On This Day

On This Day in History for April 15

Events in History

  • 69 Battle at Bedriacum, North-Italy
  • 1205 Battle at Adrianople: Bulgaria beats Emp Boudouin of Constantinople
  • 1250 Pope Innoncent III refuses Jews of Cordova, Spain, request to build a synagogue
  • 1250 Kublai is acclaimed the Great Khan by a Mongol Great Council
  • 1450 French defeat English at Battle of Formigny in 100 Years' War

Conference meetingMeeting of Interest

1493 -20/4] Columbus meets with the Spanish monarchs Isabella I and Ferdinand II in Barcelona

Explorer of the New World Christopher Columbus
Explorer of the New World
Christopher Columbus
Queen of Castile Isabella I of Castile
Queen of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
  • 1528 Pánfilo the Narváez, Spanish conquistador arrives in Florida with 350 men to a hostile reception from native indians

AppointmentAppointment of Interest

1534 Thomas Cromwell is appointed Chief Secretary to King Henry VIII of England

Lawyer and Statesman Thomas Cromwell
Lawyer and Statesman
Thomas Cromwell
King of England Henry VIII
King of England
Henry VIII
  • 1581 Cortes van Thomar accepts Philip II as king of Portugal
  • 1594 Fleming Pieter Stevens appointed royal painter of Rudolf II (Prague)
  • 1621 Hugo Grotius arrives in France after escaping prison in a book chest
  • 1632 Battle of Rain; Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus defeat Count Tilly of the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War.
  • 1654 England & Netherlands sign peace treaty

BattleDeclaration of War

1689 French King Louis XIV declares war on Spain

The Sun King of France Louis XIV
The Sun King of France
Louis XIV
  • 1697 Charles XII succeeds Charles XI as King of Sweden
  • 1715 Pocotaligo Massacre triggers the start of the Yamasee War in colonial South Carolina.

  • 1716 Great Northern War: Prussian troops occupy Swedish controlled German port of Wismar

Book releaseHistoric Publication

1755 Samuel Johnson's "A Dictionary of the English Language" published in London

Scholar and Lexicographer Samuel Johnson
Scholar and Lexicographer
Samuel Johnson
  • 1776 Duchess of Kingston found guilty of bigamy
  • 1788 Britain, Netherlands & Prussia sign peace treaty
  • 1793 Bank of England issues first £5 note

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1802 William Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy see a "long belt" of daffodils, inspiring the former to pen "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud".

  • 1817 1st American school for the deaf opens (Hartford, Connecticut)
  • 1850 City of San Francisco incorporated
  • 1851 Earl G Andressy sentenced to death in Hungary
  • 1853 Protestant church questions king Willem III RC bishops
  • 1858 Battle of Azimghur, Mexicans defeat Spanish loyalists

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1861 Federal army (75,000 volunteers) mobilized by US President Abraham Lincoln (US Civil War)

16th US President Abraham Lincoln
16th US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • 1864 General Steeles' Union troops occupies Camden, Arkansas

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1865 Otto von Bismarck elevated to rank of Count of Bismarck-Schönhausen

German Statesman Otto von Bismarck
German Statesman
Otto von Bismarck

AssassinationAbraham Lincoln's Deathbed

1865 Abraham Lincoln dies 9 hours after he is shot attending the play "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theatre in Washington

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The bed on which Abraham Lincoln died hours after being shot by John Wilkes Booth, taken shortly after Lincoln's body was removed
The bed on which Abraham Lincoln died hours after being shot by John Wilkes Booth, taken shortly after Lincoln's body was removed
Learn More
  • 1870 Last day US silver coins allow to circulate in Canada
  • 1874 NY legislature passes compulsory education law

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1874 First 'Impressionist' exhibition opens in Paris, features Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Pierre Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro and Berthe Morisot

Impressionist Painter Claude Monet
Impressionist Painter
Claude Monet
Painter Camille Pissarro
Painter
Camille Pissarro
Painter & Sculptor Pierre Auguste Renoir
Painter & Sculptor
Pierre Auguste Renoir
  • 1877 Boston-Somerville installs the world's 1st telephone in Massachusetts
  • 1878 Harley Procter introduces Ivory Soap

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1892 General Electric Company formed by merger of Thomas Edison's General Electric Company with Thomson-Houston Electric Company, arranged by J. P. Morgan and incorporated in NY

Industrialist and Banker J. P. Morgan
Industrialist and Banker
J. P. Morgan
Inventor Thomas Edison
Inventor
Thomas Edison
  • 1895 Josephine Blatt (US) makes hip-and-harness lift of 3564 lb (record)
  • 1900 Exposition Universelle (World's Fair) in Paris opens (till 12th Nov)
  • 1900 An early 50 mile race is won by an electric car in over 2 hrs
  • 1901 1st British motorized burial
  • 1901 Pope Leo XIII issues an allocution deploring hostile actions against the Roman Catholic Church throughout Europe
  • 1902 Pope Leo XIII encyclical "On Church in US"
  • 1902 Rioting and arson continue in Russia with peasants plundering estates to find food.
  • 1902 Russian minister of interior and head of secret police, Sipyengin, is assassinated by the 'Terror Brigade' of the Socialist Revolutionaries
  • 1906 The Armenian organization AGBU is established.
  • 1911 Jack Lawrence Theater (Playhouse) opens at 137 W 48th St NYC

Iceberg Sinks 'Unsinkable' TitanicIceberg Sinks 'Unsinkable' Titanic

1912 RMS Titanic sinks at 2:27 AM off Newfoundland as the band plays on, with the loss of between 1,490 and 1,635 people

Read Article
How one American newspaper reported the Titanic disaster
How one American newspaper reported the Titanic disaster
Read Article
  • 1915 Manuel de Falla's ballet "El Amor Brujo" premieres in Madrid
  • 1915 NY Giant Rube Marquard no-hits Bkln, 2-0

Book releaseHistoric Publication

1918 Georges Clémenceau publishes secret French/Austrian documents

Prime Minister of France Georges Clémenceau
Prime Minister of France
Georges Clémenceau
  • 1920 New Canadian small cent coin is released
  • 1920 Sacco & Vanzetti Trial: paymaster shot and killed along with his guard
  • 1921 Black Friday in Britain: leaders of transport and rail unions announce a decision not to call for strike action in support of the miners; despite widespread feeling decision a breach of solidarity and a betrayal of the miners
  • 1922 The legendary Poodle Dog Restaurant closes in San Francisco
  • 1923 1st sound on film public performance shown at Rialto Theater (NYC)
  • 1923 Insulin becomes generally available for diabetics
  • 1924 Flemish-Walloon riots in Louvain, Belgium, 1 dead
  • 1924 WHO-AM in Des Moines Iowa begins radio transmissions
  • 1924 Rand McNally publishes its first road atlas.
  • 1927 Switzerland & USSR agree to diplomatic relations
  • 1928 Alioto's on Fisherman's Wharf (San Francisco) forms
  • 1931 1st backwards walk across American begins
  • 1939 Albert Lebrun elected president of France
  • 1940 British troops land at Narvik, Norway
  • 1941 1st helicopter flight of 1 hr duration, Stratford, Ct

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1942 George VI awards George Cross to people of Malta

King of the United Kingdom George VI
King of the United Kingdom
George VI
  • 1943 Metropolitan Life Insurances issues a $225 million check to Chase
  • 1945 British Army liberates Nazi concentration camp Bergen-Belsen

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1945 FDR buried in grounds of Hyde Park home

32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • 1945 Pope Pius XII publishes encyclical Communium interpretes dolorum
  • 1945 US troops occupy concentration camp Colditz
  • 1947 Operations begin at Radio Netherlands World radio
  • 1948 1st Jewish-Arab military battle, arabs defeated
  • 1948 Indian territory of Himachal Pradesh created
  • 1949 Pope Pius XII publishes encyclical Redemptoris nostri
  • 1951 Michael Gorsira is 1st person in charge of Curacao
  • 1952 Franklin National Bank issues 1st bank credit card
  • 1952 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1952 The maiden flight of the B-52 Stratofortress prototype
  • 1953 Malans National Party wins South African elections

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1955 Ray Kroc opens first McDonald's Inc. fast food restaurant in Des Plaines, Illinois

McDonald's Entrepreneur Ray Kroc
McDonald's Entrepreneur
Ray Kroc
  • 1955 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1957 Saturday mail delivery restored in the US after Congress gives the Post Office $41 million

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1959 Fidel Castro begins US goodwill tour

Cuban Revolutionary and President Fidel Castro
Cuban Revolutionary and President
Fidel Castro

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1959 US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles resigns

US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
US Secretary of State
John Foster Dulles
  • 1960 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), organizes at Shaw U
  • 1962 US national debt above $300,000,000,000
  • 1964 Chesapeake Bay Bridge opens (world's longest)

Music releaseTheater Premiere

1965 James Baldwin's play "The Amen Corner" premieres in NYC

Novelist and Playwright James Baldwin
Novelist and Playwright
James Baldwin
  • 1969 North Korea shoots at US airplane above Japanese sea
  • 1970 Libyan leader Gadaffi launches "Green Revolution"
  • 1972 A member of the Official Irish Republican Army is shot dead by British soldiers at Joy Street in the Markets area of Belfast close to his home
  • 1972 A member of the British Army is shot dead by the Official IRA in the Divis area of Belfast.
  • 1974 Military coup in Niger, president Diori Hamani deposed
  • 1975 1st appearance of San Diego Chicken
  • 1975 Gabon amends constitution
  • 1978 43 die as 2 express trains collide head-on south of Bologna, Italy
  • 1978 Great Britain performs nuclear test
  • 1979 A disastrous earthquake (of M 7.1) on Montenegro coast.

Birthdays in History


Person of interestLeonardo da Vinci

1452 Leonardo da Vinci, Italian painter, sculptor, scientist and visionary, born in Vinci, Florence, Italy (d. 1519)

Painter, Scientist and Visionary Leonardo da Vinci
Painter, Scientist and Visionary
Leonardo da Vinci

Person of interestGuru Nanak

1469 Guru Nanak, Founder of the religion of Sikhism and the 1st Sikh Guru, born in Rai-Bhoi-Di-Talwandi, Punjab, Pakistan (d. 1539)

Founder of Sikhism Guru Nanak
Founder of Sikhism
Guru Nanak
  • 1489 Mimar Sinan, Ottoman architect and civil engineer for Sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III, born in Ağırnas, Karaman Eyalet, Ottoman Empire (d. 1588)
  • 1552 Pietro Cataldi, Italian mathematician, born in Bologna, Italy (d. 1626)
  • 1588 Claudius Salmasius [Claude Saumaise], French linguist, born in Semur-en-Auxois, France (d. 1653)
  • 1641 Robert Sibbald, Scottish physician, born in Edinburgh (d. 1722)
  • 1646 Christian V, King of Denmark and Norway, born in Duborg Castle, Flensburg (d. 1699)
  • 1646 Pierre Poiret, French mystic, born in Metz, France (d. 1719)
  • 1682 John van Huysum, Dutch painter (flowers/fruit)
  • 1684 Catherine I, Empress of Russia (1725-27), born in Višķi, Daugavpils Municipality (d. 1727)

Person of interestLeonhard Euler

1707 Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician (Euler's Constant), born in Basel, Switzerland (d. 1783)

Mathematician Leonhard Euler
Mathematician
Leonhard Euler
  • 1710 William Cullen, Scottish physician and chemist, born in Hamilton, Lanarkshire, Scotland (d. 1790)
  • 1741 Charles Willson Peale, American painter remembered for his portraits of leading figures of the American Revolution (George Washington), born in Chester, Province of Maryland (d. 1827)
  • 1766 Friedrich Bouterwek, German philosopher and critic, born in Oker, Hanover, Germany (d. 1828)
  • 1772 Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, French naturalist, born in Étampes, France (d. 1844)
  • 1786 Walter Channing, American physician who was the first to use anesthesia during childbirth, born in Newport, Rhode Island (d. 1876)
  • 1793 Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, German-Russian astronomer, born in Altona, Hamburg (d. 1864)
  • 1794 Jean Pierre Flourens, French physiologist, born in Maureilhan, France (d. 1867)
  • 1800 James Clark Ross, British Royal Navy explorer (British Antarctic), born in London (d. 1862)
  • 1809 Hermann Grassmann, German linguist and mathematician, born in Stettin, Province of Pomerania, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1877)
  • 1812 Théodore Rousseau, French painter, born in Paris (d. 1867)
  • 1814 John Lothrop Motley, American historian and author (The Rise of the Dutch Republic), born in Dorchester, Boston (d. 1877)
  • 1820 Evander McNair, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), born in Laurel Hill, North Carolina (d. 1902)
  • 1821 Joseph E. Brown, American attorney and politician (42nd Governor of Georgia), born in Pickens, South Carolina (d. 1894)
  • 1822 Napoleon Jackson Tecumseh Dana, American Major General (Union Army), born in Eastport, Maine (d. 1905)
  • 1829 Mary Harris Thompson, 1st American woman surgeon, born in Fort Ann, New York (d. 1895)
  • 1832 Wilhelm Busch, German poet, born in Wiedensahl, Kingdom of Hanover (d. 1908)
  • 1837 Horace Porter, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania (d. 1921)
  • 1841 Joseph E. Seagram, Canadian distillery founder (Seagram Distilleries), born in Fisher's Mills, Canada West (d. 1919)
  • 1843 Henry James, American-British author (Turn of the Screw, Bostonians), born in NYC, New York (d. 1916)
  • 1850 John Munro Longyear, American capitalist and developer of timber and mineral lands, born in Lansing, Michigan (d. 1922)
  • 1858 Émile Durkheim, French sociologist (Division du travail social), born in Épinal, France (d. 1917)
  • 1861 Bliss Carman, Canadian poet, born in Fredericton, New Brunswick (d. 1929)
  • 1874 Johannes Stark, German physicist (Stark effect, Nobel 1919), born in Schickenhof, German Empire (d. 1957)
  • 1874 George Harrison Shull, American plant geneticist, born in Clark County, Ohio (d. 1954)
  • 1875 Klaziena "Ina" Boudier-Bakker, Dutch playwright and novelist (Poverty), born in Amsterdam (d. 1966)
  • 1878 Robert Walser, Swiss writer, born in Biel (d. 1956)
  • 1879 Melville Henry Cane, American lawyer and poet (Making a Poem), born in Plattsburgh, New York (d. 1980)
  • 1882 Giovanni Amendola, Italian anti-fascist and editor-in-chief (Il Mondo), born in Naples, Italy (d. 1926)
  • 1883 Stanley Bruce, 8th Prime Minister of Australia, born in St Kilda, Victoria, Australia (d. 1967)
  • 1885 Tadeusz Kutrzeba, Polish general during the Second Polish Republic, born in Kraków, Galicia, Austria-Hungary (d. 1947)
  • 1886 Nikolay Gumilyov, Russian poet, born in Kronshtadt, Russia (d. 1921)
  • 1888 Maximilian Kronberger, German poet, born in Berlin (d. 1904)
  • 1889 A. Philip Randolph, American labor leader (Railroad Porter's Union), born in Crescent City, Florida (d. 1979)
  • 1889 Thomas Hart Benton, American painter and muralist (Lonesome Road), born in Neosho, Missouri (d. 1975)
  • 1892 Corrie ten Boom, Dutch author (The Hiding Place) and Holocaust survivor, born in Amsterdam, Netherlands (d. 1983)
  • 1892 Theo Osterkamp, World War I and World War II German fighter pilot, born in Düren, Rhine Province, Kingdom of Prussia (d. 1975)

Person of interestNikita Khrushchev

1894 Nikita Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1953-64), born in Kalinovka, Russia (d. 1971)

Soviet First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet First Secretary
Nikita Khrushchev
  • 1895 Corrado Alvaro, Italian writer (Gente in Aspromonte), born in San Luca, Italy (d. 1956)
  • 1896 Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov, Russian chemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1986)
  • 1902 Fernando Pessa, Portuguese journalist, born in Aveiro District, Portugal (d. 2002)
  • 1903 Erich Arendt, German poet and writer, born in Neuruppin, Germany (d. 1984)
  • 1904 Arshile Gorky, Armenian-American abstract painter, born in Khorgom, Vilayet of Van, Ottoman Empire (d. 1948)
  • 1907 Nikolaas Tinbergen, Dutch-British biologist and zoologist (Nobel 1973), born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1988)
  • 1910 Ralph Grey, Baron Grey of Naunton, Governor of Northern Ireland (1968-73), born in Wellington, New Zealand (d. 1999)
  • 1911 Jacob Fresco, Dutch architect (Antilles Brewery/Autonomy Monument), born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1990)

Person of interestKim Il-sung

1912 Kim Il-sung, Founder, dictator and Supreme Leader of North-Korea (1948-94), born in Mangyongdae, Japanese Korea (d. 1994)

North Korean Founder and Dictator Kim Il-sung
North Korean Founder and Dictator
Kim Il-sung
  • 1915 Elizabeth Catlett, African-American sculptor and print maker (Mother and Child), born in Washington, D.C. (d. 2012)
  • 1916 Alfred S. Bloomingdale, American businessman and heir to the Bloomingdale's department store, born in NYC, New York (d. 1982)
  • 1919 Clive Beadon, British RAF Wing Commander and pilot (WWII), born in Conoor near Poona, India (d. 1996)
  • 1919 Meriol Trevor, English novelist and biographer (Civil Prisoners), born in London (d. 2000)
  • 1920 Richard von Weizsacker, German politician and 1st president of reunited Germany (1990-94), born in Stuttgart (d. 2015)
  • 1920 Thomas Szasz, Hungarian-American psychiatrist (The Myth of Mental Illness, The Manufacture of Madness), born in Budapest, Hungary (d. 2012)
  • 1921 Georgy Beregovoy, Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz 3), born in Fedorivka, Poltava Oblast, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (d. 1995)
  • 1922 Harold Washington, 1st African American mayor of Chicago (D, 1983-87), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 1987)
  • 1923 Douglas Wass, British civil servant (Permanent Secretary to HM Treasury, 1974-83) (d. 2017)
  • 1924 John Grigg, 2nd Baron Altrincham, British writer and historian, born in Westminster, London (d. 2001)
  • 1927 Abha Gandhi, servant to Gandhi (d. 1995)
  • 1927 Robert Mills, American physicist (quantum field theory), born in Englewood, New Jersey (d. 1999)
  • 1928 Norma Merrick Sklarek, 1st African-American woman architect in NY & California, born in Harlem, New York (d. 2012)
  • 1928 Richard Evans, British diplomat, ambassador to the People's Republic of China (1984-88), born in England (d. 2012)
  • 1929 Adrian Cadbury, British confectionery manufacturer (Cadbury) and author of report on Corporate Governance (d. 2015)
  • 1930 Elijah Barayi, head of South Africa union centre (COSATU), born in Lingelihle, Eastern Cape (d. 1994)
  • 1930 Vigdís Finnbogadóttir, 4th President of Iceland (1980-96), born in Reykjavík, Iceland
  • 1931 Tomas Tranströmer, Swedish poet (Nobel Prize for Literature - 2011), born in Stockholm (d. 2015)
  • 1932 Nikolai Porvatkin, Russian cosmonaut, born in Vozdvizhenka, Saratov Oblast (d. 2009)
  • 1933 Boris Strugatsky, Soviet-Russian science fiction author (Tale of Troika), born in Saint Petersburg, Russia (d. 2012)
  • 1936 Pen Sovann, 1st post-Khmer Rouge Cambodian Prime Minister (1981), born in Takéo (d. 2016)
  • 1937 Conrad Russell, 5th Earl Russell, British historian, born in Harting, West Sussex (d. 2004)
  • 1938 Hso Khan Pha, 1st President of the democratic and newly independent Union of Burma from 1948-52, born in Yawnghwe State, British Burma (d. 2016)
  • 1940 Jeffrey Archer, Baron Archer of Weston-super-Mare, English novelist, born in Finsbury, London
  • 1941 Roman Balayan, Ukrainian-Armenian director (Filer, Biryuk), born in Nerkin Horatagh, Nagorno-Karabakh AO, Azerbaijan
  • 1941 Howard Berman, American attorney and politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from California), born in Los Angeles, California
  • 1942 Francis X. DiLorenzo, American Catholic prelate, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 2017)
  • 1942 Kenneth Lay, American CEO and Chairman of Enron, born in Tyrone, Missouri (d. 2006)
  • 1943 Hugh Thompson Jr., American Vietnam War veteran who played a major role in ending the 1968 My Lai massacre, born in Atlanta, Georgia (d. 2006)

Person of interestRobert Lefkowitz

1943 Robert Lefkowitz, American physician (Nobel Prize for Chemistry), born in NYC, New York

Physician-scientist Robert Lefkowitz
Physician-scientist
Robert Lefkowitz
  • 1944 Dzhokhar Dudayev, separatist leader and President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (1991), born in Yalkhori, Chechen-Ingush (d. 1996)
  • 1945 Jos van Rey, Dutch businessman and politician (VVD), born in Roermond, Netherlands
  • 1946 Wayne Gilchrest, American politician (Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Maryland), born in Rahway, New Jersey
  • 1947 Cristina Husmark Pehrsson, Swedish politician, born in Uddevalla, Sweden
  • 1951 Heloise [Ponce Kiah Marchelle Heloise Cruse Evans], American writer and columnist (Heloise's Helpful Hints), born in Waco, Texas
  • 1951 John L. Phillips, NASA astronaut, born in Fort Belvoir, Virginia
  • 1951 Marsha S. Ivins, American astronaut (STS 32, 46, 62, 81), born in Baltimore, Maryland
  • 1952 Donald Harvey, American serial killer, healthcare worker who killed at least 37 patients, born in Hamilton, Ohio (d. 2017)
  • 1955 Dodi Fayed, Egyptian businessman who died in a car crash in Paris with Princess Diana, born in Alexandria, Egypt (d. 1997)
  • 1956 Gregory J. Harbaugh, American astronaut (STS 39, 54, 71, 82), born in Cleveland, Ohio
  • 1958 Dolores Gordon-Smith, British novelist (The Jack Haldean Murder Series), born in Glossop, Derbyshire
  • 1958 Benjamin Zephaniah, British writer and dub poet, born in Handsworth, Birmingham, England
  • 1960 Marvin Clyde Goodwin, murderer (FBI Most Wanted List), born in New Orleans, Louisiana

Weddings in History

  • 1595 Willem I's daughter of Elisabeth of Nassau marries duke Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne of Broth
  • 1909 Mien Wenneker, Dutch prince Henry's lover, weds Uncle Cornelis Abbo

LoveWedding of Interest

1925 Russian writer ("Lolita") Vladimir Nabokov (26) marries fellow Russian writer Vera Evseevna Slonim (23) in Berlin

LoveWedding of Interest

1978 Novelist Danielle Steel (30) weds William George Toth

Novelist Danielle Steel
Novelist
Danielle Steel
  • 2006 Miss Nigeria 2002 Sylvia Ansa Edem weds businessman Chris Emecheta at the Recreation Park, Victoria Garden City, Lekki Lagos

Divorces in History

  • 1994 Robert F. Kennedy Jr. (21 days after his divorce) weds Mary Richardson

Deaths in History

  • 1053 Godwin, Earl of Wessex, dies at 52
  • 1220 Adolf I, Archbishop of Cologne, dies at ~63
  • 1415 Manuel Chrysoloras, Greek humanist & grammarian, dies at 60
  • 1472 Leon B. Alberti, Italian humanist & architect (Philodoxis), dies at 68
  • 1502 Jan IV of Chalon-Arnay, prince of Orange and lord of Arlay, dies at 59
  • 1607 Cornelius Kilianus, Flemish translator & poet, dies at ~78
  • 1621 John Carver, first governor of Plymouth Colony, dies at 45
  • 1632 George Calvert, English politician & coloniser, dies at 52
  • 1641 Domenichino, Italian painter, dies at 59
  • 1652 Patriarch Joseph of Moscow, sixth Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia
  • 1659 Simon Dach, Prussian-German poet, dies at 63
  • 1719 Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, second wife of Louis XIV of France, dies at 83
  • 1754 Jacopo Riccati, Italian mathematician (Riccati equation), dies at 77
  • 1761 Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll, Scottish politician, dies at 78
  • 1761 William Oldys, English antiquarian & bibliographer, dies at b64
  • 1764 Madame de Pompadour, French mistress of King Louis XV of France, dies of tuberculosis at 42
  • 1765 Mikhail Lomonosov, Russian scholar & poet, dies at 53
  • 1793 Ignacije Szentmartony, Croatian Jesuit missionary & geographer, dies at 74
  • 1804 Charles Pichegru, French general, strangled in prison at 43
  • 1819 Oliver Evans, American inventor who pioneered high-pressure steam engine, dies at 63
  • 1824 Theodorus Frederik van Capellen, Dutch vice-admiral (Algiers), dies at 61
  • 1854 Arthur Aikin, English scientist & writer (b. 1773)

Person of interestAbraham Lincoln

1865 Abraham Lincoln, 16th US President (Republican: 1861-65), dies from gunshot wounds at 56

16th US President Abraham Lincoln
16th US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • 1870 Emma Willard, American women's rights activist & educator who founded the 1st school for women's higher education in the US, dies at 83
  • 1881 Sophia Perovskaya, Soviet icon, aristocrat, and socialist revolutionary (Narodnaya Volya), who helped orchestrate the successful assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, executed by hanging at 27

Person of interestMatthew Arnold

1888 Matthew Arnold, English poet, dies at 65

Poet & Critic Matthew Arnold
Poet & Critic
Matthew Arnold
  • 1889 Father Damien, Belgian missionary, dies at 49
  • 1892 Amelia Edwards, English author (The Phantom Coach) and Egyptologist, dies at 60
  • 1898 Kepa Te Rangihiwinui, Maori military leader, dies in his 70s
  • 1911 Georg Knorr, German engineer (brake system trains), dies at 51

Person of interestEdward Smith

1912 Edward Smith, English naval captain of the RMS Titanic, dies when the ship sinks in the Atlantic Ocean aged 62

Captain of the Titanic Edward Smith
Captain of the Titanic
Edward Smith
  • 1912 John Jacob Astor IV, American businessman & soldier (richest passenger aboard the Titanic), dies aboard the Titanic at 47
  • 1912 William T. Stead, British newspaper editor (The Pall Mall Gazette), dies in the sinking of the Titanic at 62
  • 1913 Ğabdulla Tuqay, Tatar poet (Oh My Mother Tongue!), dies at 26
  • 1916 Alfred Cogniaux, Belgian botanist, dies at 75
  • 1919 Jane Delano, American nurse & educator (Red Cross Nursing Service during WWI), dies at 57
  • 1927 Francesco Gaeta, Italian poet (Di Giacomo), dies at 47
  • 1938 Caesar Vallejo, Peruvian-French poet (Trilce, Russia & 1931), dies at 46
  • 1942 Robert Musil, Austrian writer (Mann ohne Eigenschaften), dies at 61

Person of interestHugh S. Johnson

1942 Hugh S. Johnson, American head of the National Recovery Administration & member of FDR's Brain Trust, dies of pneumonia at 60

Member of FDR's Brain Trust Hugh S. Johnson
Member of FDR's Brain Trust
Hugh S. Johnson
  • 1943 Aristarkh Lentulov, Russian artist, dies at 61
  • 1944 Giovanni Gentile, Italian philosopher (The Doctrine of Fascism), dies at 68
  • 1948 Radola Gajda, Czech military commander & politician, dies at 56
5th President of the Philippines Manuel Roxas
5th President of the Philippines
Manuel Roxas
  • 1956 Emile Nolde [Hansen], German painter (Grablegung Christi), dies at 88
  • 1963 Edward "Carji" Greeves, Australian Rules Football midfielder (winner inaugural Brownlow Medal 1924), dies at 59
  • 1969 Victoria von Battenberg, Queen of Spain as the wife of King Alfonso XIII, dies at 81
  • 1972 Otto Brenner, German trade union leader (Industrial Union of Metalworkers), dies at 64
  • 1975 John B. McKay, American test pilot (X-15), dies at 52
  • 1976 Gerald Smith, American antisemite (Nationalist Christian Crusade), dies at 78

Person of interestJean-Paul Sartre

1980 Jean-Paul Sartre, French existentialist philosopher & writer (Nobel 1964), dies in Paris at 74

  • 1981 French Duynstee, Dutch states rights leader, dies at 67
  • 1981 John Thach, American WWII naval aviator (developed the Thach Weave) & USN admiral, dies at 75
  • 1982 Louis de Guiringaud, French foreign minister (1976-78), commits suicide at 70
  • 1983 Gyula Illyés, Hungarian author & poet (Az Ismertlen Illyes), dies at 80
  • 1983 Corrie ten Boom, Dutch author (The Hiding Place) & Holocaust survivor, dies at 91
  • 1984 Alexander Trocchi, Scottish writer, dies at 58
  • 1984 William Empson, English poet & critic (Milton's God), dies at 77
  • 1985 Ben Stroman, Dutch writer (Jomtof & Blue Beard), dies at 82
  • 1986 Jean Genet, French criminal & writer, dies at 75
  • 1986 Sergei Nikolayevich Anokhin, Soviet cosmonaut, dies at 76
  • 1988 Han G. Hoekstra, Dutch poet (Zandloper), dies at 81
  • 1989 Hu Yaobang, Chinese politician (General Secretary of the Communist Party of China 1982–87), dies at 73
  • 1990 Ulrich Becher, German writer & playwright, dies at 80
  • 1993 George Frederick Ives, British-Canadian army veteran & last survivor of the Boer War, dies at 111
  • 1993 Leslie Charteris, British mystery writer (Saint), dies at 85
  • 1993 John Tuzo Wilson, Canadian geologist (contributions to plate tectonics), dies at 84
  • 1994 Walter Clegg, British politician, dies at 73
  • 1995 Harry Shoulberg, American expressionist painter, dies at 91
  • 1997 Sam Moskowitz, American writer & historian of science fiction, dies at 76
  • 1997 Zdenek Mlynar, Czech politician (secretary of the Czechoslovak communist party, 1968–70), dies at 66

Person of interestPol Pot

1998 Pol Pot, Cambodian dictator (1976-79) & revolutionary who led the Khmer Rouge (1963-97), dies at 72

Dictator and Revolutionary Pol Pot
Dictator and Revolutionary
Pol Pot
  • 1999 Harvey Postlethwaite, British engineer & racing car designer, dies at 55
  • 2000 Edward Gorey, American illustrator, dies at 75
  • 2002 Damon Francis Knight, American sci-fi author (CV, Beyond the Barrier), dies at 79
  • 2003 Reg Bundy, British performer, dies at 56
  • 2007 Brant Parker, American cartoonist, dies at 86
  • 2008 Krister Stendahl, Swedish Lutheran theologian & bishop, dies at 86
  • 2010 Jack Herer, American author & cannabis activist, dies at 70
  • 2011 Vittorio Arrigoni, Italian peace activist, dies at 36
  • 2012 Charles Pringle, British air marshal, dies at 92
  • 2013 Sal Castro, Mexican-American activist, dies from thyroid cancer at 79