On This Day

On This Day in History for March 22

Events in History

  • 238 Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor
  • 752 Stephen II elected Catholic Pope (or 23rd)
  • 871 Battle at Marton: Ethelred van Wessex beats Danish invasion army

Historic DiscoveryBlack Death

1349 Townspeople of Fulda, Germany massacre Jews, blaming them for the Black Death

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Medieval painting from 1353 showing the citizens of Tournai (today in Belgium) burying victims of the Black Death
Medieval painting from 1353 showing the citizens of Tournai (today in Belgium) burying victims of the Black Death
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  • 1421 Battle of Baugé - French defeat English
  • 1556 Cardinal Reginald Pole becomes archbishop of Canterbury

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1594 French King Henry IV festival in Paris

  • 1621 Dutch jurist Hugo de Groot (Hugo Grotius) escapes in book chest from Loevestein Castle in the Netherlands
  • 1622 First American Indian (Powhatan) massacre of Europeans in Jamestown Virginia, 347 killed
  • 1630 1st colonial legislation prohibiting gambling enacted (Boston)
  • 1638 Religious dissident Anne Hutchinson expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • 1680 Parliament of Breisach accepts French sovereignty over Elzas
  • 1692 Emperor Leopold I names Duke Earnest August of Braunschweig, king

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1765 Stamp Act passed; 1st direct British tax on American colonists, organized by Prime Minister George Grenville

British Prime Minister George Grenville
British Prime Minister
George Grenville
  • 1775 Edmund Burke presents his 13 articles to the Westminster Parliament

DiscoveryHistoric Discovery

1778 Captain James Cook sights Cape Flattery, now in Washington state

Explorer James Cook
James Cook

ThailandEmerald Buddha

1784 The Emerald Buddha is moved with great ceremony to its current place in Wat Phra Kaew, Thailand

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The Emerald Buddha of Thailand, considered the palladium of the nation and one of its most sacred sites
The Emerald Buddha of Thailand, considered the palladium of the nation and one of its most sacred sites
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Event of interestEvent of Interest

1790 Thomas Jefferson becomes the 1st US Secretary of State under President Washington

3rd US President Thomas Jefferson
3rd US President
Thomas Jefferson
  • 1794 Congress bans US vessels from supplying slaves to other countries
  • 1809 Charles XIII succeeds Gustav IV Adolf to the Swedish throne
  • 1822 NY Horticultural Society founded
  • 1829 The three protecting powers (Britain, France and Russia) establish the borders of Greece.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1832 British Parliament, led by Charles Grey, passes the Reform Act, introducing wide-ranging changes to electoral system of England and Wales, increasing electorate from about 500,000 voters to 813,000

British Prime Minister Charles Grey
British Prime Minister
Charles Grey
British Prime Minister John Russell
British Prime Minister
John Russell
  • 1841 A method for alkali starch extraction is patented in the US by Orlando Jones, which is later applied to corn (cornstarch)
  • 1861 1st US nursing school chartered
  • 1862 San Marino & Italy conclude treaty of friendship & cooperation
  • 1865 Raid at Wilson's: Chickaswas AL to Macon GA
  • 1871 William Holden of North Carolina becomes 1st governor removed by impeachment
  • 1872 Illinois becomes 1st state to require sexual equality in employment
  • 1873 Slavery is abolished in Puerto Rico, celebrated as Emancipation Day
  • 1874 Young Men's Hebrew Association organizes in NYC
  • 1888 English Football League established
  • 1903 Niagera Falls runs out of water because of a drought

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1903 US Anthracite Coal Commission, set up by President Theodore Roosevelt, submits its recommendations for shorter hours, a 10-per cent wage increase, and an 'open shop'

26th US President Theodore Roosevelt
26th US President
Theodore Roosevelt
  • 1904 "Bailundo Revolt" ends after almost 2-years in Portuguese victory over Ovimbundu kingdom & allies
  • 1907 The new Boer government in the Transvaal passes an Asiatic Registration Bill, that restricts immigration from India

  • 1912 Agnes Martin, Macklin Canada, Canadian-American abstract painter
  • 1914 The St. Petersburg–Tampa Airboat Line becomes the world's first scheduled airline
  • 1917 The USA is the first nation to recognize the new government of Russia
  • 1922 The Rand Rebellion in Southern Africa, which started as a strike by white mineworkers and became an armed rebellion against the state, is brought to a brutal end by the police
  • 1927 Federico Garcia Lorca's "El Maleficio" premieres in Madrid
  • 1929 KIT-AM in Yakima WA begins radio transmissions
  • 1929 USCG vessel sank Canadian schooner suspected of carrying liquor

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1933 FDR makes wine & beer with up to 3.2% alcohol legal

32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • 1934 Fire destroys Hakodate Japan (kills 1,500, injures 1,000)
  • 1935 Blood tests authorized as evidence in court cases (NY)
  • 1939 Lithuania forced to give Memel territory to Germany
  • 1941 Grand Coulee Dam in Washington goes into operation
  • 1943 Dutch work week extended to 54 hour
  • 1943 Obligatory work for woman ends in Belgium
  • 1943 SS police chief Rauter threatens to kill half Jewish children
  • 1944 600+ 8th Air Force bombers attack Berlin
  • 1945 Arab League forms with adoption of a charter in Cairo Egypt
  • 1945 US 3rd Army crosses Rhine at Nierstein
  • 1946 1st US rocket to leave the Earth's atmosphere (50 miles up)
  • 1946 Britain signs treaty granting independence to Jordan
  • 1947 President Harry Truman signs executive order calling for loyalty
  • 1952 Dutch DC-6 crashes near Frankfurt, killing 44
  • 1953 Antonín Zápotocký chosen as President of Czechoslovakia
  • 1954 Northland Center, the world's largest shopping mall of the time, opens in Oakpark, Michigan
  • 1954 Closed since 1939, the London bullion market reopens
  • 1957 Earthquake shakes San Francisco
  • 1957 Republic of India adopts Saka calendar along with Gregorian

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1958 Under pressure King Saud appoints Faisal Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia

  • 1958 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR

InventionHistoric Invention

1960 1st patent for lasers granted to Arthur Schawlow & Charles Townes

  • 1963 British Minister of War John Profumo denies having sex with Christine Keeler
  • 1965 D Senanayake wins general elections in Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
  • 1965 US confirms its troops used chemical warfare against the Vietcong

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

1965 Nicolae Ceausescu is elected General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party

Dictator of Romania Nicolae Ceausescu
Dictator of Romania
Nicolae Ceausescu
  • 1968 Jarmila Novotna resigns presidency of Czechoslovakia
  • 1968 Lynda Johnson ordered off San Francisco cable car for eating an ice cream cone
  • 1968 Student riot in Nanterre near Paris
  • 1969 "Billy" opens & closes at Billy Rose Theater NYC after 1 performance
  • 1970 "Blood Red Roses" opens & closes at John Golden Theater NYC
  • 1971 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1971 Brian Faulkner becomes the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1972 Congress approves Equal Rights Amendment (never ratified)

Eagle Forum President Phyllis Schlafly
Eagle Forum President
Phyllis Schlafly
  • 1972 In Eisenstadt v. Baird the US Supreme Court rules unmarried people have same right to contraception as married people.
  • 1975 AIAW Women's Basketball Tournament, Delta State beats Immaculata 90-81 in Harrisonburg
  • 1975 A fire at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant in Decatur, Alabama causes dangerous lowering of cooling water levels

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1977 Indira Gandhi resigns as Prime Minister of India

4th Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi
4th Prime Minister of India
Indira Gandhi
  • 1977 Dutch Labour Party (PvdA) government under Joop den Uyl falls
  • 1978 France performs nuclear test

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1978 Robert Frost Plaza, at California, Drumm & Market, San Francisco, dedicated

  • 1978 Karl Wallenda of The Flying Wallendas dies after falling off a tight-rope between two hotels in San Juan, Puerto Rico
  • 1979 Israeli parliament approves peace treaty with Egypt
  • 1979 Provisional Irish Republican Army assassinates Richard Sykes, the British ambassador to the Netherlands, in Den Haag
  • 1979 The Provisional Irish Republican Army explode 24 bombs in various locations across Northern Ireland
  • 1981 US 1st class postage raised to 18 cents from 15 cents
  • 1981 Soyuz 39 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 Mongolian) to Salyut 6
  • 1981 Toshihiko Seko runs world record 25k (1:13:55.8)/30k (1:29:18.8)
  • 1982 3rd Space Shuttle Mission-Columbia 3 launched
  • 1982 Iran offensive against Iraq
  • 1983 Chaim Herzog elected Israeli president
  • 1984 Teachers at the McMartin preschool in Manhattan Beach, California are charged with Satanic ritual abuse of the children in the school. The charges are later dropped as completely unfounded.
  • 1985 NASA launches Intelsat VA F-10
  • 1986 Ehrig skates ladies world record 5 km (7:20.99)
  • 1986 Ice Pairs Championship at Geneva won by Gordeeva & Grinkov (URS)
  • 1986 Kania skates ladies' world record 1500m (1:59.30)

Birthdays in History

  • 841 Bernard Plantapilosa, Count of Auvergne (d. 885)
  • 1212 Emperor Go-Horikawa of Japan (d. 1235)
  • 1366 Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, English politician (d. 1399)
  • 1459 Maximilian I of Habsburg, German Emperor/archduke of Austria
  • 1503 Antonio Francesco Grazzini, Italian writer (d. 1583)
  • 1599 Anthony Van Dyck, Flemish painter (Charles I of England), born in Antwerp, Spanish Netherlands (d. 1641)
  • 1609 John II Casimir Vasa [Jan Kazimierz], King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1648-68), born in Kraków, Poland (d. 1672)
  • 1663 August Hermann Francke, German Protestant minister (d. 1727)
  • 1712 Edward Moore, English writer (d. 1757)
  • 1720 Nicolas-Henri Jardin, French architect (d. 1799)
  • 1728 Anton Raphael Mengs, German Bohemian painter and one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting, born in Ústí nad Labem, Bohemia (d. 1779)
  • 1759 Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, Queen of Sweden and Norway (d. 1818)
  • 1767 Cornelis T Elout, Dutch minister of Finance
  • 1771 Heinrich D Zschokke, Swiss author (Das Goldmacherdorf)
  • 1797 Kaiser Wilhelm I, German emperor (1871-88)
  • 1799 F W A Argelander, Memel E Prussia, cataloguer of 324,188 stars
  • 1803 Anthonie Waldrop, Dutch painter/lithographer
  • 1812 Stephen Pearl Andrews, American abolitionist (d. 1886)
  • 1813 Gabriel René Paul, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in St. Louis, Missouri (d. 1886)
  • 1814 Thomas Crawford, US sculptor (Babes in the Wood)
  • 1817 Braxton Bragg, Gen (Confederate Army), (d. 1876)
  • 1818 John Ainsworth Horrocks, English-born explorer of South Australia (d. 1846)
  • 1819 William Wirt Adams, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1888)
  • 1822 Ahmed Djevdet Pasha, Turkish minister of Education/Justice
  • 1822 Isaac D Fransen van de Putte, Dutch premier (1866)
  • 1822 Seth Williams, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Augusta, Maine (d. 1866)
  • 1824 William Henry Chase Whiting, American Major General (Confederate Army), born in Biloxi, Mississippi (d. 1865)
  • 1834 Francis Asbury Shoup, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1896)
  • 1846 Randolph Caldecott, England, illustrator (Caldecott Medal namesake)
  • 1852 Theodor Birt, [Beatus Rhenanus], German classical/writer
  • 1857 Arnold Sauwen, Flemish poet (Along the Meuse)
  • 1857 Paul Doumer, gov-genl of Indo-China/13th President of France (1931-32)
  • 1860 Alfred Ploetz, German physician (d. 1940)
  • 1867 Meijer Linnewiel, [Prof Kokadorus], Amsterdam's pitchman

Person of interestRobert A. Millikan

1868 Robert A. Millikan, American physicist (photoelectric effect; Nobel 1923), born in Morrison, Illinois (d. 1953)

Person of interestEmilio Aguinaldo

1869 Emilio Aguinaldo, 1st President of the Philippines (1899-1901), born in Kawit, Cavite, Philippines (d. 1964)

Revolutionary and 1st President of the Philippines Emilio Aguinaldo
Revolutionary and 1st President of the Philippines
Emilio Aguinaldo
  • 1874 Ellen Glasgow, novelist
  • 1885 Aryeh Levin [Reb Aryeh], Orthodox Jewish rabbi (d. 1969)
  • 1894 Surya Sen "Master Da", Indian activist for independence (Chittagong armoury raid), born in Chittagong, British India (d. 1934)
  • 1896 Giulia D De Albertis, writer
  • 1896 He Long, Chinese marshal (d. 1969)
  • 1901 Greta Kempton, American artist (d. 1991)
  • 1902 Ellin Berlin, [MacKay], Mrs Irving Berlin, writer (Lace Curtain)
  • 1903 James S Russell, US pilot/admiral (WW II Pacific Ocean)
  • 1903 Jochen Klepper, writer
  • 1905 Grigorij M Kosinzev, Russian director
  • 1905 Phyllis McGinley, poet
  • 1905 Ruth Page, US choreographer/ballet leader (Diaghilev, Pygmalion)
  • 1907 James Gavin, US 82nd Airborne Division General (Sicily/Normandy), born in Brooklyn, New York (d. 1990)
  • 1907 Lúcia Santos, Portuguese nun (d. 2005)
  • 1908 Maurice Stans, American politician, Secretary of Commerce and Watergate figure, born in Shakopee, Minnesota (d. 1998)
  • 1908 Albrecht Goes, German writer and theologian, born in Langenbeutingen (d. 2000)
  • 1908 Louis D L'Amour, American best-selling author (Hondo, Jubal Sackett), born in Jamestown, North Dakota (d. 1988)
  • 1908 Maurice H Stans, Shakope Minn, Secretary of Commerce (1969-72)
  • 1909 Gabrielle Roy, French-Canadian novelist (Tin Flute)
  • 1910 Nicholas Monsarrat, English novelist (The Cruel Sea), born in Liverpool, England (d. 1979)
  • 1912 Henri Rousselot, admiral
  • 1912 Lord Alport [Cuthbert Alport], politician, cabinet minister, and life peer
  • 1913 Tom McCall, Governor of Oregon (d. 1983)
  • 1914 Lord Stokes [Donald Stokes], Plymouth, Devon, English industrialist
  • 1914 Masao Maruyama, social scientist
  • 1915 Forest Sagendorf, cartoonist
  • 1917 Charles Pick, British publisher (William Heinemann), (d. 2000)
  • 1918 Cheddi B Jagan, dentist/founder PPP/Guyanese Premier (1953, 1957-64)
  • 1918 Harry Kay, vice-chancellor (Exeter U)
  • 1921 Wilhelmus Norbert Schmelzer, Netherland, foreign minister (KVP)
  • 1923 Bryan Clieve Roberts, lawyer/civil servant
  • 1923 Cor N van Dis Jr, Dutch politician (SGP, 1971-94)
  • 1923 Marcel Marceau, Strasbourg France, mime (Barbarella, Silent Movie)
  • 1924 Al Neuharth, newspaper founder (USA Today)
  • 1924 Paul Fussell, Pasadena, California, historian (The Great War and Modern Memory), (d. 2012)
  • 1925 Colin Spedding, CEO (Council of Science & Technology Institutes)
  • 1926 Julius Marmur, biochemist/geneticist
  • 1926 Lawrence Jackson, Provost Emeritus (Blackburn)
  • 1928 Betty Callaway, figure skating trainer (coached Torvill and Dean), born in Reading, England (d. 2011)
  • 1928 Bill Archer, American politician (Rep-R-TX, 1971-2001), born in Houston, Texas
  • 1928 DC Ingman, CEO (British Waterways Board)
  • 1928 Dmitri Antonovitch Volkogonov, soldier/historian
  • 1928 Carrie Donovan, American fashion editor (d. 2001)
  • 1928 E.D. Hirsch. American social commentator, born in Memphis, Tennessee
  • 1930 Derek Bok, college president (Harvard)
  • 1930 Lynden O Pindling, Prime Minister of Bahamas (1967-92)
  • 1930 Pat Robertson, televangelist (700 club, Presidential candidate-R-1989)
  • 1930 Derek Bok, American lawyer and educator
  • 1931 Igor Hajek, translator/writer
  • 1931 Leslie Thomas, Welsh writer (The Virgin Soldiers), born in Newport (d. 2014)
  • 1932 Richard Thomas, admiral
  • 1933 J. P. McCarthy, American radio personality (WJR Detroit), born in NYC, New York (d. 1995)
  • 1933 Buddy MacKay, (Rep-D-FL, 1983- )
  • 1933 Abolhassan Banisadr, former President of Iran
  • 1934 Leslie Turnberg, president (Royal College of Physicians)
  • 1934 Orrin Hatch, politician (Sen-R-UT, 1977- ), born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • 1934 Sheila Cameron, QC, Vicar-General (Province of Canterbury)
  • 1936 Philip Ely, president (British Law Society)
  • 1936 Ron Carey, American labor leader (International Brotherhood of Teamsters), born in NYC, New York (d. 2008)
  • 1940 William Ritchie, vice-chancellor (Lancaster U)
  • 1941 Billy Collins, American poet
  • 1942 Dick Pound, Canadian chairman of the World Anti-Doping Agency
  • 1944 T S "Tony" McPhee, rocker (Sad Go Round)
  • 1946 Rudy/Rudolf [von Bittner] Rucker, American sci-fi author (Wetware)

Deaths in History

  • 1322 Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, English politician (b. 1278)
  • 1418 Dietrich of Nieheim, German historian
  • 1421 Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV of England (killed in battle) (b. 1388)
  • 1471 George van Podiebrad, king of Bohemia (1458-71), dies
  • 1544 Johannes Magnus, last Catholic Archbishop of Sweden (b. 1488)
  • 1589 Lodovico Guicciardini, Italian historian (Descrittione di Tutti), dies at 67
  • 1602 Agostino Carracci, Italian artist (Communion of St. Jerome), dies at 44
  • 1627 Cornelis van Aerssen, Flemish Clerk of the House, dies at about 81
  • 1639 Thomas Carew, English poet/diplomat (The Rapture), dies
  • 1661 Hendrick Uylenburgh, art dealer, buried at about 73
  • 1685 Emperor Go-Sai of Japan (b. 1638)

Person of interestJonathan Edwards

1758 Jonathan Edwards, American Christian preacher, philosopher, and theologian (Original Sin), dies at 54

Christian Preacher and Philosopher Jonathan Edwards
Christian Preacher and Philosopher
Jonathan Edwards
  • 1771 Gottlieb Rabener, German author (Vom Misbrauch of the Satire), dies at 56
  • 1772 John Canton, English physicist, dies at 53
  • 1820 Stephen Decatur, killed in a duel with Com James Barron at 41

Person of interestJohann Wolfgang von Goethe

1832 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer and social philosopher (Faust), dies at 82

Social Philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Social Philosopher
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  • 1838 Hendrik Fagel, Dutch/English baron, dies at 73
  • 1840 Étienne Bobillier, French mathematician, dies at 41
  • 1852 Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel, queen consort of Denmark and Norway, dies at 84
  • 1890 Désiré de Haerne, Belgian Catholic priest and Congressional leader, dies at 85
  • 1896 Thomas Hughes, English politician and author (Tom Brown's School days), dies at 73
  • 1912 Henry Harrison Walker, American Brigadier General (Confederate Army), dies at 79
  • 1913 Sung Chiao-jen, Chinese Nationalist (b. 1882)
  • 1922 Louis-Antoine Ranvier, French anatomist and historian, dies at 86
  • 1923 Theophile Delcasse, French statesman, dies at 71
  • 1924 Robert Nivelle, French military officer, dies at 67
  • 1934 Theophilos Hatzimihail, Greek painter (b. 1870)
  • 1937 Mary Russell, Duchess of Bedford, English aviator and ornithologist, dies at 71
  • 1944 ... Pucheu, French Internal minister to Vichy, executed
  • 1945 J Postuma, Dutch resistance fighter, dies
  • 1946 Clemens A von Galen, bishop of Munster/anti fascist, dies at 68
  • 1953 James Anderson II, (Jo-Northern Exposure), dies
  • 1955 Ivan Šubašić, Kingdom of Yugoslavia prime minister and last ban of Croatia (b. 1892)
  • 1956 George Al Sarton, Belgian-American chemist and historian, dies at 71
  • 1958 Michael "Mike" Todd [Avrom Goldbogen], American producer (Around the World in 80 Days) and 3rd husband of Elizabeth Taylor, dies in a plane crash at 48
  • 1960 José Antonio Aguirre, Basque politician (b. 1904)
  • 1971 Martin Bodmer, writer, dies
  • 1977 A.K. Gopalan, Indian Communist leader (b. 1904)
  • 1978 Karl Wallenda, falls to death walking high-wire in PR at 73
  • 1979 Richard Sykes, British ambassador, assassinated by the IRA in The Hague, Holland
  • 1981 James "Jumbo" Elliott, American track coach (b. 1915)
  • 1990 Gerald Bull, Canadian long range artillery designer and engineer, dies at 62
  • 1991 Léon Balcer, French Canadian politician (b. 1917)
  • 1991 Paul Engle, American poet and writer (Worm Earth, American Song), dies at 82
  • 1993 Phia Berghout, Dutch harpist, dies at 83
  • 1994 Igor Aleinikov, Russian director (tractors, air crash), dies at 32
  • 1994 Luther Diamond, radio Personality, dies at 89
  • 1994 Walter Lantz, American cartoonist (Woody Woodpecker's creator), dies at 93
  • 1995 Peter Woods, British journalist and newsreader, dies at 64
  • 1996 Claude Mauriac, French writer (Le Temps immobile), dies at 81
  • 1996 Robert Franklin Overmyer, astronaut (STS 5, STS 51-B), dies at 59
  • 1996 Robert Mellors, gay activist, dies at 47
  • 1996 Ron Hayward, English politician, General Secretary of the Labour Party, dies at 78
  • 2003 Terry Lloyd, English reporter (b. 1952)
  • 2004 Ahmed Yassin, Palestinian co-founder of Hamas (b. ca. 1937)
  • 2005 Kenzo Tange, Japanese architect (b. 1913)
  • 2006 Pierre Clostermann, French World War II pilot (b. 1921)
  • 2006 Kurt von Trojan, Australian sci-fi author (b. 1937)
  • 2007 Uppaluri Gopala Krishnamurti, Indian philosopher (b. 1918)
  • 2010 James W. Black, Scottish Nobel Prize-winning doctor and medical research scientist (b. 1924)
  • 2012 Haydn Tudor Evans, British high court judge, dies at 91
  • 2013 Aya Zikken, Dutch author (Atlasvlinder, Rameh), dies at 93
  • 2014 Patrice Wymore, American actress (The Big Tree), dies from natural causes at 87
  • 2016 Rob Ford, Canadian politician (Toronto mayor caught with cocaine), dies at 46
  • 2017 Francine Hughes Wilson, American domestic abuse victim "The Burning Bed" who changed pubic perceptions, dies at 69
  • 2018 Johan van Hulst, Dutch teacher who helped save 600 children from the Nazis, dies at 107