On This Day

On This Day in History for May 11

Events in History

  • 330 Constantinople (Byzantium) becomes the capital of the Roman Empire
  • 868 The Diamond Sutra, the world's oldest surviving, dated, printed, book printed in Chinese and made into a scoll

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1189 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and 100,000 crusaders depart Regensburg for the Third Crusade

Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa
Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick Barbarossa
  • 1310 Fifty-four members of the Knights Templar are burned at the stake in France for being heretics
  • 1421 Jews are expelled from Styria Austria

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1502 Christopher Columbus begins 4th & last trip to the "Indies"

Explorer of the New World Christopher Columbus
Explorer of the New World
Christopher Columbus
  • 1625 Peasants besiege Frankenburg estate in Upper Austria
  • 1647 Peter Stuyvesant arrives in New Amsterdam
  • 1674 Netherlands & Cologne sign peace treaty
  • 1678 French admiral Jean d'Estrees' fleet runs aground on Aves-islands, Curacao
  • 1689 Battle of Bantry Bay, French & English naval battle
  • 1690 English troops of W Phips conquer Port Royal, Nova Scotia
  • 1745 Battle of Fontenoy (Doornik): Austrian Succession war
  • 1749 British parliament accepts Consolidation Act, to reorganise the Royal Navy

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1751 Pennsylvania Hospital founded by Dr. Thomas Bond and Benjamin Franklin

United States Founding Father Benjamin Franklin
United States Founding Father
Benjamin Franklin
  • 1752 1st US fire insurance policy issued in Philadelphia

  • 1772 Amsterdam theater destroyed by fire, 18 killed
  • 1784 Britain & Tippu Sahib of Mysore sign peace treaty
  • 1792 Columbia River discovered & named by US Captain Robert Gray

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1800 French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck give a lecture first outlining his theories of evolution at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris, France

French Naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
French Naturalist
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Assassination of a British Prime MinisterAssassination of a British Prime Minister

1812 British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval is assassinated by John Bellingham in the lobby of the House of Commons, London. Ironically, descendants of both later elected to Parliament at the same time.
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An artist's impression of Spencer Perceval's fatal shooting. Photograph: Hulton Archive
An artist's impression of Spencer Perceval's fatal shooting. Photograph: Hulton Archive
  • 1813 In Australia, William Lawson, Gregory Blaxland and William Wentworth, lead an expedition westwards from Sydney. Their route opens up inland Australia for continued expansion throughout the 19th century.
  • 1816 American Bible Society forms (NY)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1820 Launch of HMS Beagle, the ship that would later take a young Charles Darwin on his famous scientific voyage

Naturalist Charles Darwin
Naturalist
Charles Darwin
  • 1833 "Lady-of-the-Lake" strikes iceberg & sinks in North Atlantic; kills 215

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1841 American Charles Wilkes lands at Fort Nisqually in Puget Sound

Naval Officer and Explorer Charles Wilkes
Naval Officer and Explorer
Charles Wilkes
  • 1850 Work starts on 1st brick building in San Francisco
  • 1858 Minnesota admitted as 32nd US state
  • 1862 Confederates scuttle CSS Virginia off Norfolk, Virginia
  • 1864 Battle of Yellow Tavern, Virginia (Sheridan's Raid, South Anna Bridge)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1864 General J.E.B. Stuart is mortally wounded at Yellow Tavern

Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart
Confederate General
J.E.B. Stuart
  • 1865 Confederate Brigadier General Meriwether Jeff Thompson surrenders at Jacksonport, Arkansas
  • 1867 Treaty of London drawn, concerning Luxembourg
  • 1875 George "Charmer" Zettlein pitches the 1st 9 inning shutout

MurderAssassination Attempt

1891 The Otsu Scandal: While visiting Japan, Prince Nicholas (later Tsar Nicholas II) survives an assassination attempt

  • 1894 American RR Union strikes Pullman Sleeping Car Co

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1904 Andrew Carnegie donates $1.5M to build a peace palace

Industrialist and Philanthropist Andrew Carnegie
Industrialist and Philanthropist
Andrew Carnegie
  • 1907 Bank of San Francisco incorporated
  • 1907 A derailment outside Lompoc, California, kills 32 Shriners when their chartered train jumps off the tracks at a switch near Surf Depot
  • 1910 Montana's Glacier National Park forms
  • 1911 The United States becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1917 King George V grants Royal Letters Patent to New Zealand

King of the United Kingdom George V
King of the United Kingdom
George V
  • 1921 Tel Aviv is 1st all Jewish municipality
  • 1921 The Allied Supreme Council warns Germany to pay reparations or the entire Ruhr Valley will be occupied; Germany agrees
  • 1924 Cartel des Gauches wins French parliamentary election

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1924 Pulitzer Prize awarded to Robert Frost (New Hampshire)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1924 Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft and Benz & Cie begin their first joint venture (later merge into Mercedes-Benz)

Automobile Engineer and Inventor Karl Benz
Automobile Engineer and Inventor
Karl Benz
  • 1925 Communist Party of Holland splits
  • 1925 Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Region constituted in RSFSR
  • 1926 Airship Norge leaves Spitsbergen for 1st air crossing of Arctic Ocean
  • 1927 Louis B Mayer forms Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences
  • 1928 General Electric opens 1st TV-station (Schenectady, NY)
  • 1929 Dr Annie Webb Blanton forms Delta Kappa Gamma Society in Austin, Texas
  • 1931 Credit-Anstalt, Austria's largest bank, fails, beginning financial collapse of Central Europe
  • 1940 NY World's Fair reopens
  • 1941 1st Messerschmidt 109F shot down above England
  • 1942 Japanese troops conquer Kalewa

Book releaseHistoric Publication

1942 William Faulkner's collections of short stories, "Go Down, Moses", is published

Author and Nobel Laureate William Faulkner
Author and Nobel Laureate
William Faulkner

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1943 Hermann Goering division in Tunisia surrenders

Nazi Politician Hermann Goering
Nazi Politician
Hermann Goering
  • 1943 US 7th div lands on Attu, Aleutian, (1st US territory recaptured)
  • 1944 Opposition group surprise attack post office Washer
  • 1945 US Marines conquer Awatsha Draw, Okinawa
  • 1946 United Malays National Organisation is created.
  • 1947 BF Goodrich announced the development of tubeless tire (Akron Ohio)
  • 1947 Laos accepts constitution for parliamentary democracy
  • 1948 Haganah takes control of Safed & port of Haifa
  • 1948 Luigi Einaudi elected President of Italy
  • 1949 By a vote of 37-12, Israel becomes 59th member of UN
  • 1949 Siam renames itself Thailand
  • 1950 Belgium mine disaster at Borinage, 39 die
  • 1950 Eugene Ionesco's first play "La Cantatrice Chauve" (The Bald Soprano ) premieres in Paris
  • 1951 American engineer Jay Forrester applys for patent for computer core memory
  • 1953 Tornado kills 114 in Waco Texas ($39M damage)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1953 Winston Churchill criticizes US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles' domino theory

Soldier, Author and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Soldier, Author and British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill
US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
US Secretary of State
John Foster Dulles
  • 1955 Israel attacks Gaza
  • 1957 Gabriel Paris forms government of Colombia
  • 1958 US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Enewetak
  • 1958 US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Island
  • 1960 French liner "France" launched

Execution'The Banality of Evil'

1960 Israeli soldiers capture Adolf Eichmann in Buenos Aires
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Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann sits in the dock at his 1961 trial in Jerusalem
Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann sits in the dock at his 1961 trial in Jerusalem
  • 1962 Antonio Segni becomes President of Italy
  • 1962 US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Christmas Island
  • 1962 US sends troops to Thailand
  • 1963 Racial bomb attacks in Birmingham Alabama
  • 1965 1st of 2 cyclones in less than a month kills 35,000 (India)
  • 1965 Bangladesh windstorm kills 17,000

USAStatue of Liberty

1965 Ellis Island added to Statue of Liberty National monument
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The Statue of Liberty, New York
The Statue of Liberty, New York
  • 1965 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1967 100,000,000th US phone connected
  • 1967 Great Britain, Ireland & Denmark apply for membership of the EEC
  • 1968 Students & police battle in Paris, 100s injured
  • 1968 Toronto Transit Commission opens the largest expansion of its Bloor-Danforth Line, going to Scarborough in the east, Etobicoke in the west
  • 1970 Henry Marrow is murdered in a violent racially-motivated crime in Oxford, North Carolina.
  • 1972 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1973 Dutch government of Uyl forms
  • 1973 Citing government misconduct, Daniel Ellsberg has his charges for his involvement in releasing the Pentagon Papers to The New York Times dismissed
  • 1975 Israel signs an agreement with European Economic Market
  • 1978 Margaret A Brewer is 1st female general in the US Marine Corps
  • 1983 Comet C/1983 H1 (IRAS-Araki-Alcock) approaches 0.0312 AUs of Earth
  • 1984 Tigers set best 30 game start record (26-4)

Birthdays in History

  • 1568 Christian I, ruler of Anhalt-Bernburg (Battle of White Mountain)
  • 1571 Niwa Nagashige, Japanese warlord (d. 1637)
  • 1654 Cornelis van Alkemade, Dutch historian
  • 1720 Karl Friedrich Hieronymus Freiherr von Münchhausen, German adventurer (d. 1797)
  • 1722 Peter Camper, Leyden Holland, anatomist/professor (Amsterdam)
  • 1733 Victoire of France, daughter of king Louis XV (d. 1799)
  • 1752 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, German anthropologist (d. 1840)
  • 1763 János Batsányi, Hungarian poet (d. 1845)
  • 1799 John Lowell, American philanthropist (d. 1836)
  • 1801 Henri Labrouste, French architect (d. 1875)
  • 1811 Chang & Eng Bunker, Chinese-Thai Siamese twins, born in Samutsongkram, Thailand (d. 1874)
  • 1811 Jean-Jacques Challet-Venel, member of the Swiss Federal Council (d. 1893)
  • 1821 [Carlos] Charles John Stolbrand, Swedish-American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Skåne, Sweden (d. 1894)
  • 1823 Alfred Stevens, Belgian painter
  • 1824 Jean-Léon Gérôme, French painter and sculptor (d. 1904), born in Rome, Italy
  • 1827 Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, French sculptor and painter (d. 1875)
  • 1830 John Converse Starkweather, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Cooperstown, New York (d. 1890)
  • 1838 Walter Goodman, British painter, illustrator and author (d. 1912)
  • 1852 Charles Warren Fairbanks, (R) 26th US VP (1905-09)
  • 1854 Ottmar Mergenthaler, Hachtel Germany, inventor (linotype)
  • 1858 Carl Hauptmann, German writer, born in Obersalzbrunn (d. 1921)
  • 1861 Frederick Russell Burnham, father of the international scouting movement (d. 1947)
  • 1871 Frank Schlesinger, American astronomer (d. 1943)
  • 1875 Harriet Quimby, American aviator (d. 1912)
  • 1878 Jan Machiel Reyskens, oldest male resident of the Netherlands, (d. 1990 aged 111)
  • 1881 Theodore von Kármán, Hungarian physicist (d. 1963)
  • 1888 P A J Losecaat Vermeer, leader of Dutch High Council
  • 1888 Willis A. Lee, World War II U.S. naval admiral (d. 1945)
  • 1890 Woodall Rodgers, mayor of Dallas, Texas (d. 1961)
  • 1891 Henry Morgenthau Jr, US Secretary of Treasury (1934-45)
  • 1894 Anton A Mussert, Dutch nazi leader (NSB)
  • 1894 Martha Graham, American choreographer (Appalachian Spring), Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania (d. 1991)
  • 1895 Jan Parandowski, writer
  • 1896 Philippo de Pisis, Italian painter
  • 1897 Izak W van der Merwe, [Boerneef], South African writer (Tweetalige Woordeboek)
  • 1897 Robert E. Gross, American businessman (d. 1961)
  • 1899 Paulino Masip, Spanish playwright (d. 1963)
  • 1901 Mari Sandoz, Nebraska, author (Cheyenne Autumn)
  • 1902 Kaarlo Sarkia, Finnish poet (Unen Kaivo)
  • 1904 Guus Weitzel, Dutch radio-announcer

Person of interestSalvador Dali

1904 Salvador Dali, Spanish surrealist artist (Crucifixion), born in Figueres, Spain (d. 1989)

Painter Salvador Dali
Painter
Salvador Dali
  • 1905 Marjorie Sykes, peace campaigner
  • 1906 Jacqueline Cochran, US pilot and 1st woman to break the sound barrier, born in Muscogee, Florida (d. 1980)
  • 1907 Rose Ausländer, German poet (d. 1988)
  • 1909 René Bousquet, French Vichy-police chief (deported Jews), born in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne (d. 1993)
  • 1911 Edgar Beck, president (John Mowlem)
  • 1911 Roy James Alfred Kaulback, soldier
  • 1911 Mitchell Sharp, Canadian politician (d. 2004)
  • 1913 Robert Jungk, Austrian publicist (d. 1994)
  • 1914 Haroun Tazieff, French volcanologist (d. 1998)
  • 1916 Camilo Jose Cela, Spanish writer (Nobel Prize 1989), born in Padrón, La Coruña (d. 2002)
  • 1917 Hon Montague Woodhouse, Greek resistance organiser
  • 1918 Richard Feynman, American theoretical physicist, born in Queens, New York (d. 1988)
  • 1921 Ian Percival, British politician (C) and Solicitor General (d. 1998)
  • 1921 Hildegard Hamm-Brücher, German politician
  • 1922 Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera, Filipino Supreme Court jurist
  • 1923 Joan Moriarty, Brigadier matron-in-chief/dir (Army Nursing Services)
  • 1923 Gordon White, British business tycoon and co-founder of corporate raider Hanson Group, born in Hull, England (d. 1995)
  • 1924 Antony Hewish, radio astronomer
  • 1924 Eugene Dynkin, Russian mathematician
  • 1925 Rhodes Boyson, British politician and author (Black Papers), born in Haslingden, Lancashire (d. 2012)
  • 1925 Edward J. King, 66th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 2006)
  • 1925 William Glasser, psychiatrist (reality therapy, choice theory), born in Cleveland, Ohio (d. 2013)
  • 1926 Ernest Harrison, CEO (Racal Electronics)
  • 1927 Anthony Hollis, British High Court Judge, (d. 2003)
  • 1927 Zilpha Keatly Snyder, American sci-fi author (Headless Cupid)
  • 1927 Gene Savoy, American author, explorer, scholar and cleric (d. 2007)
  • 1928 Yaacov Agam, Israeli sculptor
  • 1928 Brother Andrew, Dutch missionary
  • 1929 Edward Anson, British vice-admiral
  • 1930 Edward Kamau Brathwaite, Caribbean poet (Born to Slow Horses) and academic, born in Bridgetown, Barbados (d. 2020)
  • 1930 M J Hamlin, Principal/Vice-Chancellor (Dundee University)
  • 1930 Stanley L Elkin, American writer/professor (Living End), born in Brooklyn, New York
  • 1930 Edsger Dijkstra, Dutch computer scientist (d. 2002)
  • 1930 Bud Ekins, American stuntman (d. 2007)
  • 1930 William Carey, American businessman and philanthropist (W.P. Carey & Co. LLC), born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 2012)
  • 1931 Stephen Smalley, rev/dean (Chester)
  • 1932 Henriette Santer, Dutch-English clinical psychologist, born in Amsterdam, Netherlands (d. 1994)
  • 1932 Valentino [Garavani], Italian fashion designer and founder of the Valentino company, born in Milan, Italy

Person of interestLouis Farrakhan

1933 Louis Farrakhan [Louis Eugene Wolcott], American religious leader (Nation of Islam, Million Man March), born in New York City

Religious Leader Louis Farrakhan
Religious Leader
Louis Farrakhan
  • 1934 James M Jeffords, (Rep-R-VT, 1975- )
  • 1935 Francisco Umbral, Spanish novelist (d. 2007)
  • 1936 Ulrich Berkes, German writer, born in Salle
  • 1938 Carla Bley [Carla Borg], American musician (Escalator Over the Hill), born in Oakland, California
  • 1942 Rachel Billington, British writer
  • 1946 Robert Jarvik, American scientist and researcher (developed the Jarvik-7 artificial heart), born in Midland, Michigan
  • 1948 Nirj Deva, Sri Lankan-British politician
  • 1950 John Kelly, American General, President Trump's Chief of Staff (2017-), born in Boston, Massachusetts
  • 1952 Warren Littlefield, American television executive
  • 1955 John DeStefano, Jr., American politician
  • 1956 Theresa Burke, Canadian journalist
  • 1957 Luca Urbani, MD/astronaut (STS 78-alt), born in Rome, Italy
  • 1963 Gunilla Carlsson, Swedish politician
  • 1978 Richard Spencer, American white supremacist, born in Boston, Massachusetts
  • 1986 Manuel "Grubby" Schenkhuizen, Dutch Professional Gamer

Weddings in History


LoveWedding of Interest

1963 Prime Minister of Canada John Turner (33) weds Geills McCrae Kilgour (25)

17th Prime Minister of Canada John Turner
17th Prime Minister of Canada
John Turner
  • 1970 Sammy Davis Jr weds Altovise
  • 1996 Fashion designer Cynthia Rowley (39) weds retail store designer Bill Keenan (43) at Manhattan City Hall in New York

Deaths in History

  • 1304 Maḥmūd Ghāzān, 7th Mongol Empire ruler in Iran, dies at 32
  • 1610 Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit missionary (China), dies at 57
  • 1672 Charles Seton, 2nd Earl of Dunfermline, Scottish peer, dies at 57
  • 1708 Jules Hardouin Mansart, French architect, dies at 62
  • 1723 Jean Galbert de Campistron, French dramatist, dies at 66
  • 1777 George Pigot, Baron Pigot, British governor of Madras, dies at 58

Person of interestWilliam Pitt the Elder

1778 William Pitt the Elder, British Prime Minister (Whig, 1756-61, 66-68) known as the `Great Commoner', dies at 69

British Prime Minister (The Great Commoner) William Pitt the Elder
British Prime Minister (The Great Commoner)
William Pitt the Elder
  • 1779 John Heart, American farmer (signed US Declaration of Independence), dies at about 68

MurderSpencer Perceval

1812 Spencer Perceval, British statesman & Prime Minister (1809–1812), assassinated at 49

British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval
British Prime Minister
Spencer Perceval
  • 1849 Juliette Récamier, French socialite, dies at 71
  • 1857 Eugène François Vidocq, French criminal & police detective, dies at 81
  • 1871 John Herschel, English cataloguer of southern hemisphere stars, dies at 79
  • 1874 Franklin Buchanan, American first superintendent of the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, dies at 73
  • 1881 Henri-Frédéric Amiel, Swiss writer (Journal Intime), dies at 59
  • 1887 Jean Baptiste Boussingault, French chemist, dies at 85
  • 1891 Edmond Becquerel, French physicist who studied the solar spectrum, magnetism, electricity and optics (photovoltaic effect), dies at 71
  • 1916 Karl Schwarzschild, German astronomer (Schwarzschild effect), dies at 42
  • 1920 William Dean Howells, American author (A Woman's Reason), dies at 83
  • 1927 Henry Martyn Robert, American soldier & parliamentarian (Robert's Rules of Order), dies at 90
  • 1927 Juan Gris, Spanish cubist painter, dies at 40
  • 1929 Jozef Murgaš, Slovak inventor, dies at 65
  • 1934 Orest Khvolson, Russian physicist & honorary member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1920), dies at 81
  • 1935 Edward Herbert Thompson, American archaeologist (Mayan civilization), dies at 78
  • 1938 Arnold Sauwen, Flemish poet (Hours of Solitude), dies at 81
  • 1939 Evgenii Miller, Russian counter-revolutionary, dies at 71
  • 1943 Szmul Zygielbojm, Jewish-Polish socialist politician (Bund) and activist, commits suicide to protest Allied indifference to the Holocaust during WWII at 48
  • 1944 Henk Hos, Dutch resistance fighter, executed at 37
  • 1944 Walter Oesau, German fighter pilot (WWII), dies at 30
  • 1953 Jean Adair, Canadian actress, dies at 80
  • 1956 Walter S Adams, American astronomer & director of Mount Wilson, dies at 79

Person of interestJohn D. Rockefeller Jr

1960 John D. Rockefeller Jr., American financier & philanthropist, dies of pneumonia at 86

Financier and Philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr
Financier and Philanthropist
John D. Rockefeller Jr
  • 1962 Hans Luther, German politician (Chancellor, 1925-6), dies at 83
  • 1963 Herbert Spencer Gasser, American physiologist & Nobel laureate, dies at 74
  • 1965 Roger Vailland, French author, dies at 57
  • 1973 Grigory Kozintsev, Russian director, dies at 68
  • 1976 Alvar Aalto, Finnish architect (Finlandia House), dies at 78
  • 1978 John Clinge Doorenbos, Dutch journalist & poet, dies at 93
  • 1979 Joan Chandler, American actress, dies at 55
  • 1981 Hoyt J. Fuller, American editor (1st World magazine), dies at 57
  • 1981 Odd Hassel, Norwegian chemist (Nobel 1969 - the study of the three-dimensional geometric structure of molecules), dies at 83
  • 1983 Zenna Henderson, American sci-fi author (Anything Box), dies at 65
  • 1985 Chester Gould, American cartoonist (Dick Tracy), dies at 84
  • 1985 Garmt Stuiveling, Dutch writer & poet (Ego & Echo), dies at 77
  • 1986 Henry P. McIlhenny, American philanthropist, dies at 76
  • 1987 James Jesus Angleton, American intelligence officer & head of counterintelligence for the CIA (1954-75), dies at 69

Person of interestKim Philby

1988 Kim Philby, British spy & Soviet mole who was a member of the "Cambridge Five", dies at 76

  • 1991 Ho Dam, North Korean foreign minister (1970-83), dies at 62
  • 1992 Carlos Herrera, American drink inventor (Margarita), dies at 90
  • 1992 Elizabeth McDonald, American inventor (Spic & Span), dies at 98
  • 1994 Alfred James Broomhall, British Protestant Christian medical missionary to China, dies at 82
  • 1994 Lewis B Puller, American writer (Pulitzer 1992), commits suicide at 48
  • 1995 David Avidan, Israeli poet, dies at 62
  • 1996 Joan Thirkettle, British journalist, dies at 48
  • 1996 Malcolm MacEwen, Scottish conservationist & communist activist, dies at 84
  • 1996 Nnamdi Azikiwe, 1st President of Nigeria (1963-66), dies at 91

Person of interestDouglas Adams

2001 Douglas Adams, English author (Hitchiker's Guide to the Galaxy), dies of myocardial infarction and a fatal cardiac arrhythmia at 49

  • 2002 Joseph Bonanno, Italian-American mafioso & crime boss of the Bonanno crime family, dies of heart failure at 97
  • 2002 Renaude Lapointe, French-Canadian journalist & senator, dies at 90
  • 2007 Malietoa Tanumafili II, Sovereign Ruler of Samoa, dies at 94
  • 2007 Bernard Gordon, American writer & producer (Earth vs. the Flying Saucers), dies at 88
  • 2011 Klaus Schlesinger, German writer, dies at 64
  • 2017 Jur Mellema, Dutch politician (CHU), dies at 93