On This Day in History for November 25

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 135

  • 1034 Malcolm II, King of Scots (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) (b. 980) dies; Donnchad, the son of his second daughter Bethóc and Crínán of Dunkeld, inherits the throne.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1165 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) visits Utrecht

Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa
Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick Barbarossa

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1177 Battle of Montgisard: Baldwin IV of Jerusalem defeats Saladin and a larger Ayyubid force

1st Sultan of Egypt and Syria Saladin
1st Sultan of Egypt and Syria
  • 1185 Pope Lucius III (Ubaldo Allucingoli) reigned 1181-85, dies and is replaced by Umberto Crivelli (Pope Urban III)
  • 1277 Giovanni Gaetano Orsini elected as Pope Nicolas III
  • 1357 Charles IV issues letter of protection of Jews of Strasbourg Alsace
  • 1491 The siege of Granada, last Moorish stronghold in Spain, begins

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1500 Governor De Bobadilla of Santo Domingo captures Christopher Columbus

Explorer of the New World Christopher Columbus
Explorer of the New World
Christopher Columbus
  • 1598 Jacob Cornelius van Neck's merchant fleet reaches Bantam West-Java on second Dutch expedition to Indonesia
  • 1659 Michiel de Ruyter conquers Danish city Nyborg
  • 1667 A deadly earthquake rocks Shemakha, in the Caucasus, killing 80,000 people.
  • 1715 First English patent granted to an American, for processing corn

BattleCoup d'état

1741 Elizabeth of Russia seizes power in a coup with the aid of Imperial Russian guards in Saint Petersburg, Russia

Empress of Russia Elizabeth of Russia
Empress of Russia
Elizabeth of Russia
  • 1744 Austrian forces pillage & kill Jews of Prague
  • 1755 King Ferdinand IV of Spain granted the Beaterio dela Compania de Jesus or now known as the Congregation of the Religious of the Virgin Mary(RVM) a royal protection.
  • 1758 Britain captures Fort Duquesne (later Fort Pitt/Pittsburgh) from French
  • 1766 Pope Clement XIII warns On dangers of anti-Christian writings
  • 1783 Britain evacuates New York city, its last military position in United States

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1792 Benjamin Banneker first publishes his Farmer's Almanac

Mathematician, Astronomer and Almanac Author Benjamin Banneker
Mathematician, Astronomer and Almanac Author
Benjamin Banneker
  • 1817 First sword swallower in US performs (NYC)
  • 1826 The Greek frigate Hellas arrives in Nafplion to become the first flagship of the Hellenic Navy
  • 1834 Delmonico's, one of NY's finest restaurants, provides a meal of soup, steak, coffee & half a pie for 12 cents
  • 1839 Cyclone slams south eastern India with high winds and a 40 foot storm surge, destroying city of Coringa. Storm waves sweep inland, destroying 20,000 ships and killing an estimated 300,000 people
  • 1841 35 survivors of the mutiny on the slave ship Amistad return to Africa
  • 1863 Battle of Missionary Ridge, Tennessee
  • 1864 Confederate plot to burn New York city fails
  • 1864 Confederate retreat at Sandersville, Georgia

1stHistoric Invention

1867 Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel patents dynamite

Chemist, Engineer & Innovator Alfred Nobel
Chemist, Engineer & Innovator
Alfred Nobel

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1867 US Congress commission looks into "impeachment" of President Andrew Johnson

17th US President Andrew Johnson
17th US President
Andrew Johnson
  • 1874 The United States Greenback Party is established as a political party consisting primarily of farmers affected by the Panic of 1873.
  • 1876 Indian Wars: In retaliation for the American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, United States Army troops sack Chief Dull Knife's sleeping Cheyenne village at the headwaters of the Powder River.
  • 1884 John B Meyenberg of St Louis patents evaporated milk
  • 1894 Greenback (Independent) Party organizes in Indianapolis
  • 1897 Spain grants Puerto Rico autonomy
  • 1899 Battle at Graspan, Cape colony: General Methuen beats Farmers
  • 1912 American College of Surgeons incorporates in Springield, Illinois
  • 1912 Socialist International rejects that world war is coming
  • 1913 The Irish Volunteers founded in Dublin to "secure the rights and liberties common to all the people of Ireland"
  • 1920 1st Thanksgiving Parade (Philadelphia)
  • 1920 WTAW of College Station, Tx, broadcast 1st football play-by-play

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1922 Japanese crown prince Hirohito appointed prince regent

Emperor of Japan Hirohito
Emperor of Japan
  • 1925 KPD proposes German Parliament expropriate possession of monarchy
  • 1930 Ito, Japan records 690 earthquake shocks in 1 day
  • 1933 1st Soviet liquid fuel rocket attains altitude of 261' (80m)
  • 1935 International Institute for Social History (IISG) forms in Amsterdam
  • 1936 Germany & Japan sign anti-Komintern pact
  • 1937 World's Fair of Paris closes (31.2 million visitors)
  • 1940 SS Patria carrying illegal immigrants sinks in port of Haifa, 200 die
  • 1940 Football team University of Michigan retires Tom Harmon's #98
  • 1940 Woody Woodpecker debuts with release of Walter Lantz's "Knock Knock"
  • 1940 First flights of the de Havilland Mosquito and Martin B-26 Marauder.

  • 1941 German Jews in Netherlands declared stateless (lose of nationality)
  • 1941 Finland joined the Anti-Komintern Pact.
  • 1942 National Organization for Aid to Underground, LO, forms
  • 1943 U-600 sinks in Atlantic Ocean
  • 1944 World War II: A German V-2 rocket hits a Woolworth's store in Deptford, United Kingdom, killing 160 shoppers.
  • 1947 New Zealand accedes to Statute of Westminster, becomes a dominion
  • 1948 16-inch coastal guns removed from Fort Funston, San Francisco
  • 1950 UN gives Eritrea to Ethiopia
  • 1951 17 die in a train crash in Woodstock, Alabama
  • 1951 Commemoration of Dutch resistance fighter Hannie Schaft forbidden
  • 1952 George Meany appointed as chairman of AFL
  • 1953 Earthquake and tsnunami strike Honshu, Japan
  • 1955 Race segregation forbidden on trains & buses between US states

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1955 Clement Attlee resigns as leader of the UK Labour Party

British Prime Minister Clement Attlee
British Prime Minister
Clement Attlee

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1957 US President Dwight Eisenhower suffers a mild stroke, impairing his speech

34th US President & WWII General Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th US President & WWII General
Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • 1958 Senegal becomes an autonomous state in French Community
  • 1960 First atomic reactor for research & development, Richland, Wa
  • 1960 Three of the four Mirabal sisters, opponents of the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic, are assassinated

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1963 JFK laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery

35th US President John F. Kennedy
35th US President
John F. Kennedy
  • 1965 Congo military coup under Gen Mobutu, President Kasavubu overthrown
  • 1966 Cincinnati infielder Tommy Helms is voted NL Rookie of Year
  • 1966 Pirate Radio Station 390 (Radio Invicta) closes down (reopen 12/31)
  • 1967 Puerto Rico placed on Atlantic Standard Time
  • 1970 In Japan, author Yukio Mishima and two compatriots commit ritualistic suicide after an unsuccessful coup attempt
  • 1971 American "Dan Cooper" hijacks plane, extorts $200,000 ransom before jumping out of plane over Washington State, never seen again

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1971 British Labour Party leader Harold Wilson proposes Britain should work towards a withdrawal from Northern Ireland, and after 15 years; the Republic of Ireland could rejoin the British Commonwealth

British Prime Minister Harold Wilson
British Prime Minister
Harold Wilson
  • 1973 3 Palestinians hijack KLM B747 above Iraq, to Dubai
  • 1973 Bloodless military coup ousts Greek President George Papadopoulos
  • 1973 US cuts maximum speed limit cut to 55 MPH as an energy conservation measure
  • 1974 Irish Republican Army is outlawed in Britain following deaths of 21
  • 1974 Rangers' Mike Hargrove wins AL Rookie of Year
  • 1975 Netherlands grants Suriname independence (National Day)
  • 1975 Portuguese leftist officers occupy 4 airbases
  • 1975 A loyalist gang nicknamed the "Shankill Butchers" undertakes its first "cut-throat killing"; the gang was named for its late-night kidnapping, torture and murder (by throat slashing) of random Catholic civilians in Belfast
  • 1976 The Band's farewell concert at SF's Winterland Ballroom
  • 1976 Viking 1 radio signals from Mars help prove the general theory of relativity
  • 1976 NYPD officer Robert Torsney shoots unarmed youth Randolph Evans while answering response at youth's Brooklyn home
  • 1977 David Steed balanced stationary on a bike for 9 hrs 15 mins
  • 1977 Thomas Hearns KOs Jerome Hill in 2 rounds in his 1st pro fight
  • 1979 Israel returns Alma oilfields in Gulf of Suez to Egypt
  • 1979 Pittsburgh gains 606 net yards against Cleveland, winning 33-30
  • 1980 Coup in Burkina abolishes constitution
  • 1980 France performs nuclear test at Mururoa atoll
  • 1980 Upper-Volta military coup under Col Saye Zerbo, President Lamizana flees
  • 1981 Failed coup by South African mercenaries in Seychelles

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1981 Pope John Paul II names Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger "Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith"

264th Pope John Paul II
264th Pope
John Paul II
  • 1982 The Minneapolis Thanksgiving Day Fire destroys an entire city block, including the Northwestern National Bank building and the recently closed Donaldson's Department Store.
  • 1983 Soyuz T-9 returns to Earth, 149 days after take-off
  • 1983 Syria & Saudi Arabia announce cease-fire in PLO civil war in Tripoli

Birthdays in History

  • 1454 Catherine Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus (d. 1510)
  • 1501 Yi Hwang, Confucian scholar (d. 1570)
  • 1507 Joost de Damhoudere, Flemish lawyer (Praxis rerum criminalium)
  • 1562 Lope Felix de Vega, dramatist/poet (Angelica, Arcadia), born in Madrid, Spain
  • 1577 Piet Heyn, Dutch privateer and admiral (captured Spanish silver fleet), born in Delft (d. 1629)
  • 1638 Catherine of Braganza, Queen of Charles II of England (d. 1705)
  • 1697 Gerhard Tersteegen, German evangelist/poet (wrote in blood)
  • 1703 Jean-François Séguier, French astronomer and botanist (d. 1784)
  • 1712 Charles-Michel de l'Épée, French philanthropist and developer of 'Signed French' (d. 1789)
  • 1714 Yoriyuki Arima, Japanese mathematician (d. 1783)
  • 1721 Willem Crul, admiral (West-Indies)
  • 1778 Mary Anne Schimmelpenninck, British Christian writer (d. 1856)
  • 1814 Julius Robert von Mayer, German physician and physicist (d. 1878)
  • 1817 John Bigelow, American statesman and author (d. 1911)
  • 1823 Joseph Alexander Cooper, American civil servant and Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Whitley County, Kentucky (d. 1910)
  • 1825 Edward Augustus Wild, American homeopathic doctor and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Brookline, Massachusetts (d. 1891)
  • 1828 Franjo Racki, Croatian historian/politician

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1835 Andrew Carnegie, Scottish-American industrialist, steel tycoon, philanthropist and one of the richest Americans ever, born in Dunfermline, Scotland (d. 1919)

Industrialist and Philanthropist Andrew Carnegie
Industrialist and Philanthropist
Andrew Carnegie
  • 1840 Hugo Verriest, Flemish author/poet (Flemish Movement)
  • 1841 Ernst Schröder, German mathematician (d. 1902)
  • 1843 Henry Ware Eliot American industrialist, philanthropist and the father of T. S. Eliot (d. 1919)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1844 Karl Benz, German inventor, engine designer and automobile manufacturer (Mercedes-Benz), born in Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg (d. 1929)

Automobile Engineer and Inventor Karl Benz
Automobile Engineer and Inventor
Karl Benz
  • 1845 José Maria de Eça de Queirós, Portuguese novelist, born in Póvoa de Varzim (d. 1900)
  • 1846 Carrie Nation, American temperance advocate (d. 1911)
  • 1852 Johan N Salvator, [Johann Orth], archduke of Austria
  • 1858 Alfred Capus, French author (d. 1922)
  • 1869 Ben Lindsey, American judge and social reformer (d. 1934)
  • 1870 Winthrop Ames, American theatrical director (d. 1937)
  • 1876 Princess Victoria Melita of Edinburgh and Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Grand Duchess of Hesse (d. 1936)
  • 1877 Harley Granville-Barker, dramatist/producer/critic, born in London, England
  • 1878 Georg Kaiser, German playwright (The Burghers of Calais), born in Magdeburg (d. 1945)
  • 1880 Leonard S Woolf, English author/husband of Virginia Woolf
  • 1880 Elsie J. Oxenham, British children's author (d. 1960)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1881 Pope John XXIII [Angelo Roncalli], 261st Pope (1958-63), born in Bergamo, Lombardy, Italy (d. 1963)

  • 1883 Harvey Spencer Lewis, American mystic (d. 1939)
  • 1887 Nikolai Vavilov, Russian geneticist (d. 1943)
  • 1890 Isaac Rosenberg, English war poet and artist (d. 1918)
  • 1895 Anastas I Mikoyan, Armenia, member of Supreme Soviet
  • 1895 Ludvik Svoboda, Czech general and politician
  • 1895 Helen Hooven Santmyer, American writer (d. 1986)
  • 1899 William R Burnett, American author (Little Caesar)
  • 1900 Helen Gahagan Douglas, Nixon's 1st opponent/(Rep-D-Ca)
  • 1900 Rudolf Höß, commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp (d. 1947)
  • 1901 Arthur Liebehenschel, Commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp (d. 1948)
  • 1903 Martin Soames, British traveller
  • 1904 Ba Jin, Chinese novelist (d. 2005)
  • 1909 Hugh Davson, physiologist/writer
  • 1910 Leon Poliakov, historian
  • 1911 Roelof Frankot, Dutch painter (d. 1984)
  • 1913 Lewis Thomas, American physician and essayist (d. 1993)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1915 Augusto Pinochet, general/president (Chile)

General and Dictator Augusto Pinochet
General and Dictator
Augusto Pinochet
  • 1919 Chaim Pearl, Jewish rabbi and scholar, born in Liverpool, England (d. 1995)
  • 1920 Tuanku Syed Putra ibni Almarhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail, King of Malaysia (d. 2000)
  • 1922 Gloria Lasso, French-Spanish singer (Le tour de chant de Gloria Lasso), born in Vilafranca del Penedès, Catalonia (d. 2005)
  • 1923 Mauno Koivisto, President of Finland (1982-94), born in Turku (d. 2017)
  • 1924 Takaaki Yoshimoto, Japanese poet, critic, and philosopher.
  • 1925 Jose Napoleon Duarte, president El Salvador
  • 1926 Murray Schisgal, playwright (Luv)
  • 1926 Poul [William] Anderson, American sci-fi author (7 Hugos, Mirkheim)
  • 1929 Jack Hogan, Chapel Hill NC, actor (Combat", "Adam 12", "Sierra")
  • 1938 John "Jack" Baines, mountaineering publisher
  • 1939 Martin Feldstein, economist (1977 John Bates Clark Medal)
  • 1940 Richard Furrer, Worgl Germany, astronaut (STS 22)
  • 1941 Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi, Indian Muslim Sufi, author, spiritual leader (d. 2001)
  • 1942 Rosa Von Praunheim, [Holger Mischwitzky], Riga Latvia, dir (Affengeil)
  • 1945 Patrick Nagel, American artist (d. 1984)
  • 1947 Jonathan Kaplan, director (Heart Like a Wheel), born in Paris, France
  • 1947 Linda Laflamme, rocker
  • 1947 Val Fuentes, rocker (It's A Beautiful Day)
  • 1948 Jacques P. Dupuis, French Canadian politician
  • 1949 Rita Jenrette, wife of Rep John Jenrette (D-SC), born in San Antonio, Texas
  • 1950 Alexis Wright, Australian author
  • 1951 Arturo Pérez Reverte, Spanish novelist and war reporter
  • 1952 John Lynch, American politician current governor of New Hampshire
  • 1953 Jeffrey Skilling, American former CEO of Enron
  • 1956 Ena Heese, South African costume designer (Willem of Orange)
  • 1956 Hélène Goudin, Swedish politician
  • 1957 Bob Ehrlich, Jr., former Maryland governor
  • 1959 Charles Kennedy, British politician (Liberal Democrat leader 1999-2006), born in Inverness, Scotland

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1960 John F. Kennedy Jr, American lawyer, magazine publisher (George) and son of JFK, born in NYC, New York

Publisher and Lawyer John F. Kennedy Jr.
Publisher and Lawyer
John F. Kennedy Jr.
  • 1970 Saskia Sibilo, Miss Suriname (1990)
  • 1972 Alessandro Michele, Italian fashion designer (Gucci), born in Rome, Italy
  • 1979 Michael Lehan, American National Football League player
  • 1980 Kushan Liyanarachchi, Sri Lankan, prominent Live Buddhism Practitioner

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1981 Barbara and Jenna Bush, twin daughters of U.S. President George W. Bush, born in Dallas, Texas

Twin daughter of US President George W. Bush Barbara Pierce Bush
Twin daughter of US President George W. Bush
Barbara Pierce Bush
  • 1981 Mauricio Rua, Brazilian Mixed Martial Artist
  • 1983 Joey Chestnut, American champion competitive eater
  • 1986 Amber Hagerman, American kidnapping and murder victim, basis of the Amber Alert system (d. 1996)
  • 1990 Yasmin van der Meer, 15 millionth Netherlander

Weddings in History

HeartWedding of Interest

1795 US President William Henry Harrison (22) weds Anna Symmes (20) in North Bend, Ohio

9th US President William Henry Harrison
9th US President
William Henry Harrison

HeartWedding of Interest

1908 Vaudeville performer Will Rogers (29) weds Betty Blake

Humorist Will Rogers
Will Rogers
  • 1913 28th US President Woodrow Wilson's daughter Jessie marries in The White House

HeartWedding of Interest

1991 Author Douglas Adams (39) weds Jane Belson

Deaths in History

  • 311 Peter of Alexandria, Christian martyr
  • 992 Mieszko I, Polish advisor to Pope John XV, dies
  • 1120 William Adelin, son and heir of Henry I of England (b. 1104) dies in White Ship tragedy trying to save his illegitimate half-sister Countess of Perche while crossing the English Channel
  • 1326 Prince Koreyasu, Japanese shogun (b. 1264)
  • 1374 Philip II of Taranto, Titular emperor of Costantinople (b. 1329)
  • 1456 Jacques Coeur, French merchant/banker, dies in battle
  • 1560 Andrea Doria, Italian naval leader (b. 1466)
  • 1686 Nicolas Steno, Danish geologist (b. 1638)
  • 1694 Ismael Bullialdus, French astronomer (b. 1605)
  • 1700 Stephanus Van Cortlandt, American politician (b. 1643)
  • 1748 Isaac Watts, British hymnwriter (b. 1674)
  • 1785 Richard Glover, British poet (b. 1712)
  • 1803 Joseph Wilton, English sculptor (Westminster Abbey), dies at 83
  • 1854 John G Lockhart, [scorpion], English biographer, dies at 60
  • 1865 Heinrich Barth, German historian/geographer (Central Africa), dies
  • 1881 Theobald Boehm, German inventor of the modern flute (b. 1794)
  • 1885 Alfonso XII, king of Spain (1874-85), dies at 27
  • 1885 Thomas A. Hendricks, 21st US Vice President (D), dies 8 months after taking office at 66
  • 1887 Johann J Bachofen, Swiss historic rights, dies at 71
  • 1903 Harriet Hubbard Ayer, American cosmetics manufacturer and columnist, dies at 54
  • 1913 Robert S Ball, Irish mathematician/astronomer (Ball Screw), dies
  • 1923 Ernst Debes, German cartographer (Moon Atlas), dies at 83
  • 1939 Wilfred Trotter, English surgeon who was a pioneer in neurosurgery, popularized the concept of herd instinct, and was an authority in cancers of the head and neck, dies at 67
  • 1941 Pedro Aguirre Cerda, president Chili (People's Front), dies
  • 1947 Léon-Paul Fargue, French poet (b. 1876)
  • 1948 Kanbun Uechi, karate master (b. 1877)
  • 1950 Johannes Vilhelm Jensen, Danish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1873)
  • 1950 Gustaf John Ramstedt, Finland-Swedish linguist and diplomat (b. 1873)
  • 1951 Raden Mas Noto Suroto, Indonesian poet (Wayang Songs), dies at 63
  • 1958 Charles F. Kettering, American inventor (auto self-starter), dies at 82
  • 1967 Ossip Zadkine, [Zadkin], Russ sculptor (Destroyed City), dies at 77

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1968 Upton Beall Sinclair, US author (Jungle), dies at 90

  • 1968 Paul Siple, American explorer of the Antarctic. (b. 1908)
  • 1970 Yukio Mishima, Japanese author/nationalist (Harakiri), dies at 45
  • 1972 Hans H B Scharoun, German architect (Berlin Philharmonic), dies at 79
  • 1972 Henri Coandă, Romanian aerodynamics pioneer (b. 1886)
  • 1973 Albert DeSalvo, Boston strangler, stabbed to death in prison
  • 1974 U Thant, Burmese politician and 3rd Secretary-General of the United Nations (1961-72), dies in NY of cancer at 65
  • 1978 Elaine Esposito, American woman who held record for longest coma (37 years), dies in a coma at 43
  • 1985 Franz Hildebrandt, German Theologian(b. 1909)
  • 1985 Elsa Morante, Italian writer, dies at 73
  • 1987 Anton F Pieck, illustrator (1001 Nights), dies at 92
  • 1987 Harold Washington, 1st African American mayor of Chicago (D, 1983-87), dies at 65
  • 1989 Alva R. Fitch, American World War II and Korean soldier (b. 1907)
  • 1991 Eleanor Audley, voice (Wicked Stepmother-Cinderella), dies at 86
  • 1994 Arthur Ballard, artist, dies at 79
  • 1994 Gerard John Toorenaar, Amsterdam police commissar, dies at 69
  • 1995 Ambrose Thibodeaux, cajun accordionist, dies at 92
  • 1996 Hugh Joseph Charles James L'Etang, medical writer, dies at 79
  • 1996 Michael Economides, restaurateur, dies at 86
  • 1996 Richard Stubbs, publicity adviser, dies at 87
  • 1997 Hastings Kamuzu Band, PM/President of Malawi (1964-66/66-94), dies
  • 1998 Nelson Goodman, American philosopher (b. 1906)
  • 2001 Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi, Muslim Sufi, author, spiritual leader (b. 1941)
  • 2002 Karel Reisz, Czech theater director (b. 1926)
  • 2005 Richard Burns, English WRC champion (b. 1971)
  • 2006 Sean Bell, American shooting victim (b. 1983)
  • 2006 Luciano Bottaro, Italian comic book artist (b. 1931)
  • 2006 Kenneth M. Taylor, American pilot (b. 1919)
  • 2010 Bernard Matthews, British poultry industry figure (b. 1930)
  • 2010 Alfred Balk, American magazine editor and journalist (b. 1930)
  • 2010 C. Scott Littleton, American anthropologist and academic (b. 1933)
  • 2011 Tom Wicker, American journalist and author, dies at 85
  • 2012 Lars Hörmander, Swedish mathematician, dies at 81

Person of interestPerson of Interest

2016 Fidel Castro, Cuban revolutionary, Prime Minister (1959-76) and President (1976-2008), dies at 90

Cuban Revolutionary and President Fidel Castro
Cuban Revolutionary and President
Fidel Castro