On This Day

On This Day in History for November 20

Events in History

Event of interestEvent of Interest

284 Roman soldier Diocletian proclaimed Emperor by the army

Roman Emperor Diocletian
Roman Emperor
  • 762 Bögü, Khan of the Uyghurs, conquers Lo-Yang, capital of the Chinese Empire
  • 1168 Giovanni di Struma elected anti-Pope
  • 1194 Palermo, Sicily, is conquered by Emperor Henry VI

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1272 Edward I proclaimed King of England after death of his father, Henry III. He would take two years to return to England from the Ninth Crusade.

King of England Edward I
King of England
Edward I
  • 1342 Pope Clemens VI names John IV of Arkel as bishop of Utrecht
  • 1347 Cola di Rienzo, later Roman Tribunal, addresses a meeting of on the Capitol during people's revolt in Rome
  • 1407 A truce between John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspices of John, Duke of Berry. Orléans would be assassinated three days later by Burgundy.
  • 1431 First meeting of Order of the Golden Fleece
  • 1461 Astronomer Regiomontanus returns with Cardinal Basilios Bessarion's to his house in Rome, home to one of largest libraries in Europe
  • 1520 Friesland hit by heavy hail storm
  • 1521 Arabs attribute shortage of water in Jerusalem to Jews making wine
  • 1583 Duke of Parma conquers Aalst
  • 1616 Bishop Richelieu becomes French minister of Foreign affairs/War
  • 1637 Peter Minuit & 1st Swedish immigrants to Delaware sail from Sweden
  • 1695 Zumbi, the last King of the Quilombo dos Palmares in early Brazil and ex-slave, is executed and decapitated, his head displayed on a pike to dispel any legends of his immortality
  • 1719 Sweden & Hannover sign for peace Treaty of Stockholm

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1755 English minister William Pitt the Elder resigns

British Prime Minister (The Great Commoner) William Pitt the Elder
British Prime Minister (The Great Commoner)
William Pitt the Elder
  • 1759 -22] Battle in Bay of Quiberon, British beat French

USABill of Rights

1789 New Jersey is 1st state to ratify Bill of Rights

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The bill of rights as it was created on September 25, 1789
The bill of rights as it was created on September 25, 1789
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  • 1795 Curacao government forbids slave work on Sunday

AgreementTreaty of Interest

1815 Second Treaty of Paris: France and her allies agree France will pay indemnities after Battle of Waterloo, ending the Napoleonic Wars

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • 1815 Russia, Prussia, Austria and England sign an Alliance "for the maintenance of peace in Europe" on the same day as the Treaty of Paris
  • 1820 Whaling ship Essex attacked and sunk by a sperm whale in the southern Pacific, only eight of the 20 crew men eventually survive (through cannibalism). Inspiration for the novel "Moby-Dick"
  • 1829 Jews expelled from Nikolayev & Sevastopol, Russia
  • 1861 Secession ordinance is filed by Kentucky's Confederate government
  • 1862 Confederate armies of Mississippi and Kentucky merge as Army of Tennessee, under General Braxton Bragg
  • 1866 First national convention of Grand Army of Republic (veterans' org)
  • 1866 Howard University founded in Washington, D.C.
  • 1886 Sherlock Holmes's first story "A Study in Scarlet" is accepted by publisher Ward and Lock with payment of £25
  • 1888 Willard Bundy patents timecard clock

BeatificationCatholic Encyclical

1890 Pope Leo XIII encyclical "On Slavery in the Missions"

256th Pope Leo XIII
256th Pope
  • 1894 US intervenes in Bluefields, Nicaragua

Music releaseTheater Premiere

1906 George Bernard Shaw's play "Doctor's Dilemma" premieres in London

  • 1909 Jack Williams of Canadian football team Ottawa Rough Riders kicks 9 singles in a game
  • 1910 Revolution breaks out in Mexico, led by Francisco I. Madero
  • 1911 Gustav Mahler's "Das Lied von der Erde" (Song of the Earth) premieres in Munich

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1911 The funeral of Paul and Laura Lafargue (daughter of Karl Marx) in Paris is attended by Lenin; the two socialists died in a suicide pact in the belief that their political usefulness was at an end

Marxist Revolutionary and Soviet Leader Vladimir Lenin
Marxist Revolutionary and Soviet Leader
Vladimir Lenin
Communist Philosopher Karl Marx
Communist Philosopher
Karl Marx
  • 1914 US State Department starts requiring photographs for passports
  • 1917 1st successful tank use in battle, at the Battle of Cambrai in World War I as Britain uses the new technology to break through German lines
  • 1917 Ukrainian Republic declared
  • 1919 1st municipally owned airport in US opens in Tucson, Arizona
  • 1922 Zoe Akins' play "Texas Nightingale" premieres in NYC
  • 1923 Garrett Morgan patents his traffic signal design, an important development in automobile safety
  • 1923 Rentenmark replaces the Papiermark as the official currency of Germany at the exchange rate of one Rentenmark to One Trillion (One Billion on the long scale) Papiermark
  • 1928 WGH-AM in Newport News VA begins radio transmissions
  • 1929 First broadcast of "Goldbergs" on US radio

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1929 Salvador Dali's first one-man show

Painter Salvador Dali
Salvador Dali
  • 1931 Commercial teletype service begins (AT&T)
  • 1932 Earthquake at Uden, Netherlands

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1934 Lillian Hellman's "Children's Hour" premieres in NYC

Playwright Lillian Hellman
Lillian Hellman
  • 1934 New Belgian government of Theunis, Francqui & Gutt (3 bankers)
  • 1936 Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera, founder of the Falange is killed by a republican execution squad
  • 1938 1st documented anti-semitic remarks over US radio (by Father Coughlin)
  • 1940 World War II: Hungary, Romania and Slovakia join the Axis Powers
  • 1941 Adm Nomura & Kurusu hands over Japanese last diplomatic note
  • 1941 German "auxiliary cruiser" (armed merchant raider) Kormoran sinks near Australia
  • 1942 26th Soviet Armoured Corps recaptures Perelazovski
  • 1942 British 8th Army recaptures Benghazi, Libya
  • 1943 U-538 sinks in Atlantic Ocean
  • 1943 US forces land on Tarawa & Makin Atoll in Gilbert Island
  • 1944 1st Japanese suicide submarine attack (Ulithi Atol, Carolines)
  • 1944 Amsterdam: Vondelpark closed because of kappen of trees
  • 1944 Dutch Prince Bernhard establishes staff in Breda, Netherlands

Conference of InterestNuremberg Trials

1945 The Nuremberg war trials begin as 24 Nazi leaders are put on trial before judges representing the victorious Allied powers

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Hermann Goering on trial at the Nuremberg Trials. He would later be sentenced to death, but committed suicide the night before his sentence was to be carried out.
Hermann Goering on trial at the Nuremberg Trials. He would later be sentenced to death, but committed suicide the night before his sentence was to be carried out.
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Event of interestEvent of Interest

1945 Queen Wilhelmina opens Dutch parliament in Hague

Queen of the Netherlands Wilhelmina of the Netherlands
Queen of the Netherlands
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands
  • 1946 Lillian Hellman's play "Another Part of the Forest" premieres in NYC
  • 1947 1st permanent TV installed on seagoing vessel (New Jersey)

BeatificationCatholic Encyclical

1947 Pope Pius XII publishes encyclical Mediator Dei

260th Pope Pius XII
260th Pope
Pius XII
  • 1947 UN General assembly begins debate on printing their own stamps
  • 1948 US balloon reaches height of 42.7 km (record)
  • 1949 Jewish population of Israel reaches 1,000,000
  • 1951 Snowdonia becomes a British National Park
  • 1952 George Axelrod's play "Seven Year Itch" premieres in NYC

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1952 Slánský trials begin - a series of Stalinist and anti-Semitic show trials in Czechoslovakia.

Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin
Soviet General Secretary
Joseph Stalin
  • 1953 Scott Crossfield in Douglas Skyrocket, 1st to break Mach 2 (1,300 MPH)
  • 1959 UN adopts Universal Declaration of Children's Rights
  • 1962 USSR agrees to remove bombers from Cuba, & US lifts blockade
  • 1965 UN Security council calls for boycott of Rhodesia
  • 1966 Men in Zurich vote against female suffrage
  • 1967 At 11 AM, Census Clock at Department of Commerce ticks past 200 million
  • 1968 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1969 Alcatraz Island, off San Francisco, is seized by militant Native Americans
  • 1970 UN General Assembly accepts membership of People's Republic of China
  • 1971 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1972 2 British soldiers are killed in a booby trap bomb in Cullyhanna, County Armagh
  • 1974 Rangers' Jeff Burroughs wins AL MVP
  • 1974 The US files antitrust suit to break-up AT&T

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1975 Ronald Reagan announces candidacy for Republican nomination for US President

US President & Actor Ronald Reagan
US President & Actor
Ronald Reagan

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1977 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat becomes the 1st Arab leader to address Israeli Knesset

President of Egypt and Nobel Laureate Anwar Sadat
President of Egypt and Nobel Laureate
Anwar Sadat
  • 1979 Sji'ieten occupies great mosque of Mecca, 100s killed
  • 1979 US's 1st artificial blood transfusion occurs at University of Minnesota Hospital
  • 1980 Steve Ptacek in Solar Challenger makes 1st solar-powered flight
  • 1980 United Nations Gulf War mediator Olof Palme makes first unsuccessful peace shuttle between Tehran and Baghdad
  • 1981 Burundi adopts its constitution
  • 1981 El Salvador guerrilla group FMLN opens "limited offensive"

Music releaseAlbum Release

1981 Ringo Starr releases "Stop & Smell Roses" album

Beatles Drummer Ringo Starr
Beatles Drummer
Ringo Starr
  • 1984 McDonald's makes its 50 billionth hamburger
  • 1984 SETI Institute (Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) is founded.
  • 1985 Microsoft Windows 1.0 is released

Birthdays in History

  • 270 Maximinus II, Emperor of the Roman Empire (308-313), born in Felix Romuliana (Gamzigrad, Serbia) (d. 313)
  • 1327 Bassui Tokusho, Zen founder (Kogakuji monastery in Nakamura Japan), born in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan (d. 1387)
  • 1606 Abraham de Wicquefort, Dutch diplomat and historian (d. 1682)
  • 1620 Peregrine White, First English child born in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, born aboard the Mayflower (d. 1704)
  • 1621 Avvakum, Russian Orthodox archpriest and writer, born in Grigorovo, Nizhny Novgorod (d. 1682)
  • 1625 Artus Quellinus II, Flemish sculptor, born in Sint-Truiden, Limburg, Belgium (d. 1700)
  • 1625 Paulus Potter, Dutch painter, born in Enkhuizen, Dutch Republic (d. 1654)
  • 1660 Daniel Ernst Jablonski, German Protestant theologian, born in Nassenhuben [now Mokry Dwór, Poland] (d. 1741)
  • 1726 Oliver Wolcott, American judge, signed US Declaration of Independence, born in Windsor, Connecticut (d. 1797) [NS=Dec 1]
  • 1750 Tipu Sultan, Indian ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, born in Devanahalli, Bangalore, India (d. 1799)
  • 1752 Thomas Chatterton, English poet (Christabel), born in Bristol, England (d. 1770)
  • 1761 Pius VIII [Francesco Saverio Castiglioni], Italian 253rd Pope (1829-30), born in Cingoli, Marche, Papal States (d. 1830)
  • 1765 Thomas Fremantle, British naval officer, born in Aston Abbotts, Buckinghamshire, England (d. 1819)
  • 1781 Karl Friedrich Eichhorn, German jurist, born in Jena, Germany (d. 1854)
  • 1802 James L. Lardner, American naval officer (American Civil War), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 1881)
  • 1830 Patrick Henry Jones, Irish-American lawyer, Postmaster of New York City, and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in County Westmeath, Republic of Ireland (d. 1900)
  • 1836 John Thomas Croxton, American attorney, diplomat, and Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Paris, Kentucky, (d. 1874)
  • 1838 William Painter, American inventor (crown cork bottle cap and opener), born in Ireland (d. 1906)
  • 1839 Christian Wilberg, German painter, born in Havelberg, Germany (d. 1882)

Person of interestWilfrid Laurier

1841 Wilfrid Laurier, 7th Prime Minister of Canada (Liberal: 1896-1911), born in Saint-Lin, Quebec (d. 1918)

Prime Minister of Canada Wilfrid Laurier
Prime Minister of Canada
Wilfrid Laurier
  • 1841 Victor D'Hondt, Belgian mathematician, born in Ghent, Belgium (d. 1901)
  • 1851 Margherita of Savoy, Queen consort of the Kingdom of Italy by marriage to Umberto I (1878-1900), born in Palazzo Chiablese, Turin, Kingdom of Sardinia (d. 1926)
  • 1855 Josiah Royce, American philosopher (Conception of Immortality), born in Grass Valley, California (d. 1916)

Person of interestSelma Lagerlöf

1858 Selma Lagerlöf, Swedish author and Nobel laureate (The Wonderful Adventures of Nils), born in Mårbacka, Värmland (d. 1940)

Author and Nobel Laureate Selma Lagerlöf
Author and Nobel Laureate
Selma Lagerlöf
  • 1862 Willem Vliegen, Dutch journalist and chairman (SDAP), born in Gulpen, Netherlands (d. 1947)
  • 1864 Gerard Wilhelm Kernkamp, Dutch historian and editor (Groene Amsterdammer), born in Hoorn, Netherlands (d. 1943)
  • 1871 William Heard Kilpatrick, American mathematician and philosopher, born in White Plains, Georgia (d. 1965)
  • 1874 James Michael Curley, American politician (53rd Governor of Massachusetts, 1935-37), born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1958)
  • 1879 Franz Pfemfert, German journalist and writer, born in Lötzen, East Prussia (d. 1954)
  • 1884 Norman Thomas, American socialist, pacifist and presidential candidate (1928-48), born in Marion Ohio (d. 1968)
  • 1886 Karl von Frisch, Austrian ethologist and bee expert (Nobel 1973), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1982)

Person of interestEdwin Hubble

1889 Edwin Hubble, American astronomer (discoverer of galaxies, red shift), born in Marshfield, Missouri (d. 1953)

Astronomer Edwin Hubble
Edwin Hubble
  • 1892 James Collip, Canadian biochemist and physiologist (insulin), born in Belleville, Ontario (d. 1965)
  • 1896 Yevgenia Ginzburg, Russian writer, born in Moscow, Russian Empire (d. 1977)
  • 1897 Lores Bonney, Australian aviator, 1st female solo flight Australia to UK, born in Pretoria, South Africa (d. 1994)
  • 1900 Chester Gould, American cartoonist (Dick Tracy), born in Pawnee, Oklahoma (d. 1985)
  • 1902 Wolfgang Kunkel, German lawyer and law historian, born in Fürth, Germany (d. 1981)
  • 1903 Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi, Pakistani historian and educationist, born in Patyali, near Allahabad, United Provinces of British India (d. 1981)
  • 1907 Henri-Georges Clouzot, French director (Le salaire de la peur), born in Niort, France (d. 1977)
  • 1909 Alan Bible, American lawyer and politician (Sen-D-Nev, 1954-74), born in Lovelock, Nevada (d. 1988)
  • 1910 Pauli Murray, African American poet and civil rights activist, born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 1985)
  • 1910 Willem Jacob van Stockum, Dutch physicist and mathematician, born in Hattem, Netherlands (d. 1944)
  • 1912 Otto von Habsburg, last crown prince of Austria-Hungary and MEP (1979-1999), born in Wartholz Castle, Reichenau an der Rax, Lower Austria, Austria-Hungary (d. 2011)
  • 1914 Emilio Pucci, Italian fashion designer (Neiman-Marcus Award-1954), born in Naples, Italy (d. 1992)
  • 1915 Kon Ichikawa, Japanese director (Matatabi, Money Talks), born in Ise, Mie, Japan (d. 2008)

Person of interestHu Yaobang

1915 Hu Yaobang, Chinese communist official and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (1982–87), born in Liuyang, Hunan, Republic of China (d. 1989)

General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party Hu Yaobang
General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party
Hu Yaobang
  • 1916 Ferdinand Alphons Marie van der Ham, Dutch WW II resistance fighter, born in Voorburg, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands (d. 1944)
  • 1916 Robert A. Bruce, American cardiologist and pioneer (exercise cardiology), born in Somerville, Massachusetts (d. 2004)
  • 1916 John Elwyn, British painter, born in Adpar, Wales (d. 1997)
  • 1917 Robert Byrd, US Senator (Democrat-WV, 1959-2010), majority leader and once the longest-serving Senator in history, born in North Wilkesboro, North Carolina (d. 2010)
  • 1919 Halka Grossman, Israeli resistance fighter and politician, born in Białystok, Second Polish Republic (d. 1996)
  • 1921 Jim Garrison, American district attorney, politician and judge, born in Denison, Iowa (d. 1992)
  • 1923 Beryl Sprinkel, American economist (Council of Economic Advisers), born in Richmond, Missouri (d. 2009)
  • 1923 Nadine Gordimer, South African author (July's people, Nobel 1991), born in Springs, Transvaal, (d. 2014)
  • 1924 Serge Golovine, French ballet choreographer (Death of Narcissus), born in Monte-Carlo, Monaco (d. 1998)
  • 1924 Benoit Mandelbrot, Polish-French-American mathematician (proved Zipf's law), born in Warsaw, Poland (d. 2010)

Person of interestRobert F. Kennedy

1925 Robert F. Kennedy, American politician (D-Sen-NY, US Attorney General), born in Brookline, Massachusetts (d. 1968)

US Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy
US Attorney General
Robert F. Kennedy
  • 1926 Andrzej W. Schally, Polish-American endocrinologist (Nobel 1997), born in Wilno, Poland
  • 1927 Erhard Schnell, German automotive designer 'Father of the Opel GT', born in Frankfurt, Germany (d. 2020)
  • 1934 Valentine J. Peter, American priest (Boy's Town ), born in Omaha, Nebraska
  • 1936 Don DeLillo, American author (Underworld), born in New York City
  • 1937 Viktoriya Tokareva, Russian playwright, born in Leningrad, Soviet Union
  • 1940 Helma Sanders-Brahms, German director and writer (Apple Trees; Germany, Pale Mother), born in Emden, Lower Saxony, Germany (d. 2014)

Person of interestJoe Biden

1942 Joe Biden, American politician (Vice President: 2009-2017), born in Scranton, Pennsylvania

46th US President, Vice President and Senator Joe Biden
46th US President, Vice President and Senator
Joe Biden
  • 1942 Paulos Faraj Rahho, Iraqi Chaldean Catholic bishop, born in Mosul, Iraq (d. 2008)
  • 1943 Lindsay Thomas, American politician (Rep-D-GA, 1983-93), born in Patterson, Georgia
  • 1945 Rachid Mimouni, Algerian author, born in Boudouaou, Algeria (d. 1995)
  • 1946 Patriarch Kirill [Vladimir Mikhailovich Gundyayev] Russian Orthodox church leader (2009-), born in Leningrad, Soviet Union
  • 1948 John Bolton, American security advisor and diplomat (US Ambassador to UN), born in Baltimore, Maryland
  • 1949 Thelma Drake, American politician, US Rep, Virginia (2005-09), born in Elyria, Ohio
  • 1951 David Walters, American politician, Governor of Oklahoma (1991-95), born in Canute, Oklahoma
  • 1952 John Van Boxmeer, National Hockey League player, born in Petrolia, Ontario
  • 1954 Steve Dahl, American radio host, Chicago's anti-disco DJ (WLS-FM), born in Pasadena, California
  • 1954 Berit Andnor, Swedish politician, born in Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 1955 Timothy Mace, British cosmonaut, (d. 2014)
  • 1958 Rickson Gracie, Brazilian Mixed Martial Artist, born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 1959 James P. McGovern, American politician (Rep-D-Mass 1997-), born in Worcester, Massachusetts
  • 1963 Timothy Gowers, British mathematician (1998 Fields Medal), born in Malborough, England
  • 1966 Jill Thompson, American comic book writer and artist (Scary Godmother)
  • 1970 Matt Blunt, American politician, Governor of Missouri (2005-2009), born in Greene County, Missouri
  • 1972 Sheema Kalbasi, Iranian born poet, born in Tehran, Iran
  • 1999 Princess Sofia of Bulgaria, titular Bulgarian royal family
  • 1999 Prince Umberto of Bulgaria, titular Bulgarian royal family

Weddings in History

LoveWedding of Interest

1900 Archaeologist Hiram Bingham (25) weds Tiffany heiress Alfreda Mitchell in Honolulu, Hawaii

Archaeologist and Explorer Hiram Bingham
Archaeologist and Explorer
Hiram Bingham

LoveWedding of Interest

1947 Future British Queen Princess Elizabeth II (21) weds Lt Philip Mountbatten (26) in Westminster Abbey, London

Queen of the United Kingdom Elizabeth II
Queen of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II
Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip
Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip
  • 1994 Patti Davis weds Paul Hayeland

Divorces in History

Broken heartDivorce of Interest

2013 Business magnate Rupert Murdoch (82) divorces Wendi Deng (44) due to irreconcilable differences after 13 years of marriage

Media Mogul Rupert Murdoch
Media Mogul
Rupert Murdoch

Deaths in History

  • 869 King Edmund of East Anglia
  • 967 Aboe al-Faradj al-Isfahani, Arabic author (Book of Liederen), dies
  • 1348 Stefano Colonna, Roman senator, dies in battle against Roman revolutionaries by Porta Tiburtina
  • 1437 Thomas Langley, bishop of Durham, cardinal and lord chancellor (b. 1363)
  • 1480 Eleonora van Austrian, translator, dies
  • 1518 Marmaduke Constable, English soldier (battle of Flodden), dies after swallowing a frog, at about 61
  • 1527 Wendelmoet "Weyntjen" Claesdochter, 1st Dutch woman burned as heretic
  • 1529 Karl von Miltitz, German papal nuncio (met with Martin Luther), drowns at about 39
  • 1591 Christopher Hatton, English politician (b. 1540)
  • 1612 John Harington, English Elizabethan courtier, writer (Orlando Furios) and inventor of the flush toilet, dies at about 52
  • 1651 Mikołaj Potocki, Polish soldier who fought Cossack rebellions, dies at about 56
  • 1662 Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands (b. 1614)
  • 1669 Arnold Geulincx, Flemish philosopher (Cholera), dies at 45
  • 1675 Francisco de Moura y Cortereal, Spanish Vicroy of Sardinia and Governor of Hapsburg Netherlands (1664-68)
  • 1678 Karel Dujardin, Dutch painter and etcher (Learned Dog), dies at about 56
  • 1704 Charles Plumier, French botanist (Frangipani genus Plumeria is named after him), dies at 58
  • 1713 Thomas Tompion, English clock maker (cylinder tunnel), dies at 74
  • 1737 Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach, German born Queen of Great Britain, consort to King George II, dies at 54
  • 1741 Melchior de Polignac, French diplomat, Cardinal and poet, dies at 80
  • 1750 Wilhelmus Schortinghuis, Dutch Christian theologist, dies at 50
  • 1764 Christian Goldbach, German mathematician, dies
  • 1778 Francesco Cetti, Italian Jesuit priest and scientist, dies at 52
  • 1856 Farkas/Wolfgang Bolyai, Hungarian mathematician, dies at 81
  • 1863 James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin & Kincardine and Governor (Jamaica), dies at 52
  • 1882 Henry Draper, American amateur astronomer (photos of the Moon, Orion Nebula), dies of pleurisy at 45
  • 1887 Louis Gallait, Belgian historical painter (Egmont & Receiver), dies at 77
  • 1888 Nathaniel Currier, American lithographer (Currier & Ives), dies at 75
  • 1889 August Ahlqvist, Finnish poet (Suomalainen Runousoppi), dies at 63
  • 1898 John Fowler, English engineer (London Metropolitan Railway), dies at 81

BattleTom Horn

1903 Tom Horn, American gunfighter and outlaw, hanged to death at 42

Old West Lawman, Outlaw and Bounty Hunter Tom Horn
Old West Lawman, Outlaw and Bounty Hunter
Tom Horn
  • 1908 Georgy Voronoy, Russian mathematician (Voronoi diagram), dies at 40

Person of interestLeo Tolstoy

1910 Leo Tolstoy [Lev Nikolayevich], Russian novelist (Anna Karenina, War & Peace), dies of pneumonia at 82

Novelist Leo Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy
  • 1925 Alexandra, Danish princess and Queen of Great Britain, consort to Edward VII, dies at 80
  • 1934 Willem de Sitter, Dutch scientist and cosmologist (developed theoretical models of the universe based on Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity), dies at 62

Person of interestJohn Jellicoe

1935 John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, British Admiral of the Fleet in World War I (Battle of Jutland), dies of pneumonia at 75

British Admiral of the Fleet John Jellicoe
British Admiral of the Fleet
John Jellicoe
  • 1936 Jose A Primo de Rivera, Spanish lawyer and politician (founder of Spanish Falange), executed at 33
  • 1938 Enzo Matsunaga, Japanese writer (b. 1895)
  • 1938 Edwin Hall, American physicist (discovered Hall effect), dies at 83
  • 1938 Maud of Wales, Queen of Norway, spouse of King Haakon VII, dies at 68
  • 1944 Sekio Nishina, Japanese inventor (kaiten-suicide submarine), dies at 21
  • 1945 Francis William Aston, British chemist, Nobel laureate (b. 1877)
  • 1947 Wolfgang Borchert, German writer, dies at 26
  • 1952 Benedetto Croce, Italian philosopher (La Critica), dies at 86
  • 1954 Clyde Cessna, American aviator and airplane manufacturer, dies at 74
  • 1957 Mstislav Dobuzhinsky, Russian-Lithuanian artist, dies at 82
  • 1959 Alfonso López Pumarejo, 16th President of Colombia (Liberal: 1934-38 and 1942-46) and statesman (President of UN security council 1948), dies at 73
  • 1960 Ya'akov Cahan, Hebrew poet and writer, dies at 79
  • 1962 Jasper McLevy, American socialist mayor of Bridgeport Ct, dies at 84

Person of interestFrancisco Franco

1975 Francisco Franco, Spanish dictator (1936-75), dies at 82

Spanish Dictator and General Francisco Franco
Spanish Dictator and General
Francisco Franco
  • 1976 Trofim Lysenko, Soviet biologist and agronomist, dies at 78
  • 1977 Maxie Wander, Austrian writer (Good Morning My Lovely), dies at 44
  • 1978 Vasilisk Gnedov, Russian poet (b. 1890)
  • 1978 Giorgio De Chirico, Italian painter (founded the scuola metafisica art movement), dies at 90
  • 1980 John McEwen, 18th Prime Minister of Australia (1967-68), dies at 80
  • 1981 Rolf Bongs, German writer, dies at 74
  • 1984 Trygve Bratteli, Norwegian Prime Minister (Labour: 1971-72, 1973-76), dies at 74
  • 1986 William Bradford Huie, American writer and publisher, dies at 76
  • 1992 John Foreman, producer (Prizzi's Honor), dies at 67 of heart attack
  • 1993 Christopher Frank, French writer, dies at 51
  • 1993 Emile Ardolino, American director (Dirty Dancing), dies at 50 of AIDs
  • 1994 John Lucarotti, British Canadian scriptwriter (Doctor Who), dies at 68
  • 1994 Ali-Akbar Sa'idi Sirjani, Iranian poet and journalist, dies at 64
  • 1995 Ahmed Abel-Wadoud Karadawi, Sudanese academic/activist, dies at 50
  • 1996 Bert Geoffrey Achong, Trinidadian pathologist and inventor (electron microscopist), dies at 67
  • 1997 Gary Burris, American murderer (Kenneth Chambers), executed in Indiana at 40
  • 1997 Robert Palmer, American rock critic, dies at 52
  • 1998 Galina Starovoitova, Russian politician and dissident, assassinated at 52
  • 1999 Amintore Fanfani, Italian politician and 5 x prime minister of Italy, dies at 91
  • 2000 Mike Muuss, American computer programmer (Ping), dies in a car accident at 42
  • 2000 Kalle Päätalo, Finnish novelist (Iijoki), dies at 81
  • 2003 Loris Azzaro, French fashion designer (b. 1933)
  • 2003 David Dacko, first President of the Central African Republic (b. 1930)
  • 2003 Eugene Kleiner, American entrepreneur (b. 1923)
  • 2003 Roger Short, British Consulate General (b. 1944)
  • 2004 David Grierson, Canadian radio host (b. 1955)
  • 2005 Manouchehr Atashi, Persian poet, dies at 74
  • 2005 Sheldon Gardner, American psychologist (b. 1934)
  • 2006 Zoia Ceauşescu, Romanian mathematician and daughter of Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, dies of lung cancer at 57
  • 2007 Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia (b. 1919)
  • 2008 Sven Inge, Swedish painter and modern artist (b. 1935)
  • 2009 Lino Lacedelli, Italian mountaineer (b. 1925)
  • 2010 Laurie Bembenek, American convicted murderer and fugitive (b. 1958)
  • 2010 Chalmers Johnson, American political scholar and author (b. 1931)
  • 2013 Peter Griffiths, British politician (C), controversially won his seat (1964), dies at 85
  • 2013 Sylvia Browne, American author and self-proclaimed medium dubbed "America's most controversial psychic," dies at 77
  • 2016 Kostis Stephanopoulos, Greek conservative politician (President of Greece, 1995-2005), dies at 90
  • 2016 William Trevor, Irish writer (Children of Dynmouth, Fools of Fortune), dies at 88
  • 2018 Aaron Klug, Lithuanian born British biochemist (Nobel prize for Chemistry 1982), dies at 92
  • 2020 Jan Morris, Welsh journalist, historian, writer and pioneering trans woman (Venice, Conundrum), dies at 94 [1]
  • 2020 Patriarch Irinej [ Miroslav Gavrilović], Head of the Serbian Orthodox Church, dies of COVID-19 at 90 [1]