On This Day

On This Day in History for March 3

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 221

  • 78 Origin of Saka Era (India)
  • 468 St Simplicius elected to succeed Catholic Pope Hilarius
  • 493 Ostrogoten King Theodorik the Great beats Odoaker
  • 1284 Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England
  • 1409 Austrian civil war ends
  • 1431 Bishop Gabriele Condulmer elected as Pope Eugene IV

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1575 Indian Mughal Emperor Akbar defeats Bengali army at the Battle of Tukaroi

Mughal Emperor Akbar
Mughal Emperor
  • 1585 The Olympic Theatre, designed by Andrea Palladio, is inaugurated in Vicenza.

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1627 Dutch privateer Piet Heyn attacks and conquers 22 Portuguese ships in Bay of Salvador, Brazil

Dutch Admiral and Privateer Piet Heyn
Dutch Admiral and Privateer
Piet Heyn
  • 1634 1st tavern in Boston (Mass) opens (Samuel Cole)
  • 1638 Duke Bernard of Saxe-Weimar occupies Rheinfelden
  • 1776 American commodore Esek Hopkins occupies Nassau, Bahamas
  • 1789 First whale harpooned in the Pacific Ocean by English ship Emilia off the coast of South America [1]
  • 1791 1st US internal revenue act (taxing distilled spirits & carriages)
  • 1791 Congress establishes US Mint
  • 1794 Richard Allen founded African Methodist Episcopal Church
  • 1801 1st US Jewish governor, David Emanuel, takes office in Georgia
  • 1803 1st impeachment trial of a US federal judge, John Pickering, begins
  • 1803 Colégio Militar is founded in Portugal by Colonel Teixeira Rebello.
  • 1805 Louisiana-Missouri Territory forms
  • 1812 US passes 1st foreign aid bill (aids Venezuela earthquake vicitims)
  • 1813 Office of Surgeon General of the US Army forms
  • 1815 US declares war on Algiers for taking US prisoners & demanding tribute
  • 1817 Mississippi Territory is divided into Alabama Territory & Mississippi
  • 1820 Missouri Compromise passes, allowing Missouri to join the United States despite slavery still being legal there.
  • 1835 Congress authorizes a US mint at New Orleans Louisiana
  • 1837 Congress increases US Supreme Court membership from 7 to 9

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1837 US President Andrew Jackson and Congress recognize the Republic of Texas

US President & General Andrew Jackson
US President & General
Andrew Jackson
  • 1838 Rebellion at Pelee Island, Ontario, Canada
  • 1842 1st US child labor law regulating working hours passed (Mass)
  • 1843 Congress appropriates $30,000 "to test the practicability of establishing a system of electro-magnetic telegraphs" by the US
  • 1845 For the first time the US Senate overrides presidential (Tyler) veto
  • 1845 US Congress authorizes ocean mail contracts for foreign mail delivery
  • 1845 Florida becomes 27th state of the Union
  • 1847 US Post Office Department is authorized to issue postage stamps

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1848 American education reformer Horace Mann joins the US Senate, representing Massachusetts

Father of American Education Horace Mann
Father of American Education
Horace Mann
  • 1849 Gold Coinage Act authorizes $20 Double Eagle gold coin and the $1 Gold Liberty coin in the USA
  • 1849 Territory of Minnesota organizes
  • 1849 US Home Department (later renamed the Department of the Interior) established by Congress
  • 1851 Congress authorizes smallest US silver coin (3 cent piece)
  • 1853 Transcontinental railroad survey is authorized by US Congress
  • 1853 US Assay Office in NYC authorized
  • 1855 US Congress approves $30,000 to test camels for military use
  • 1855 US Congress authorizes registered mail
  • 1857 Second Opium War: France and the United Kingdom declare war on China

RussiaEmancipation of the Serfs

1861 Alexander II of Russia signs the Emancipation Manifesto, freeing serfs and granting them the full rights of free citizens [O.S. Feb 19]

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Peasants Reading the Emancipation Manifesto, an 1873 painting by Grigory Myasoyedov
Peasants Reading the Emancipation Manifesto, an 1873 painting by Grigory Myasoyedov
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  • 1862 Union forces under General Pope lay siege to New Madrid, Missouri (US Civil War)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1863 US Congress authorizes track width of 4'8½" for Union Pacific Railroad

Financier and Railroad Promoter Doc Durant
Financier and Railroad Promoter
Doc Durant
  • 1863 1st US wartime military conscription bill enacted

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1863 Abraham Lincoln approves charter for National Academy of Sciences

16th US President Abraham Lincoln
16th US President
Abraham Lincoln
  • 1863 Congress authorizes a US mint at Carson City, Nevada
  • 1863 Federal ironclad ships bombard Fort McAllister, Georgia
  • 1863 Free city delivery replaces zone postage; 449 letter carriers hired
  • 1863 Gold certificates (currency) authorized by US Congress
  • 1863 Idaho Territory forms
  • 1865 US Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, & Abandoned Lands established by Abraham Lincoln to help destitute free blacks
  • 1865 Opening of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the founding member of the HSBC Group.
  • 1869 University of South Carolina opens to all races
  • 1871 US Congress changes Indian tribes status from independent to dependent
  • 1871 US Congress establishes the civil service system
  • 1873 US Congress authorizes federal departmental postage stamps
  • 1873 US Congress & government retroactively raise own salaries
  • 1873 US Congress enacts the Comstock Law, making it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, or lascivious" books through the mail
  • 1875 1st recorded hockey game (Montreal)
  • 1875 US Congress authorizes 20 cent coin, lasts only 3 years

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1877 Rutherford B. Hayes takes the oath of office privately as official inauguration day falls on a Sunday

19th US President Rutherford B. Hayes
19th US President
Rutherford B. Hayes
  • 1878 Bulgaria liberated from Turkey (Peace of San Stefano)
  • 1879 1st female lawyer heard by US Supreme Court (Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood)
  • 1879 US Geological Survey director authorized in Department of the Interior
  • 1882 NY Steam Corp begins distributing steam to Manhattan buildings
  • 1883 Congress authorizes the 1st steel vessels in US navy
  • 1885 1st US state (California) establishes a permanent forest commission
  • 1885 American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T) incorporates
  • 1885 US Congress passes Indian Appropriations Act (Indians wards of federal government)
  • 1885 US Post Office offers special delivery for 1st-class mail
  • 1887 American Protective Association forms (anti-Catholic) in Clinton Iowa

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1887 Anne Sullivan begins teaching 6 year old blind-deaf Helen Keller

Author Helen Keller
Helen Keller
  • 1889 US President Harrison announced the government would open the 1.9 million-acre tract of Indian Territory for settlement precisely at noon on April 22
  • 1891 US Congress creates Courts of Appeal
  • 1891 US Congress creates Office of Superintendent of Immigration (Treasury Dept)
  • 1891 The Penalty Spot Kick rule in Association Football is conceived, but does not come into effect until the next season.
  • 1892 1st cattle tuberculosis test in US made, Villa Nova, Penn
  • 1893 Columbian Isabella silver quarter authorized
  • 1893 US Congress authorizes 1st federal road agency, in Department of Agriculture
  • 1894 "NY Atlantis" 1st Greek-language publication in US begins
  • 1894 4th & last British government of Gladstone resigns
  • 1899 US Congress authorizes Lafayette silver dollar

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1899 George Dewey becomes 1st in US to hold the rank of Admiral of the Navy

Admiral George Dewey
George Dewey
  • 1900 US Steel Corporation organizes
  • 1901 US Congress creates National Bureau of Standards, in Department of Commerce
  • 1903 North Carolina becomes 1st state requiring registration of nurses

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1904 Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany becomes the first person to make a sound recording of a political document, using Thomas Edison's cylinder

German Emperor and King of Prussia Wilhelm II
German Emperor and King of Prussia
Wilhelm II
  • 1905 US Forest Service forms

AgreementAgreement of Interest

1905 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia agrees to summon a 'consultative assembly' and concedes other points including an edict of religious toleration, relief for Jews, and the cancellation of certain debts

  • 1906 Vuia I aircraft built by Romanian Traian Vuia tested in France

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1910 Rockefeller Foundation: John D. Rockefeller Jr. announces his retirement from managing his businesses so that he can be devoted full time to being a philanthropist

Financier and Philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr
Financier and Philanthropist
John D. Rockefeller Jr
  • 1911 1st US federal cemetery with Union & Confederate graves opens, Missouri

USAWoman Suffrage Procession

1913 Woman suffrage procession through Washington, D.C. organized by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns and led by Inez Milholland. Ida B. Wells marched with her Illinois delegation despite blacks being told to march in a separate section.

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Inez Milholland at the head of the Woman Suffrage Procession through Washington, DC
Inez Milholland at the head of the Woman Suffrage Procession through Washington, DC
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  • 1915 US National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) created, the predecessor of NASA
  • 1917 US Congress passes 1st excess profits tax on corporations

Birthdays in History

  • 1455 King John II of Portugal (d. 1495)
  • 1500 Reginald Pole, English Cardinal/"heretic"
  • 1520 Matthias Flacius, Croatian Protestant reformer (d. 1575)
  • 1583 Edward Herbert of Cherbury, English military/philosopher
  • 1589 Gisbertus Voetius [Gijsbert Voet], Dutch reformed theologist
  • 1606 Edmund Waller, England, poet (Penshust)
  • 1652 Thomas Otway, England, playwright/poet (Venice Preserved)
  • 1678 Madeleine de Verchères, French Canadian heroine (d. 1747)
  • 1756 William Godwin, philosopher/political writer (Caleb Williams)
  • 1778 Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of Hanover (d. 1841)
  • 1793 Charles Sealsfield [Carl Anton Postl], Austrian-American writer, born in Popice u Znojma, Moravia (d. 1864)
  • 1800 Heinrich Georg Bronn, German geologist (d. 1862)
  • 1805 Jonas Furrer, first President of the Swiss Confederation (d. 1861)
  • 1811 Vissarion Belinsky, Sveaborg Finland, Russian author (Literary Review)
  • 1823 Gyula Andrássy Sr, Prime Minister of Hungary (1867-71), born in Kassa, Austrian Empire (d. 1890)
  • 1831 George M Pullman, inventor (railway sleeping car)
  • 1838 George William Hill, US astronomer (calculated Moon's orbit)
  • 1839 Jamsetji Tata, Indian industrialist (d. 1904)
  • 1841 John Murray, Canada oceanographer (Depths of the Ocean)
  • 1845 Georg Cantor, German mathematician (discover transfinite numbers)

Person of interestAlexander Graham Bell

1847 Alexander Graham Bell, Scottish-born British-American inventor (telephone), born in Edinburgh, Scotland (d. 1922)

  • 1849 Jacques Oppenheim, Dutch lawyer
  • 1851 Alexandros Papadiamantis, Greek author (d. 1911)
  • 1863 Arthur Machen, Welsh-born author (d. 1947)
  • 1866 Fred A. Busse, Mayor of Chicago (d. 1914)
  • 1868 Alain [Emile-Auguste Chartier], French philosopher/writer
  • 1873 William Green, president of American Federation of Labor (1924-52)
  • 1880 Anne C Veth, Dutch cartoonist/art critic
  • 1882 Floris H L Prims, Flemish priest/historian/archivist of Antwerp
  • 1882 Charles Ponzi [Carlo], Italian con-man (Ponzi scheme in the US), born in Lugo, Italy (d. 1949)
  • 1883 Cyril Burt, educational psychologist (d. 1971)
  • 1886 Tore Ørjasæter, Norwegian poet (d. 1968)
  • 1890 Norman Bethune, Canadian doctor, communist and humanitarian (Spanish Civil War, Second Sino-Japanese War), born in Gravenhurst, Ontario (d. 1939)
  • 1891 Jan Donner, Dutch minister of Justice/president High Council
  • 1893 Beatrice Wood, potter/artist/author
  • 1895 Matthew B Ridgway, US gen (WW II/China/Nicaragua/Korea/NATO)
  • 1895 Ragnar Frisch, Norwegian economist (1st winner of the Nobel prize in economics-1969), born in Oslo, Norway
  • 1899 Alfred M Gruenther, American commanding general (NATO, 1953-56)
  • 1899 Yuri Olesha, Russian writer, born in Jelisawetgrad, Russian Empire (d. 1960)
  • 1903 Gilbert Adrian [Greenberg], Naugatuck CT, costume designer
  • 1903 Rabbe A Enckell, Fins author/poet (Lutad about Brunnen)
  • 1906 Artur Lundkvist, Swedish writer/Swedish Academy (Agadir)
  • 1906 Krishnarao Shiva Shelvankar, journalist/diplomat
  • 1907 Aar van de Werfhorst [Pieter G Jansen], Dutch writer
  • 1907 Joy Finzi [Joyce A Black], British painter
  • 1909 Jay Morris Arena, inventor/pediatrician
  • 1909 Kenton Kilmer, American writer, born in Morristown, New Jersey (d. 1995)
  • 1911 Hugues Lapointe, Canadian politician and Lieutenant governor of Quebec (d. 1982)
  • 1913 Roger Caillois, French writer (Les Jeux et les Hommes)
  • 1917 Bert van Aerschot, Flemish writer (Elevator, Women)
  • 1917 Sameera Moussa, Egyptian nuclear scientist (d. 1952)
  • 1918 San Yu, Burmese General and the 5th President of Burma (1981-88), born in Thegon, Pegu Province, British Burma, British India (d. 1996)
  • 1918 Arnold Newman, photographer (Faces USA)
  • 1918 Arthur Kornberg, US biochemist (Nobel 1959)
  • 1924 Ali Faik Zaghloul, Egyptian radio presenter (d. 1995)
  • 1926 James Ingram Merrill, American poet/author (Scripts for the Pageant)
  • 1926 Joseph Anthony Ferrario, American Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu (1982-1993), born in Scranton, Pennsylvania (d. 2003)
  • 1927 Charles O Whitley, (Rep-D-NC, 1977- )
  • 1927 Frank Singleton, librarian
  • 1927 Pierre Aubert, member of the Swiss Federal Council
  • 1927 William Kurelek, Canadian artist and writer (The Maze, Passion of Christ series), born near Whitford, Alberta (d. 1977)
  • 1928 Gudrun Pausewang, Eastern Bohemia, German writer
  • 1930 Heiner Geißler, German politician
  • 1930 Ion Iliescu, President of Romania
  • 1931 Henk Knol, Dutch 2nd chamber member (PvdA)
  • 1931 Piet [van] Bambergen, Dutch cabaretier (Mounties, Sherlock Jones)
  • 1932 Fred Storey, Canadian curler (World C'ship gold 1966, 68, 69), born in Empress, Alberta (d. 2019)
  • 1933 Lee Radziwell Ross, American princess (Jackie O's sister), born in NYC, New York
  • 1934 Jane van Lawick-Goodall, British primatologist, anthropologist, and writer (Through a Window: My Thirty Years with the Chimpanzees of Gombe), born in Hampstead, London
  • 1935 Zhelyu Zhelev, Veselinovo, Shumen Province, Bulgarian President (1990-97)
  • 1939 Hans Pieter Verhagen, Dutch poet (Hoepla/Holland's Hole)
  • 1940 Germán Castro Caycedo, Colombian writer and journalist
  • 1942 Vladimir Vasilyevich Kovolyonok, USR, cosmonaut (Soyuz 25, 29/31, T-4)
  • 1944 Janice Garfat, rocker (Dr Hook)
  • 1946 James C Adamson, Lt Col USA/astronaut (STS 28, STS 43), born in Warsaw, New York
  • 1947 Dave Mount, English rocker (Mud), born in Carshalton, Surrey (d. 2006)
  • 1947 Clifton Snider, American poet and writer
  • 1948 Reed Hundt, FCC chairman
  • 1949 Bonnie J Dunbar, Sunnyside Wash, PhD/astro (STS 61-A, 32, 50, 71, 89)
  • 1949 James S Voss, Cordova Alabama, Major USA/astronaut (STS 44, 53, 69)
  • 1949 Jüri Allik, Estonian psychologist
  • 1951 Sergei Aleksandrovich Yemelyanov, Russian cosmonaut
  • 1953 Aleksandr Viktorovich Borodin, Russian cosmonaut
  • 1958 Marc Silvestri, American comic book artist and publisher (Top Cow Productions)
  • 1962 Glen E. Friedman, American photographer and artist

Person of interestTedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus

1965 Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Ethiopian politician and heath official (first African Director-General of the World Health Organisation), born in Asmara, Eritrea

Head of the World Health Organisation Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus
Head of the World Health Organisation
Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus
  • 1971 Tyler Florence, American chef, Food Network personality & cookbook author, born in Greenville, South Carolina
  • 1976 Fraser Gehrig, Australian rules footballer

Weddings in History

LoveWedding of Interest

1956 Prime Minister of Australia Bob Hawke (26) weds first wife Hazel Masterson (26) at Perth Trinity Church in Australia

23rd Prime Minister of Australia Bob Hawke
23rd Prime Minister of Australia
Bob Hawke
  • 2007 Countess of Frederiksborg Alexandra Christina (42) weds Martin Jorgensen at Oster Egende Church in Fakse City, Denmark

Divorces in History

Broken heartDivorce of Interest

1995 Camilla Parker Bowles (46) and her husband retired Army Brigadier Andrew Parker Bowles(55) divorce, after 21 years of marriage

Duchess of Cornwall Camilla Parker Bowles
Duchess of Cornwall
Camilla Parker Bowles

Deaths in History

  • 1239 Vladimir III Rurikovich, Grand Prince of Kiev (b. 1187)
  • 1459 Ausiàs March, Catalan poet of Valencian literature, dies at 59
  • 1554 Johann Friedrich, the Generous, Elector of Saxony (1532-47) and Head of the Protestant Confederation of Germany (the Schmalkaldic League), dies at 50
  • 1580 Jacob Hillebrand, Dutch mayor of Groningen, dies
  • 1635 Philips de l'Espinoy, historian/mayor of Ghent, dies

Person of interestRobert Hooke

1703 Robert Hooke, English scientific genius (Micrographia), dies at 67

Scientist Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
  • 1707 Aurangzeb, 6th Mughal Emperor (1658-1707), dies at 88
  • 1717 Pierre Allix, French/British theologist/vicar, dies at about 75
  • 1744 Jean Barbeyrac, French jurist
  • 1765 William Stukeley, English physician and archaeologist (pioneered investigation of Stonehenge and Avebury), dies at 77
  • 1792 Robert Adam, Scottish architect and designer (Adelphi Terrace, London), dies at 63
  • 1806 Heinrich Christian Boie, German author and editor, dies at 61
  • 1808 Johann Christian Fabricius, Danish Entomologist, dies at 63
  • 1848 Heinrich Olivier, German painter, dies
  • 1850 Oliver Cowdery, American religious leader (Later Day Saint apostle), dies at 43
  • 1858 Jozsef Bajza, Hungarian author/poet/critic, dies at 54
  • 1864 Ulric Dahlgren, Union colonel, dies in battle at 21
  • 1878 Joseph Bonomi the Younger, English artist and Egyptologist, dies at 81
  • 1899 William P. Sprague, American politician from Ohio (b. 1827)
  • 1902 Isaac D France van de Putte, Dutch premier (1866), dies at 79
  • 1908 Karl Josef Rudolph Cornely, German Jesuit biblical scholar, dies at 77
  • 1920 Theodor Philipsen, Danish painter, dies at 79
  • 1921 P.J.H. [Pierre] Cuypers, Dutch architect (Amsterdam museum), dies at 93
  • 1927 Mikhail Artsybashev, Russian writer (b. 1878)
  • 1928 Jan [Jean] T Toorop, Dutch graphic artist (3 Brides), dies at 69
  • 1941 Constant W L Scheurleer, archaeologist/banker/art expert, dies at 59
  • 1941 Ernst Cahn, owner of Amsterdam Koco ice cream parlor, executed
  • 1942 Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, viceroy (Ethiopia), dies at 43
  • 1945 Arthur Vanderpoorten, Flemish Internal minister (1940), dies at 61
  • 1955 Katharine Drexel, American philanthropist and Roman Catholic Saint, dies at 96
  • 1956 Willem Hendrik Keesom, Dutch physicist (Helium I/II), dies at 79
  • 1976 Pierre Molinier, French painter and photographer, dies at 75
  • 1982 Georges Perec, French writer, dies at 45

Person of interestHergé

1983 Hergé [Georges Prosper Remi], Belgian comic book creator (The Adventures of Tintin), dies at 75

Cartoonist Hergé
  • 1984 Heinrich Kirchner, German sculptor, dies at 81
  • 1985 Sarah Blanding, 1st US fem college head (Vassar 1946-64), dies at 86
  • 1990 Frans Goedhart, Dutch journalist/founder (Parool), dies at 86
  • 1990 Gérard Blitz, Belgian waterpoloist and entrepreneur (b. 1912)
  • 1991 Clara Eggink, Dutch poet (Life with J C Bloem), dies at 84

Person of interestAlbert Sabin

1993 Albert Sabin [Abram Saperstein], Polish American physician who invented the oral polio vaccine, dies of heart failure at 86

Physician and Scientist Albert Sabin
Physician and Scientist
Albert Sabin
  • 1993 Carlos Marcello, Tunisian-born gangster (b. 1910)
  • 1994 Mauritius van Haegendoren, Flemish historian and senator, dies at 90
  • 1995 Gilbert Gadoffre, French scholar, dies at 84
  • 1995 Howard Hunter, US leader of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (1994-95), dies at 87
  • 1995 Howard Yanks, founder of the Philadelphia folk festival, dies at 65
  • 1995 Pierre Tisseyre, publisher (Circle du livre de France), dies at 85
  • 1996 David Bowman, trade unionist, dies at 82
  • 1996 John Joseph Krol, cardinal, dies at 95
  • 1996 Leo Malet, French crime novelist, dies at 86
  • 1996 Ludwig Freiherr von Hammerstein-Equord, German journalist, dies at 76
  • 1996 Marguerite Duras, French novelist and playwright (Sea Wall), dies at 81
  • 1996 Meyer Schapiro, Lithuanian-born American art historian, dies at 91
  • 1997 Stanislav Shatalin, Russian economist (500 Days), dies
  • 1998 Fred W. Friendly, American journalist and broadcast executive, dies at 82
  • 1999 Gerhard Herzberg, German-born chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1904)
  • 2003 Luis Marden, American photojournalist (b. 1913)
  • 2003 Peter Smithson, English architect, dies at 79
  • 2005 Max M. Fisher, American philanthropist (b. 1928)
  • 2006 Ivor Cutler, Scottish poet (b. 1923)
  • 2006 William Herskovic, Holocaust hero and philanthropist (b. 1914)
  • 2010 Michael Foot, British politician (L) and writer, Leader of the Opposition (1980-83), dies at 96
  • 2011 May Cutler, Canadian politician and publisher (b. 1923)
  • 2014 William R. Pogue, American astronaut, dies at 84

Person of interestRené Préval

2017 René Préval, President of Haiti (1996-2001, 2006-2011), dies of cardiac arrest at 74

President of Haiti René Préval
President of Haiti
René Préval
  • 2017 Stephen Ross, American economist (arbitrage pricing theory), dies at 73
  • 2021 Yuri Rozanov, Russian sports broadcaster (NTV Plus, Match TV; TEFI Award 2012), dies from cancer at 59