622 Muslim Era begins - Muhammad begins flight from Mecca to Medina (Hijra)
1054 Beginning of the Great Schism between Western and Eastern churches when Roman Cardinal Humbert issues bull of excommunication against Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, on the altar of the Hagia Sophia, Constantinople
1099 Crusaders herd Jews of Jerusalem into a synagogue & set it afire
1212 Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa [Battle of Al-Uqab]: combined Christian army defeats Almohad Muslim force in a turning point for Muslim power on Iberian peninsula
1251 The Virgin Mary gives Simon Stock a Brown Scapular (legend)
1338 The six Electors of the Holy Roman Empire signed the Agreement of Rhense confirming Emperor Louis IV.