On This Day

On This Day in History for August 5

Events in History

  • 135 Betar last outpost of Bar Kochba falls to Rome
  • 642 Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia
  • 910 The last major Viking army to raid England is defeated at the Battle of Tettenhall by the allied forces of Mercia and Wessex, led by King Edward and Earl Aethelred
  • 1100 Henry I is crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey
  • 1264 Anti-Jewish riots break out in Arnstadt Germany

ScotlandWilliam Wallace Executed

1305 William Wallace, who led Scottish resistance to England, is captured by the English near Glasgow and transported to London for trial and execution.

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William Wallace on trial at Westminster Hall in a painting by Daniel Maclise
William Wallace on trial at Westminster Hall in a painting by Daniel Maclise
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  • 1388 Battle of Otterburn, a border skirmish between the Scottish and the English in Northern England
  • 1391 Castilian sailors fire attack Jewish ghetto of Barcelona, 100's killed
  • 1399 Battle at Worskla: Tataren beat Russians and Litouwers
  • 1420 Duke John VI of Bavaria visits Dutch mystic Lidwina (Christ's bride)

BattleBattle of Interest

1435 Battle at Ponza: king Alfonso V of Aragon captured by Genuezen

  • 1543 French and Turkish troops occupy Nice
  • 1552 Battle of Ponza: Ottoman naval fleet led by Dragut defeats Genoese fleet under Andrea Doria capturing seven galleys
  • 1583 Humphrey Gilbert claims Newfoundland for the British crown, the first English colony in North America and the beginning of the British Empire
  • 1654 French troops occupy Stenay
  • 1666 English fleet beats Dutch under Michiel de Ruyter
  • 1667 State of Holland obtain Eternal Edict
  • 1689 1,500 Iroquois attack the village of Lachine, in New France

Battle of InterestBattle of Petrovaradin

1716 Battle of Petrovaradin/Peterwardein: Habsburgs under Eugene of Savoy defeat the Turks in a decisive victory

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The Battle of Petrovaradin or Peterwardein which saw a decisive victory for the Imperial Army
The Battle of Petrovaradin or Peterwardein which saw a decisive victory for the Imperial Army
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  • 1745 Jacobite Rising 1745: Jacobite forces capture British company of troops under Captain Scott
  • 1763 Pontiac's War: Battle of Bushy Run - British forces led by Henry Bouquet defeat Chief Pontiac's Indians at Bushy Run
  • 1772 1st Partition of Poland between Austria, Prussia and Russia is made public
  • 1775 1st Spanish ship, San Carlos, enters San Francisco Bay
  • 1781 Battle of Dogger Bank (Fourth Anglo-Dutch War): a British strategic victory, although both sides claimed to have won

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1812 War of 1812: Tecumseh's Native American force ambushes Thomas Van Horne's 200 Americans at Brownstone Creek, causing them to flee and retreat

Native American Leader of the Shawnee Tecumseh
Native American Leader of the Shawnee
  • 1837 1st ascent of Mt Marcy (5,344') highest in Adirondack, NY
  • 1846 Oregon territory divided between US & Britain at 49th parallel

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1858 First transatlantic telegraph cable lands at Trinity Bay, Newfoundland spearheaded by Cyrus West Field (will fail after 3 weeks)

Mathematical Physicist and Engineer William Thomson
Mathematical Physicist and Engineer
William Thomson
  • 1860 Carl IV of Sweden-Norway is crowned King of Norway in Trondheim
  • 1861 Union enlistment increases from 3 months to 2 years
  • 1861 Naval Engagement at Fernandina, Florida, the USS Vincennes ends rebel blockade
  • 1861 US Army abolishes flogging
  • 1861 President Lincoln signs the first US personal Income Tax into law (3% of incomes over $800)
  • 1862 Battle of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Union forces prevent Confederate attempts to capture the city

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1864 Battle of Mobile Bay, won by the Union Army led by Rear Admiral David Farragut with the cry "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" (US Civil War)

US Civil War Admiral David Farragut
US Civil War Admiral
David Farragut
  • 1864 Spectrum of a comet observed for 1st time, by Giovanni Donati
  • 1874 Japan launches its postal savings system, modeled after a similar system in England
  • 1882 Martial law is imposed in Japan
  • 1882 Standard Oil of New Jersey is established

USAStatue of Liberty

1884 Cornerstone for Statue of Liberty laid on Bedloe's Island (NYC)

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The Statue of Liberty, New York
The Statue of Liberty, New York
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  • 1890 British and French accord to divide African colonization
  • 1891 World's 1st traveler's cheques issued by American Express
  • 1900 In Russia, anti-Jewish riots spread from Odessa into other parts of the country

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1905 First meeting of the Russian and Japanese peace commissioners takes place in US President Theodore Roosevelt's home at Oyster Bay, New York

26th US President Theodore Roosevelt
26th US President
Theodore Roosevelt
  • 1912 Japan's first taxicab service begins in Ginza, Tokyo
  • 1914 1st electric traffic light installed in the USA on the corner of East 105th Street and Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio
  • 1914 Cuba, Uruguay, Mexico and Argentina proclaim neutrality in WW I
  • 1914 Dutch Cort Van de Linden government issues silver bonds as money

BattleBattle of Interest

1914 Battle of Liège: first battle of WWI, massive German assault on forts around Belgium city of Liège led by Erich Ludendorff

German WWI General Erich Ludendorff
German WWI General
Erich Ludendorff
  • 1914 Montenegro declares war against Austria-Hungary in World War I
  • 1914 US and Nicaragua sign treaty granting canal rights to US
  • 1914 Westerschelde leaves due to German invasion in Belgium
  • 1915 Warsaw, evacuated by the Russians, is occupied by Germans
  • 1915 The Latin-American Conference Convenes in Washington, with representatives from leading South American nations joining the US to discuss conditions in Mexico
  • 1917 British troops attack canal of Ypres in Boesinghe, Belgium
  • 1917 The entire US National Guard is taken into national service, subject to presidential rather than state control

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1918 World War I: the last German air raid on England occurs, with four Zeppelin airships dropping bombs in the Midlands and North East England

Inventor of the Zeppelin Ferdinand von Zeppelin
Inventor of the Zeppelin
Ferdinand von Zeppelin
  • 1921 Treaty of Berlin: US and Germany sign separate peace treaty
  • 1924 "Little Orphan Annie" comic strip by Harold Gray is 1st published in the New York Daily News
  • 1925 Plaid Cymru is formed with the aim of disseminating knowledge of the Welsh language, which is in danger of dying out
  • 1926 French & German trade agreement signed

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1926 Harry Houdini stays in a coffin under water for 1½ hrs before escaping

Magician and Escape Artist Harry Houdini
Magician and Escape Artist
Harry Houdini

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1932 Clyde Barrow and two associates kill Sheriff C.G. Maxwell and his deputy, Eugene C. Moore, the first time the Barrow gang kills a lawman

Bank Robber Clyde Barrow
Bank Robber
Clyde Barrow
  • 1940 "Acquaintance" blows-up Zandvoortse synagogue
  • 1942 British government cancels agreement of Munich
  • 1942 German troops cross Kuban River
  • 1943 Sicily: 3 US A-36's bomb British headquarters
  • 1943 Soviet forces reconquer Orel and Bjelgorod
  • 1943 World War II: at around 11 A.M during the Battle of Troina, Mount Etna erupts sending ash and lava miles into the sky
  • 1944 US 79th/90th division occupy Laval/Mayenne
  • 1944 US troops occupy Vannes, Brittany
  • 1944 German forces begin the mass killing of between 40,000 and 50,000 Polish civilians in the Wola district of Warsaw during the uprising
  • 1947 Netherlands ceases political action in Indonesia, due to UN pressure
  • 1949 6.4 Earthquake strikes Tungurahua Province, Ecuador, killing 5,000 people
  • 1951 Armed uprising in Ambonezen Camp Middelburg
  • 1953 Operation "Big Switch"; Korean War prisoner exchanged at Panmunjom
  • 1957 Comic strip "Andy Capp" makes its debut
  • 1957 WJZ-TV in Baltimore MD begins radio transmissions
  • 1958 Philip Kapleau, Zen teacher, 1st awakening under Yasutani Roshi
  • 1959 42.4 cm rainfall in Decatur Co, Iowa (state record)
  • 1960 Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) declares independence from France
  • 1961 118°F (48°C), Ice Harbor Dam, Washington (state record)
  • 1962 1st quasar located by radio

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1962 Nelson Mandela arrested for incitement and for illegally leaving South Africa

Anti-apartheid activist and South African President Nelson Mandela
Anti-apartheid activist and South African President
Nelson Mandela
  • 1962 UN command forbids flights to Katangese airports
  • 1963 Britain, USA and USSR sign nuclear test ban treaty
  • 1963 Craig Breedlove sets world land speed record of 407.477 mph in Spirit of America at the Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah
  • 1964 Congo rebellion: Christopher Gbenye/Pierre Mulele conquer Stanleyville
  • 1964 US begins bombing North Vietnam

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1966 Martin Luther King Jr. stoned during Chicago march

Civil Rights Activist Martin Luther King Jr.
Civil Rights Activist
Martin Luther King Jr.
  • 1966 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1967 Bobby Gentry releases her only hit "Ode to Billy Joe"
  • 1967 Pirate Radio Station 333 (Radio Britain) & Radio London close down
  • 1969 Mariner 7 flies past Mars
  • 1970 Robert Morley's "How the Other Half Loves" premieres in London
  • 1970 US Black P. Panther leader Huey Newton freed from jail after two trials ended in hung juries and the district attorney decides against a 4th trial
  • 1971 The British Parliament debate the security situation in Northern Ireland
  • 1973 Arab terrorists open fire at Athens airport, kill 3 injure 55
  • 1973 USSR launches Mars 6

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1974 US President Richard Nixon admits he withheld information about Watergate break-in

37th US President Richard Nixon
37th US President
Richard Nixon

Birthdays in History

  • 1301 Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, English politician (d. 1330)
  • 1461 Alexander Jagiellon, Grand Duke of Lithuania (d. 1506)
  • 1540 Joseph Justice Scaliger, proposed Julian dating
  • 1578 Charles d'Albert, duc of Luynes, French courtier, favourite of Louis XIII and Constable of France, born in Longueville, France (d. 1621)
  • 1604 John Eliot, English Puritan missionary "Apostle to Indians," and Bible translator, baptized in Widford, England (d. 1690)
  • 1624 William Tucker, 1st child of African descent to be born in English colony in America, born in Jamestown, Virginia
  • 1641 John Hathorne, American magistrate (d. 1717)
  • 1662 James Anderson, Scottish historian, born in Edinburgh, Scotland (d. 1728)
  • 1681 Vitus Bering, Danish explorer of Bering Strait and coast of Alaska, born in Horsens, Denmark (d. 1741)

Person of interestWilliam Allen

1704 William Allen, American loyalist, Chief Justice of the Province of Pennsylvania and Mayor of Philadelphia, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1780)

Mayor of Philadelphia William Allen
Mayor of Philadelphia
William Allen
  • 1711 Johan Lulofs, Dutch physicist/philosopher/astronomer
  • 1749 Thomas Lynch, American lawyer, signer pf the US Declaration of Independence, born in Winyah, South Carolina
  • 1802 Niels H Abel, Norwegian mathematician (Abel's Comparisons)
  • 1813 Carnot Posey, American Confederate brigadier general, born in Wilkinson County, Mississippi (d. 1863)
  • 1813 Ivar Aasen, Norwegian linguist and poet, born in Ørsten, Norway (d. 1896)
  • 1815 Edward John Eyre, British explorer and Governor of Jamaica, born in Whipsnade, England (d. 1901)
  • 1827 Deodoro da Fonseca, Brazilian military officer and first President of Brazil (1889-91), born in Vila Madalena, Brazil (d. 1892)
  • 1828 Louisa of the Netherlands, Dutch queen consort of Sweden and Norway and princess of the Netherlands, born in the Hague (d. 1871)
  • 1829 Milo Smith Hascall, American banker, real estate executive, and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Le Roy, New York (d. 1904)
  • 1833 Carola of Vasa, Queen consort of Saxony, born in Vienna (d. 1907)

Person of interestGuy de Maupassant

1850 Guy de Maupassant, French author (Boule de Suif), born in Château de Miromesnil, France (d. 1893)

  • 1862 Joseph Merrick, "The Elephant Man", born in Leicester, England (d. 1890)
  • 1866 Carl Dietrich Harries, German chemist (developed synthetic rubber), born in Luckenwalde, Germany (d. 1923)
  • 1872 Oswaldo Cruz, Brazilian physician and epidemiologist, born in São Luis do Paraitinga, Brazil (d. 1917)
  • 1876 Mary Ritter Beard, American historian (Woman as a Force in History), born in Indianapolis, Indiana (d. 1958)
  • 1877 Tom Thomson, Canadian painter, born in Claremont, Ontario (d. 1917)

Person of interestHugh S. Johnson

1881 Hugh S. Johnson, American head of the National Recovery Administration and member of FDR's Brain Trust, born in Fort Scott, Kansas (d. 1942)

Member of FDR's Brain Trust Hugh S. Johnson
Member of FDR's Brain Trust
Hugh S. Johnson
  • 1882 Joe English, Flemish Irish painter (designed WWI gravestones), born in Bruges, Belgium (d. 1918)
  • 1883 Frank Nelson, English politician and civil servant (head of the Special Operations Executive, 1940-42), born in Gloucestershire (d. 1966)
  • 1889 Conrad Aiken, American Pulitzer poet and writer (Ushant/Conversation), born in Savannah, Georgia (d. 1973)
  • 1890 Naum Gabo [Pevsner], Russian/US sculptor (Stillife Flower)
  • 1897 Aksel Larsen, Danish politician, founder of the Socialist People's Party, born in Brændekilde, Denmark (d. 1972)
  • 1902 Irene Rice Pereira, American abstract artist, born in Chelsea, Massachusetts (d. 1971)
  • 1904 Kenneth Thimann, English American botanist (Balzan Prize), born in Ashford, England (d. 1997)
  • 1906 Francis Walder [Francois Waldburger], Belgian author
  • 1906 Wassely Leontief, Russian American economist (Nobel 1973), born in Munich, Germany (d. 1999)
  • 1910 Jacquetta Hawkes, English archaeologist/author (A Country), (d. 1996)
  • 1910 [Johan] Erik Lindegren, Swedish poet/librettist (Aniara)
  • 1912 Abbé Pierre, French Catholic priest (d. 2007)
  • 1920 Sonny Montgomery, American politician (Rep-D-Mississippi, 1967-97), born in Meridian, Mississippi (d. 2006)
  • 1922 L. Tom Perry, American religious leader (LDS apostle), born in Logan, Utah (d. 2015)
  • 1923 Richard Kleindienst, American attorney general during Watergate scandal, born in Winslow, Arizona (1972)
  • 1923 Devan Nair, Singaporean politician, President of Singapore (1981-85), born in Melaka (d. 2005)

Person of interestNeil Armstrong

1930 Neil Armstrong, American X-15 pilot and astronaut - 1st man on the Moon (Gemini 8, Apollo 11), born in Wapakoneta Ohio, (d. 2012)

Astronaut & 1st Man on the Moon Neil Armstrong
Astronaut & 1st Man on the Moon
Neil Armstrong
  • 1930 Michal Kováč, 1st President of Slovakia (1993-98), born in Ľubiša, Czechoslovakia (d. 2016)
  • 1932 Sister Vince Otto, American mental health activist (Vince)
  • 1934 Wendell Berry, American poet, writer and farmer, born in Henry County, Kentucky
  • 1939 Irene, Princess of Netherlands, born at Soestdijk Palace, Baarn, Netherlands
  • 1941 Leonid Kizim, Soviet cosmonaut (Soyuz T-3, T-10, T-15), born in rasnyi Lyman, Soviet Union (d. 2010)
  • 1946 Ron Silliman, American poet (The Alphabet), born in Pasco,Washington
  • 1952 Hun Sen, Cambodian politician, Prime Minister of Cambodia 1985-), born in Kampong Cham, Cambodia
  • 1957 Pavel V Vinogradov, Russian cosmonaut (Soyuz TM-26, Commander of the International Space Station 2013), born in Magadan, Soviet Union

Person of interestReid Hoffman

1967 Reid Hoffman, American entrepreneur (co-founder of LinkedIn), born in Stanford, California

Co-founder of LinkedIn Reid Hoffman
Co-founder of LinkedIn
Reid Hoffman
  • 1968 Funkmaster Flex [Aston George Taylor Jr], American hip hop DJ, born in The Bronx, New York

Person of interestMarine Le Pen

1968 Marine Le Pen, French politician (President of the National Front Party), born in Neuilly-sur-Seine

President of the National Front Party Marine Le Pen
President of the National Front Party
Marine Le Pen
  • 1973 Sean Sherk, American mixed martial artist
  • 1981 Rachel Scott, American murder victim (d. 1999)
  • 1981 Erik Guay, Canadian alpine skier
  • 1981 Cory Williams, American internet celebrity (The Mean Kitty Song), born in Merced, California

Weddings in History

LoveWedding of Interest

1764 Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II (17) weds queen Maria Luisa of Spain (18) in Innsbruck, Austria

Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II
Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold II

LoveWedding of Interest

1885 Author Arthur Conan Doyle (26) weds Louisa Hawkins

  • 2005 Bavaria's Prince Leopold's son Prince Manuel von Bayern (31) weds Prince Ludwig-Ferdinand's daughter Princess Anna of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg in Sweden

Divorces in History

Broken heartDivorce of Interest

1925 Turkish President Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (44) divorces wife Latife Hanim after 2 years of marriage

President and Founder of the Republic of Turkey Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
President and Founder of the Republic of Turkey
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Deaths in History

  • 882 King Louis III of France (b. 863)
  • 1063 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, King of Gwynedd
  • 1157 Dirk VI, Count of Holland, dies
  • 1364 Emperor Kōgon of Japan (Ashikaga Pretenders), 1st Northern Emperor, dies at 51
  • 1447 John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter, English military leader during the Hundred Years' War, dies at 52
  • 1579 Stanislaus Hosius, Polish Catholic cardinal (b. 1504)
  • 1610 Alonso García de Ramón, Spanish soldier and twice Royal Governor of Chile
  • 1644 J Henry Alting, German theologist (Statenvertaling), dies at 61
  • 1743 John Hervey, 2nd Baron Hervey, English statesman and writer (b. 1696)
  • 1778 Charles Clémencet, French historian (b. 1703)

Person of interestFrederick North

1792 Frederick North, Lord North, Prime Minister of Great Britain (Tory: 1770-82), "who lost America", dies at 60

British Prime Minister Frederick North
British Prime Minister
Frederick North
  • 1799 Richard Howe, British admiral, dies at 73
  • 1834 Gijsbert Karel van Hogendorp, Dutch count and Minister of Foreign affairs (1813-14), dies at 71
  • 1852 Frantisek L Celakovsky, Czech slavist/poet, dies at 53
  • 1862 Thomas Williams, US Union brigadier general, dies in battle at 47
  • 1864 Griffin A Stedman, American Brigadier General (Union Army), dies in battle at 26
  • 1868 Jacques Boucher de Crèvecœur de Perthes, French archaeologist (discovered flint tools in the gravels of the Somme valley), dies at 79
  • 1877 Gustavus, Crown Prince of Sweden, dies at 77
  • 1880 Ferdinand Ritter von Hebra, Austrian physician (b. 1816)
  • 1889 Willem Ruys J Dz, Dutch ship owner, dies at 80

Person of interestFriedrich Engels

1895 Friedrich Engels, German social philosopher and revolutionary socialist who co-authored "The Communist Manifesto" with Karl Marx, dies of throat cancer at 74

Communist Philosopher Friedrich Engels
Communist Philosopher
Friedrich Engels
  • 1900 James Augustine Healy, African American Roman Catholic bishop, dies at 80
  • 1901 Victoria, Empress of Germany and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III, dies at 60
  • 1923 Vatroslav Jagić, Croatian scholar of Slavic studies, dies at 85
  • 1929 Millicent Fawcett, English suffragist, dies at 82
  • 1932 Israël Querido, Dutch writer (Jordan), dies at 59
  • 1940 Frederick Cook, American explorer, claimed to have 1st discovered North Pole, dies at 75
  • 1943 Adam Kuckhoff, German writer and resistance fighter, is executed during WWII at 55
  • 1946 Wilhelm Marx, German politician, Chancellor of Germany (1923-25, 1926-28), dies at 83
  • 1950 Emil Abderhalden, Swiss physiologist and biochemist, dies at 73
  • 1952 Sameera Moussa, Egyptian nuclear scientist (b. 1917)
  • 1957 Heinrich Otto Wieland, German chemist (bile acids-Nobel 1927), dies at 80
  • 1959 Edgar Albert Guest, American poet and newspaperman, dies at 77
9th Prime Minister of Canada Arthur Meighen
9th Prime Minister of Canada
Arthur Meighen
  • 1961 Sidney Holland, Prime Minister of New Zealand (National: 1949-57), dies at 67
  • 1964 Moa Martinson, Swedish writer (My Mother Gets Married), dies at 73
  • 1972 Harry Hylton-Foster, Speaker of the British House of Commons (b. 1905)
  • 1976 Adrian Roland Holst, Dutch poet (Past the Roads), dies at 88
  • 1980 Harold Runnels, American politician (b. 1924)
  • 1983 Bart [Bartholomeus Jan] Bok, Dutch-American astronomer (Milky Way), dies at 77
  • 1984 R Hagelstange, writer, dies
  • 1985 Theodore Sturgeon, American sci-fi author (Hugo, It, Caviar), dies at 67
  • 1990 Herman Gooding, Suriname police-inspector, dies
  • 1991 Soichiro Hondo, Japanese CEO & founder of Honda, dies of liver cancer at 84

Person of interestRobert Muldoon

1992 Robert Muldoon, New Zealand politician (Prime Minister, 1975-1984), dies at 70

New Zealand Prime Minister Robert Muldoon
New Zealand Prime Minister
Robert Muldoon
  • 1994 Audrey Langford, sInging teacher, dies at 82
  • 1994 Clive Robertson Caldwell, British fighter pilot, dies at 84
  • 1995 Agha Hasan Abedi, banker, dies at 73
  • 1995 Anthony Barber Doncaster, bookseller, dies at 81
  • 1996 Abdulrahman Mohamed Babu, Zanzibar-born revolutionary, politician and pan-Africanist, dies at 72
  • 1996 Frank Marcus, German playwright and critic, dies at 68
  • 1997 Don Steele, LA radio personality (KRTH), dies of cancer at 61
  • 1997 Clarence M. Kelley, American 2nd Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (1973-77), dies at 85
  • 1998 Todor Zhivkov, Bulgarian dictator (b. 1911)
  • 1998 Otto Kretschmer, German U-boat commander, dies at 86
  • 1998 Todor Zjivkov, Bulgaria communist leader of the People's Republic of Bulgaria (PRB), dies at 86
  • 1999 D. W. Brooks, American farmer and businessman, dies at 97
  • 2000 Otto Buchsbaum, Austrian writer and ecological activist, dies at 80
  • 2000 Dudley Randall, African-American poet who founded the pioneering publishing house "Broadside Press", dies at 84
  • 2001 Otema Allimadi, Prime Minister of Uganda (b. 1929)
  • 2002 Franco Lucentini, Italian writer (b. 1920)
  • 2005 Raul Roco, Philippine senator (b. 1941)
  • 2006 Susan Butcher, American sled dog champion (b. 1954)
  • 2006 Hugo Schiltz, Flemish lawyer and politician, dies at 78
  • 2007 Florian Pittiş, Romanian artist (b. 1943)
  • 2007 Jean-Marie Lustiger, Cardinal of France
  • 2007 Oliver Hill, American civil rights attorney (Presidential Medal of Freedom 1999), dies at 100
  • 2010 Robert Aitken, Zen co-founder (Diamond Sangha), dies at 93
  • 2011 Andrzej Lepper, Polish politician (Deputy Prime Minister of Poland), dies at 57
  • 2014 Jesse Leonard Steinfeld, 11th US Surgeon General (1969-73), dies at 87
  • 2014 Chapman Pincher, British journalist and author (about secret service), dies at 100
  • 2017 Mark White, American politician, lawyer, and 43rd Governor of Texas (1983-7), dies at 77

Person of interestToni Morrison

2019 Toni Morrison [Chloe Anthony Wofford], American writer (Tar Baby, Beloved, Song of Solomon), first African American woman to win a Nobel Prize (2010), dies at 88

  • 2020 Aritana Yawalapiti, Brazilian indigenous cacique (leader) of Yawalapiti people, who sought to preserve the Amazon, dies of COVID-19 at 71