke of Burgundy, John the Fearless, marries Margaret of Bavaria in political double wedding with his sister
  • 1385 Willem van Oostervant of Bavaria weds Philip the Bold's daughter Marguerite (10)
  • 1583 William of Orange marries Louise de Coligny

LoveWedding of Interest

1842 Sardinia king Victor Emmanuel II (22) weds queen Adelaide of Austria (20) at Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi

King of Sardinia and Italy Victor Emmanuel II
King of Sardinia and Italy
Victor Emmanuel II

LoveWedding of Interest

1913 Author Upton Sinclair (34) weds writer Mary Craig (31)

LoveWedding of Interest

1918 American Playwright Eugene O'Neill marries second wife novelist Agnes Boulton

Playwright Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill

LoveWedding of Interest

1952 Cambodia king Norodom Sihanouk (29) weds Paule Monique Izzi

King of Cambodia Norodom Sihanouk
King of Cambodia
Norodom Sihanouk

LoveWedding of Interest

1986 Author Arianna Huffington (35) weds politician Michael Huffington (38)

Author and creator of The Huffington Post Arianna Huffington
Author and creator of The Huffington Post
Arianna Huffington
  • 2003 Prince Laurent of Belgium (39) weds land surveyor Claire Coombs (29) in Brussels, Belgium
  • 2014 Actress Ginnifer Goodwin (35) weds actor Josh Dallas (32) in Los Angeles, California

Deaths in History

  • 45 BC Gnaeus Pompeius, the Younger, Roman general
  • 65 Seneca the Younger, Roman philosopher, statesman and dramatist
  • 238 Gordian II, Roman co-Emperor with his father Gordian I, killed in battle at Carthage
  • 238 Gordian I, Roman Emperor, suicide, after losing battle at Carthage and death of son Gordian I
  • 352 Julius I, pope (337-52), dies
  • 434 Archbishop Maximianus of Constantinople
  • 1125 Vladislaus I of Bohemia (1109-17, 1120-25)
  • 1443 Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury
  • 1550 Claude of Lorraine, duke of Guise, dies at 53
  • 1555 Joanna of Castile (Joanna the mad), wife of Philip I of Castile dies at 75
  • 1675 Richard Bennett, English Colonial Governor of Virginia, dies at 65
  • 1687 Ambrose Dixon, Virginia Colony pioneer
  • 1704 Johan van Waveren Hudde, Dutch mathematician (Concerning Reduction of Equations) and Mayor of Amsterdam (1672-1703), dies at 76
  • 1748 William Kent, English sculptor/architect (Kensington Palace), dies
  • 1782 Metastasio, Italian poet and librettist (b. 1698)
  • 1795 Rainieri de Calzabigi, Italian librettist and poet, dies at 80
  • 1795 Johann Kaspar Basselet von La Rosée, Bavarian general, dies at 84

Person of interestCharles Messier

1817 Charles Messier, French astronomer (cataloguer of "M objects"), dies at 86

Astronomer Charles Messier
Charles Messier
  • 1828 Jean Henri Appelius, Dutch lawyer and politician (Minister of Finance), dies at 60
  • 1832 Shadrach Bond, American politician (1st Governor of Illinois, 1818 to 1822), dies of pneumonia at 58
  • 1845 Hendrik Marcus de Kock, Dutch general and politician (Lieutenant Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies 1826-30), dies at 65
  • 1850 Adoniram Judson, American Baptist missionary (b. 1788)
  • 1859 John Emde, German evangelist, dies at about 84
  • 1864 Thomas Green, US Confederate brigadier general, dies in battle at 50
  • 1876 Joseph Dana Webster, American civil engineer and Brevet Major General (Union Army), dies at 64

Person of interestBoss Tweed

1878 William Magear Tweed "Boss Tweed", American politician and corrupt New York fraudster, dies in prison of pneumonia at 55

Politician and Businessman Boss Tweed
Politician and Businessman
Boss Tweed
  • 1881 James L. Lardner, American naval officer (American Civil War), dies at 78
  • 1898 Elzéar-Alexandre Taschereau, Roman catholic archbishop of Quebec (b. 1820)
  • 1902 Marie Alfred Cornu, French physicist (b. 1842)
  • 1910 William Graham Sumner, American sociologist (Folkways), dies at 69

Person of interestClara Barton

1912 Clara Barton, American nurse and founder of the American Red Cross, dies of tuberculosis at 90

Pioneering Nurse and Humanitarian Clara Barton
Pioneering Nurse and Humanitarian
Clara Barton
  • 1938 Feodor Chaliapine, Russian author (Man & Mark), dies at 65
  • 1942 Johannes E Akkeringa, Dutch painter/etcher, dies at 80

Person of interestFranklin D. Roosevelt

1945 Franklin Roosevelt, 32nd US President (Democrat: 1933-1945), dies in office with the war almost won of a stroke at 63

32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • 1946 August Borms, Flemish nazi collaborator, executed at 67
  • 1946 F Guicciardi, writer, dies
  • 1947 Christian F L Leipoldt, South African writer (Die Moormansgat), dies
  • 1953 Lionel Logue, Australian speech therapist who treated King George VI (The Kings Speech), dies at 73

Person of interestArchibald McIndoe

1960 Archibald McIndoe, New Zealand plastic surgeon pioneer who rehabilitated badly burned Royal Air Force crew during WWII, dies in his sleep of a heart attack at 59 [or 11 April] [1]

Plastic Surgeon Archibald McIndoe
Plastic Surgeon
Archibald McIndoe
  • 1962 M. Visvesvaraya, Indian civil engineer and statesman (19th Diwan of the Mysore Kingdom), dies at 100
  • 1963 Alfred Métraux, Swiss anthropologist, dies at 60
  • 1966 Sumokil, president of Republic South Moluccas, executed
  • 1968 Heinrich Nordhoff, German automobile engineer and Volkswagen director (b. 1899)
  • 1972 C W Ceram [Kurt Marek], German/American writer (1st American), dies at 57
  • 1980 William R Tolbert Jr, Liberian President & 27 others killed in coup
  • 1986 Valentin Kataev, Russian writer (b. 1897)
  • 1987 Ewan Calague, economist/statistician (Social Security) dies at 90

Person of interestAlan Paton

1988 Alan Paton, South African author (Cry, the Beloved Country, Too Late the Phalarope) and anti-apartheid activist, dies of cancer at 85

Author and Apartheid Activist Alan Paton
Author and Apartheid Activist
Alan Paton
  • 1989 Abbie Hoffman, yippie peace activist of the 60's, dies at 52
  • 1991 James Schuyler, American poet (Pulitzer 1980), dies
  • 1993 Isaac Rojas, vp of Argentina (1955-58), dies
  • 1993 Patience Jarvis, dies of melanoma at 56
  • 1994 Harry la Fontaine, Danish/US resistance fighter/producer, dies at 81
  • 1996 Marthe Robert, French essayist and translator who influenced Sigmund Freud, dies at 82
  • 1996 Nancy Sheehan, writer, dies at 69
  • 1996 William Wilkinson, English conservationist and businessman, dies at 63

Person of interestGeorge Wald

1997 George Wald, American physiologist and biologist (Nobel Prize 1967, vitamin A in retina), dies at 90

Scientist George Wald
George Wald
  • 2001 Harvey Ball, American inventor and designer of popular 'smiley-face' graphic, dies at 79
  • 2003 Cecil H. Green, American manufacturer (b. 1900)
  • 2006 Puggy Pearson, American poker player (b. 1929)
  • 2007 Kevin Crease, Australian TV anchor (b. 1936)
  • 2008 Patrick 'Paddy' Hillery, 6th President of Ireland, EEC Commissioner and Irish Minister (b. 1923)
  • 2008 Jerry Zucker, Israeli-born American businessman (b. 1949)
  • 2009 John Maddox, British science writer and editor (Nature), dies at 83
  • 2015 Sheila Kitzinger, British author, anthropologist & child birth educator, dies at 86
  • 2016 Arnold Wesker, British playwright (Chips with Everything), dies at 83
  • 2018 John Melcher, American politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Montana), dies at 93
  • 2020 John Horton Conway, British mathematician (cellular automaton Game of Life), dies of COVID-19 complications at 82