On This Day in History for February 14

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 140

  • 842 Charles II & Louis the German sign treaty
  • 1014 Pope Benedict VIII crowns Henry II Roman German Emperor

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1076 Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV (for the 1st time)

Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV
Holy Roman Emperor
Henry IV
  • 1130 Jewish Cardinal Pietro Pierleone elected as anti-pope Anacletus II

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1540 Emperor Charles V enters Ghent without resistance, executes rebels

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V
  • 1556 Archbishop Thomas Cranmer declared a heretic

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1610 Polish King Sigismund III, Forges Dimitri #2 & Romanov family sign covenant against Tsar Vasili Shushki

  • 1630 Dutch fleet of 69 ships reaches Pernambuco, Brazil
  • 1670 Roman Catholic Emperor Leopold I chases Jews out of Vienna
  • 1689 English parliament places Mary Stuart and Prince William III on the throne

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1743 Henry Pelham becomes Britain's First Lord of Treasury

British Prime Minister Henry Pelham
British Prime Minister
Henry Pelham
  • 1747 Astronomer James Bradley presents his discovery of the wobbling motion of the Earth on its axis to the Royal Society, London
  • 1766 Dutch governor Falck and King Keerthisiri Rajasinghe of Kandy sign Treaty of Batticaloa
  • 1778 "Stars & Stripes" arrives in foreign port for 1st time (France)
  • 1794 1st US textile machinery patent granted, to James Davenport, Philadelphia

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1797 The Battle of Cape St Vincent: British fleet under Admiral Sir John Jervis defeats larger Spanish fleet under Admiral Don José de Córdoba y Ramos near Cape St. Vincent, Portugal. Captain Horatio Nelson distinguishes himself.

British Admiral Horatio Nelson
British Admiral
Horatio Nelson
  • 1803 Apple parer patented by Moses Coats, Downington, Pennsylvania

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1803 Chief Justice John Marshall declares that any act of U.S. Congress that conflicts with the Constitution is void

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States John Marshall
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
John Marshall
  • 1804 Karadjordje leads the First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Empire
  • 1831 Ras Marye of Yejju marches into Tigray and defeats and kills Dejazmach Sabagadis in the Battle of Debre Abbay
  • 1844 Lt. John C. Frémont first European to discover Lake Tahoe in the US

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1849 In New York City, James Knox Polk becomes first serving US President to have his photograph taken (by Matthew Brady).

11th US President James Knox Polk
11th US President
James Knox Polk
  • 1855 Texas is linked by telegraph to the rest of the United States, with the completion of a connection between New Orleans and Marshall, Texas.
  • 1859 Oregon admitted as 33rd state of the Union
  • 1862 Galena, 1st US iron-clad warship for service at sea, launched, Connecticut
  • 1867 Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Co issues 1st policy
  • 1867 Morehouse College organizes (Augusta Georgia)
  • 1872 1st US state bird refuge authorized (Lake Merritt, California)
  • 1876 A G Bell & Elisha Gray apply separately for telephone patents Supreme Court eventually rules Bell rightful inventor
  • 1879 Chilean troops occupy Antofagasta
  • 1883 1st state labor union legislation; New Jersey legalizes unions
  • 1889 1st train load of fruit (oranges) leaves LA for east
  • 1894 Venus is both a morning star & evening star

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1895 Oscar Wilde's "Importance of Being Earnest," opens in London

Writer and Poet Oscar Wilde
Writer and Poet
Oscar Wilde
  • 1896 George Lohmann takes a hat-trick v South Africa, 8-7 for inning
  • 1896 South Africa all out for 30 v England - their lowest ever
  • 1896 Theodor Herzl publishes "Der Judenstaat"
  • 1899 US Congress begins using voting machines
  • 1900 Russia responds to international pressure to free Finland by tightening imperial control over the country
  • 1903 US Department of Commerce & Labor forms
  • 1907 1st US foxhound association forms in NYC
  • 1912 1st US submarines with diesel engines commissioned, Groton, Connecticut
  • 1912 Arizona was admitted to the Union as the 48th state
  • 1914 High Council of Labor forms in Hague Netherlands
  • 1918 USSR adopts New Style (Gregorian) calendar (originally Feb 1)
  • 1919 United Parcel Service forms
  • 1919 The Polish-Soviet War begins.
  • 1920 League of Women Voters forms in Chicago
  • 1921 Canadian 5 cent nickel coin is authorized
  • 1921 Little Review faces obscenity charges for publishing "Ulysses," in New York

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1924 Thomas J. Watson renames the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) as International Business Machines (IBM)

Businessman and Entrepreneur Thomas J. Watson
Businessman and Entrepreneur
Thomas J. Watson

  • 1925 State of emergency crisis in Bavaria ends, NSDAP re-allowed

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1929 St Valentine's Day Massacre in Chicago, 7 gangsters killed, allegedly on Al Capone's orders

Gangster Al Capone
Al Capone
  • 1931 Spanish government of General Damasco Berenguer falls
  • 1932 South Africa all out for 36 in 1st innings v Australia (Ironmonger 5-6)
  • 1936 National Negro Congress organizes in Chicago
  • 1936 US female Figure Skating championship won by Maribel Vinson
  • 1936 US male Figure Skating championship won by Robin Lee
  • 1940 British merchant vessel fleet is armed
  • 1941 One millionth vehicle traverses the NY Midtown Tunnel
  • 1941 Carson McCuller's "Reflections in a Golden Eye" published
  • 1941 Cebrie Park in the Bronx renamed Halsey Street
  • 1941 German Afrika Korps lands in Tripoli, Libya
  • 1942 Japanese parachutists land near oil center Palembang, Sumatra
  • 1942 Rotterdam's Maas tunnel opens
  • 1942 World War II: Battle of Pasir Panjang contributes to the fall of Singapore.
  • 1943 German offensive through de Faid-pass Tunisia
  • 1943 Soviets recapture Rostov
  • 1943 World War II: Rostov-on-Don, Russia is liberated.
  • 1944 Anti-Japanese revolt on Java
  • 1945 Second day of the bombing of Dresden by Allied air forces
  • 1945 Peru, Paraguay, Chile & Ecuador joins UN
  • 1945 World War II: Prague is bombed probably due to a mistake in the orientation of the pilots bombing Dresden.
  • 1945 World War II: Mostar is liberated by Yugoslav partisans.
  • 1949 1st session of Knesset (Jerusalem Israel)
  • 1949 Dutch Drees government presents plan for the building of 30,000 houses
  • 1950 USSR & China sign peace treaty

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1954 Senator John F. Kennedy appears on "Meet the Press"

35th US President John F. Kennedy
35th US President
John F. Kennedy
  • 1956 20th Congress of CPSU opens in Moscow
  • 1956 Indonesia withdraws from Netherlands Indonesian Union
  • 1956 Verhoeven, Nauta and De King/Wijnhout win Dutch 11 city skate
  • 1958 Arab Federation of Iraq & Jordan forms
  • 1959 $3.6 million heroin seizure in NYC
  • 1960 Marshal Ayub Khan elected President of Pakistan
  • 1961 Element 103, Lawrencium, 1st produced in Berkeley Calif

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1962 US 1st lady Jacqueline Kennedy conducts White House tour on TV

  • 1963 US launches communications satellite Syncom 1
  • 1965 7th Daytona 500: Fred Lorenzen wins (141.539 MPH)
  • 1966 Australian currency is decimalised, and decimal currency postage stamps introduced
  • 1966 Writers Andrei Sinjavski & Joeij Daniel found guilty
  • 1967 "Respect" single recorded by Aretha Franklin (Billboard Song of the Year 1967)
  • 1967 Latin American nuclear free zone proposal drawn up
  • 1968 Pennsylvania Railroad and NYC Central merge into Pennsylvania Central

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1971 Richard Nixon installs secret taping system in the White House

37th US President Richard Nixon
37th US President
Richard Nixon
  • 1971 Tehran agreement signed; oil companies accept 55 percent tax rate, immediate increase in posted prices, and further successive increases
  • 1971 13th Daytona 500: Richard Petty wins (144.462 MPH)
  • 1972 Luna 20 (Russia) launched to orbit & soft landing on Moon
  • 1972 Lord Widgery arrives in Coleraine, where the 'Bloody Sunday' (30 January 1972) Tribunal was to be based, and holds a preliminary hearing
  • 1975 Bomb explodes at annex of Amsterdam metro station
  • 1976 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 123

  • 1462 Edzard I Cirksena, the Great, earl of East-Friesia (1494-1528)
  • 1468 Johann Werner, German mathematician (d. 1522)
  • 1483 Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur, Andijan, Mughalistan, founder of the Mughal dynasty in the Indian Subcontinent
  • 1487 Henry II of Bavaria, bishop of Utrecht/Worms/Freising
  • 1515 Frederick III, the Pious, elect of the Palts
  • 1533 Christianus Adrichomius, Dutch priest/writer (Vita Jesu Christi)
  • 1546 Johann Pistorius, German theologist/historian
  • 1621 Sybilla Schwarz, German baroque poet, born in Greifswald (d. 1638)
  • 1680 John Sidney, 6th Earl of Leicester, English privy councillor (d. 1737)
  • 1692 Pierre-Claude Nivelle de La Chaussée, French writer (d. 1754)
  • 1701 Enrique Florez, Spanish historian (d. 1773)
  • 1760 Richard Allen, 1st African American ordained by Methodist-Episcopal church, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • 1763 Jean Victor Marie Moreau, French general (d. 1813)
  • 1800 Emory Washburn, 22nd Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1877)
  • 1806 Lajos, Count Batthy ny, revolutionary premier of Hungary (1848-49)
  • 1812 Alfred Thomas Agate, American artist (d. 1846)
  • 1813 John McNeil, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (d. 1891)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1818 Frederick Douglass, African-American abolitionist, lecturer and editor who was also an escaped slave (exact birth year unknown), born in Talbot County, Maryland (d. 1895)

Abolitionist Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
  • 1819 James Green Martin, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1878)
  • 1819 Christopher Latham Sholes, American newspaper man, politician and inventor of the typewriter, born in Mooresburg, Pennsylvania (d. 1890)
  • 1824 Winfield Scott Hancock, American politician and Major General (Union Army), born in Montgomeryville, Pennsylvania (d. 1886)
  • 1828 Edmond François Valentin About, French writer (d. 1885)
  • 1829 Alfred Iverson Jr, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1911)
  • 1835 Francois Haverschmidt, Dutch writer (Snikken en grimlachjes)
  • 1838 Margaret E. Knight, American inventor (flat-bottomed paper bag), described as a "female Thomas Edison", born in York, Maine (d. 1914)
  • 1845 Cecil De Vere, 1st official British chess champion (1866)
  • 1846 Julian Scott, American artist and Civil War Medal of Honor recipient. (d. 1901)
  • 1847 Anna Howard Shaw, American suffragette
  • 1847 Maria Pia of Italy, queen of Portugal (d. 1911)
  • 1848 Benjamin Baillaud, French astronomer (d. 1934)
  • 1853 Jan van Rijswijck, Flemish journalist/mayor (Antwerp)
  • 1856 Frank Harris, England, journalist/writer (My Life & Loves)
  • 1858 Joseph Thomson, Scotland, geologist (Thomson's gazelle)
  • 1859 George Washington Gale Ferris, engineer/inventor (Ferris Wheel)
  • 1860 Eugen Schiffer, German politician (d. 1954)
  • 1860 Waldemar Lindgren, Kalmar, Swedish-American Geologist (economic geology, ore classification)
  • 1864 Israel Zangwill, England, Jewish author/Zionist (Children of Ghetto)
  • 1864 Robert E Park, American sociologist (human ecology, marginal man)
  • 1868 Henricus A Poels, Dutch RC theologist/social foreman
  • 1869 Charles Wilson, English physicist (Wilson cloud chamber-Nobel)
  • 1878 Julius Nieuwland, Hansbeke Belgium, Belgian-American Chemist (inventor of neoprene)
  • 1881 Otto Selz, German psychologist
  • 1881 William John Gruffydd, Welsh poet/scholar (Ynys yr Hud)
  • 1882 George Jean Nathan, American editor/author/critic (American Mercury)
  • 1884 Hezekiah M. Washburn, missionary (d. 1972)
  • 1884 Kostas Varnalis, Greek poet (d. 1974)
  • 1885 Syed Zafarul Hasan, Prominent Muslim Indian/Pakistani philosopher (d. 1949)
  • 1886 Theodor Werner, German painter
  • 1890 Nina Hamnett, Welsh artist (d. 1956)
  • 1892 Radola Gajda, Czech military commander (d. 1948)
  • 1893 Kay Fisker, Danish architect (Hornbeck House, Copenhagen)
  • 1894 Jack Benny, [Benjamin Kubelski], Waukegan Ill, "Oh! Rochester!"
  • 1895 Max Horkheimer, German philosopher/sociologist (Studies in prejudice)
  • 1896 Arthur Milne [Edward Arthur Milne], Hull Yorkshire, English Astrophysicist (kinematic relativity)
  • 1898 Fritz Zwicky, Swiss astronomer (supernova, dark matter)
  • 1899 John Randall Jr, Michigan, historian/philosopher (Western Man)
  • 1902 Ray "Crash" Corrigan, cowboy (Crash Corrigan's Ranch), born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin
  • 1904 Charles William Oatley, electrical engineer
  • 1904 Hanning Phillips, Lord Lieutenant (Dyfed)
  • 1904 Hertha Kuusinen, Finnish communist
  • 1909 A Moses Klein, poet (Hath Not a Jew...), born in Montreal, Quebec
  • 1911 Willem J Kolff, Dutch/US internist/inventor (Artificial Kidney)
  • 1912 Edmund George Love, American teacher/historian/author (A Small Bequest)=
  • 1912 Juan Pujol Garcia, [Garbo/Arabel], Spanish British/German double agent
  • 1912 Oliver Wendell Harrington, cartoonist
  • 1912 Tibor Sekelj, Croatian explorer (d. 1988)
  • 1913 Ab [Albert] Visser, Dutch poet/writer (Man Without a Head)
  • 1913 James Pike, bishop (Beyond Anxiety), born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
  • 1913 Jimmy Hoffa, Teamsters leader who disappeared in 1975
  • 1914 Margarete Mewes, Nazi overseer at concentration camp
  • 1915 A W H Stewart-Moore, CEO (Gallaher)
  • 1916 Masaki Kobayashi, Japanese director (Joi-uchi)
  • 1916 Marcel Bigeard, French general
  • 1917 Herbert A Hauptman, American x-ray crystallographer (Nobel 1985), born in NYC, New York
  • 1920 Arnold Elton, consultant surgeon
  • 1921 Albert Sloman, Vice-Chancellor (Essex U)
  • 1921 Hugh Downs, TV journalist (20/20, Concentration), born in Akron, Ohio
  • 1921 Skeezix, of "Gasoline Alley" discovered on Wallets' doorstep
  • 1923 Derrick Holden-Brown, CEO (Allied-Lyons)
  • 1924 Countess Mountbatten, of Burma
  • 1926 John Clark, CEO (Plessey Company)
  • 1928 Ben Garrido Blaz, (Rep-R-Guam, 1985- )
  • 1928 Juan Garcia Hortelano, Spanish author (Tormenta de verano)
  • 1929 Matthew G Martinez, (Rep-D-CA, 1982- )
  • 1930 Duncan Montgomery Stewart, principal (Lady Margaret Hall-Oxford)
  • 1932 Jack Hibbert, director (Central Statistical Office)
  • 1932 Jocelyn Stevens, CEO (English Heritage)
  • 1932 Michael Ball, Bishop (Truro)
  • 1932 Peter Ball, Bishop (Gloucester)
  • 1932 Leo Thorsness, American Vietnam War pilot (Medal of Honor), born in Walnut Grove, Minnesota (d. 2017)
  • 1933 Evelyn Ebsworth, Vice-Chancellor (Durham U)
  • 1935 David Wilson, British governor (Hong Kong)
  • 1935 Lord Wilson of Tillyorn
  • 1935 Peter Phillips, printer
  • 1936 Fanne Foxe, [Annabella Battistella], Argentina, (Wilbur Mills affair)
  • 1937 John MacGregor, British MP
  • 1940 Porpoise, 1st born in captivity in US (Marineland, Fla)
  • 1941 Paul Tsongas, (Sen-D-Mass)
  • 1941 Donna Shalala, American educator
  • 1942 Margaret Wright, chief commissioner (Guide Association)

Weddings in History

  • 1613 King James I's daughter Elizabeth marries Frederik

HeartWedding of Interest

1903 Psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (27) weds Emma Rauschenbach (20)

Psychiatrist Carl Jung
Carl Jung

HeartWedding of Interest

1922 Soldier Douglas MacArthur (42) marries 1st wife heiress Louise Cromwell Brooks (32)

US WWII General Douglas MacArthur
US WWII General
Douglas MacArthur

HeartWedding of Interest

1943 Walmart founder Sam Walton (24) weds Helen Robson (23)

Entrepreneur and Founder of Walmart Sam Walton
Entrepreneur and Founder of Walmart
Sam Walton

HeartWedding of Interest

1988 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin (58) weds Lois Driggs Cannon

Astronaut Buzz Aldrin
Buzz Aldrin

HeartWedding of Interest

2006 Mobster and nbi informant Henry Hill (62) weds Lisa Caserta

Mobster and FBI informant Henry Hill
Mobster and FBI informant
Henry Hill
  • 2007 Former Atomic Kitten member Kerry Katona (26) weds Mark Croft in Gretna Green
  • 2013 Wedding planner to the stars Preston Bailey (63) weds Theo Bleckmann (47) at Empire State Building

Divorces in History

Broken heartDivorce of Interest

1919 Theoretical Physicist Albert Einstein (39) divorces Mileva Maric after 16 years of marriage

Theoretical Physicist Albert Einstein
Theoretical Physicist
Albert Einstein

Deaths in History

  • 270 St. Valentine marking Valentines Day (some sources say 269, others 273).
  • 869 Saint Cyril, Greek monk, scholar, theologian and linguist (b. 827) Called "apostle of Slavs"
  • 1317 Marguerite of France, queen of Edward I of England (b. 1282)
  • 1400 Richard II, king of England (1377-99), murdered at age 33 at Pontefract Castle

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1405 Timur/Tamerlane "Lenk", [Crippled], Turko-Mongol ruler, dies at about 68

Turkic Conqueror Tamerlane
Turkic Conqueror
  • 1528 Edzard I the Great, count of Austria-E Frisia (1494-1528), dies at 66
  • 1571 Benvenuto Cellini, Italian sculptor/writer (Perseus), dies at 70
  • 1571 Odet de Coligny, Cardinal of Châtillon/count of Beauvais, dies at 53
  • 1676 Abraham Bosse, French engraver and artist
  • 1714 Maria Luisa of Savoy, Queen Consort of Spain (b. 1688)
  • 1737 Charles Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot of Hensol, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain (b. 1685)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1779 James Cook, British explorer, navigator and cartographer, discovered and explored Australia, Pacific Islands and New Zealand for Britain, killed in a fight with Hawaiians near Kealakekua at 50

Explorer James Cook
James Cook

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1780 William Blackstone, English lawyer, dies at 56

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1808 John Dickinson, American lawyer and Governor of Delaware and Pennsylvania, dies at 75

Founding Father of the United States John Dickinson
Founding Father of the United States
John Dickinson
  • 1818 John C Hespe, Dutch journalist/politician, dies at 61
  • 1820 Charles F, Duke of Berry, murdered at 42

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1831 Vicente Guerrero, Mexican revolutionary hero, general and 2nd President of Mexico (1829, executed by firing squad at 48

Revolutionary General and President of Mexico Vicente Guerrero
Revolutionary General and President of Mexico
Vicente Guerrero
  • 1845 Joseph Lakanal, French Politician and Educator, dies at 82
  • 1846 Cornelis F van Maanen, Dutch supreme court justice, dies at 76
  • 1870 St. John Richardson Liddell, American Civil War Confederate General, dies at 54
  • 1881 Fernando Wood, New York City mayor (b. 1812)
  • 1884 Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt, 1st wife of Theodore Roosevelt, dies of Bright's disease at 22
  • 1885 Jules Vallès, French writer (b. 1832)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1891 William Tecumseh Sherman, American Major General in the Union Army, dies at 71

  • 1894 Eugène Charles Catalan, Belgian mathematician (b. 1814)
  • 1916 Petko J Todorov, Bulgaria writer (Zmejova), dies at 36
  • 1922 Heikki Ritavuori, Finnish politician (assassinated) (b. 1880)
  • 1942 Adnan Bin Saidi, Officer of the Malay Regiment killed in the defense of Singapore (b. 1915)
  • 1943 David Hilbert, German mathematician (Hilbert Space), dies at 81
  • 1943 Frieda Reiss, French 11 month old baby, murdered in Auschwitz
  • 1949 Yusuf Salman Yusuf, Iraqi-Assyrian communist leader (b. 1901)
  • 1950 Eduard Hermann, German linguist (Homer), dies at 80
  • 1950 Karl G Jansky, Czech discoverer of cosmic radio sources, dies at 44
  • 1958 Abdul Rab Nishtar, veteran leader of Pakistan Movement, (b. 1899)
  • 1969 Vito Genovese, US mafia chief, dies at 71
  • 1975 Heintje Davids, [Hendrika David], Dutch cabaret artist, dies at 87
  • 1975 Julian S Huxley, English scholar/dir-gen (UNESCO), dies at 87
  • 1975 P. G. Wodehouse, English-American writer (Bertie Wooster novels), dies at 93
  • 1979 Adolph Dubs, US ambassador to Afghanistan, murdered
  • 1987 Karolos Koun, Greek theater director (b. 1908)
  • 1989 James Bond, American ornithologist (b. 1900)
  • 1991 Arno Breker, German sculptor (Third Reich), dies at 90
  • 1991 John A McCone, Head of CIA (1961-65), dies
  • 1992 Jacob "Bob" de Uyl, journalist/author (Restless Travel), dies at 61
  • 1994 Christopher Lasch, author (Culture of Narcissism), dies at 61
  • 1995 Alberto Burri, Italian physician/sculptor/painter, dies at 79
  • 1995 Patricia Highsmith, writer, dies at 74
  • 1995 Roger de Grey, English chairman of Royal Academy (1984-93), dies at 76
  • 1995 Siem Suurhoff, TV-director (Behind the News, Sonja), dies at 58
  • 1995 U Nu, PM of Burma (1948-56, 57-58, 60-62), dies at 87
  • 1996 Caroline Blackwood, writer, dies at 64
  • 1996 Eva Hart, Titanic survivor, dies at 90
  • 1996 Ivan William Hannaford, sociologist, dies at 64
  • 1999 John Ehrlichman, American presidential advisor (b. 1925)
  • 2000 Walter Zinn, Canadian-American Nuclear-Physicist (invented the breeder reactor), dies at 93

Person of interestPerson of Interest

2003 Dolly the Sheep, first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell dies young form a progressive lung disease aged 6

  • 2005 Rafik Hariri, Lebanese politician and billionaire businessman (b. 1944)
  • 2007 Gareth Morris, British flautist (b. 1920)
  • 2009 Bernard Ashley, English businessperson, fashion designer and co-founder of Laura Ashley, dies of cancer at 82
  • 2015 Louis Jourdan, French actor (Gigi, Octopussy), dies at 93
  • 2015 Philip Levine, American poet (1995 Pulitzer prize), dies at 87
  • 2015 Michele Ferrero, Italian entrepreneur (Ferrero SpA) created Nutella, dies at 89