On This Day

On This Day in History for October 23

Events in History

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

42 BC Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi - Brutus's army is decisively defeated by Mark Antony and Octavian. Brutus commits suicide.

Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar
Roman Emperor
Augustus Caesar
Roman Politician and General Mark Antony
Roman Politician and General
Mark Antony
Roman Poet Horace
Roman Poet
  • 425 Valentinian III is elevated to Roman Emperor, at the age of 6
  • 502 The Synodus Palmaris, called by Gothic king Theodoric the Great, discharges Pope Symmachus of all charges, thus ending the schism of Antipope Laurentius.
  • 585 Burgundy king Guntram opens synod of Mâcon (Mastico)
  • 787 Byzantine empress Irene recovers Iconoclastic cult at Nicaea
  • 1086 Battle of az-Zallaqah: Almoravid army of Yusuf ibn Tashfin defeats the forces of Castilian King Alfonso VI
  • 1091 Tornado (possible T8/F4) strikes the heart of London killing two and demolishing the wooden London Bridge (OS 17 Oct)
  • 1157 The Battle of Grathe Heath ends the civil war in Denmark. King Sweyn III is killed and Valdemar I restores the country.
  • 1229 Otto II becomes earl of Gelre

CrownRoyal Coronation

1520 King Carlos I crowned German emperor Charles V

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V
  • 1588 Remnants of Medina Sidonia's Spanish Armada returns to Santander
  • 1641 Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 - Catholic uprising in Ulster

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1642 Battle of Edgehill (Warwickshire): King Charles I beat English parliamentarian forces

King of England Charles I
King of England
Charles I
  • 1644 Sea battle of Fehmarn Sont: Adm Thijssen beats Denen
  • 1668 Jews of Barbados forbidden to engage in retail trade
  • 1679 Meal Tub Plot against James Duke of York (future James II of England)
  • 1684 Colony Massachusetts under authority of English crown mounted
  • 1690 Revolt in Haarlem after public ban on smoking
  • 1694 American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phipps, fail to seize Quebec
  • 1702 Battle of Bay of Vigo: Dutch & English fleet destroy & occupy Spanish silver fleet & French squadron

BattleDeclaration of War

1739 War of Jenkins' Ear starts: British Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, reluctantly declares war on Spain

1st British Prime Minister Robert Walpole
1st British Prime Minister
Robert Walpole
  • 1760 First Jewish prayer books printed in North America
  • 1790 Slaves revolt in Haiti (later suppressed)
  • 1805 Sailing ship "Aeneus" sinks off Newfoundland killing 340

BattleCoup d'état

1812 Failed coup against French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte

French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte
French Emperor
Napoléon Bonaparte
  • 1813 The Pacific Fur Company trading post in Astoria, Oregon is turned over to the rival British North West Company (the fur trade in the Pacific Northwest was dominated for the next three decades by the United Kingdom).
  • 1814 1st plastic surgery is performed (England)
  • 1819 1st ship sails through the Erie Canal from Rome, New York to Utica, New York
  • 1853 Maastricht-Aken railway in Netherlands opens
  • 1854 English newspaper "The Times" gives precise British positions in Crimea during Crimean War
  • 1864 Battle of Westport, Missouri: Union General Samuel R Curtis defeats Confederate General Stirling Price
  • 1867 72 Senators are summoned by Royal Proclamation to serve as the first members of the Canadian Senate.
  • 1876 New Orleans Mint reopens as an assay office
  • 1888 Pelham Bay Park in Bronx vested
  • 1893 C. Dazey's "In Old Kentucky" premieres in NYC (27 seasons)
  • 1905 Edward Milton Royle's play "Squaw Man" premieres in NYC
  • 1910 Blanche Scott becomes the first woman to fly at a public event in the US at Fort Wayne, Indiana.
  • 1910 Ritz Hotel in Madrid opens with 200 chambers and 100 bathtubs

Declaration of WarItalo-Turkish War

1911 1st aerial reconnaissance mission is flown by an Italian pilot over Turkish lines during the Italo-Turkish War

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Italian airships bomb Turkish positions. The Italo-Turkish War was the first conflict to feature aerial bombardment.
Italian airships bomb Turkish positions. The Italo-Turkish War was the first conflict to feature aerial bombardment.
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  • 1915 1st national horseshoe throwing championship (Kellerton, Iowa)

Historic CommunicationWomen's Suffrage March on Fifth Ave, New York

1915 An estimated 25,000 supporters in a women's suffrage march on New York's Fifth Ave, led by Dr. Anna Shaw and Carrie Chapman Catt, founder of the League of Women Voters

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25,000 women march in New York City demanding right to vote
25,000 women march in New York City demanding right to vote
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  • 1917 1st Infantry division "Big Red One" shoots 1st US shot in WW I
  • 1920 African demonstrators shot in Port Elizabeth, South Africa
  • 1922 Channing Pollock's "Fool" premieres in NYC

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1922 Conservative Andrew Bonar Law forms government in United Kingdom, replacing David Lloyd George's Liberal government

British Prime Minister Bonar Law
British Prime Minister
Bonar Law
British Prime Minister David Lloyd George
British Prime Minister
David Lloyd George
  • 1927 Town of Netanya Israel founded by Nathan Strauss
  • 1932 "Fred Allen Show" premieres on radio

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1933 John Dillinger and his gang rob Central National Bank, in Greencastle, Indiana. They take $75, 000

Gangster John Dillinger
John Dillinger
FBI Agent Melvin Purvis
FBI Agent
Melvin Purvis
  • 1934 Jean Piccard & Jeanette Ridlen attain balloon height of 17.341 m (rec)
  • 1935 Gabby Hartnett selected NL MVP
  • 1935 Dutch Schultz, Abe Landau, Otto Berman, and Bernard "Lulu" Rosencrantz are fatally shot at a saloon in Newark, New Jersey in what will become known as The Chophouse Massacre.

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

1935 Mackenzie King is elected as Prime Minister of Canada for the third time

10th Prime Minister of Canada Mackenzie King
10th Prime Minister of Canada
Mackenzie King
  • 1942 First ships of invasion fleet to Morocco leave Norfolk
  • 1942 During WWII, Britain launches major offensive at El Alamein, Egypt
  • 1942 German units go through Red October-factory in Stalingrad
  • 1943 First Jewish transport out of Rome reaches camp Birkenau
  • 1944 First Central Kitchen opens in Amsterdam
  • 1944 Gulf of Leyte battle begin
  • 1944 Soviet army invades Hungary
  • 1944 Vice Admiral Takeo Kurita's flagship the heavy cruiser Atago sinks during the Battle of Leyte Gulf
  • 1946 UN General Assembly 2nd session convenes (1st NYC-Flushing Meadows)
  • 1947 NAACP petition on racism "An Appeal to the World" presented to UN
  • 1947 Husband & wife Dr Carl Cori & Dr Gerty Cori are 1st spouses to be awarded joint Nobel Prizes

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1950 Filipino President Elpidio Quirino issues Executive Order No. 355 replacing the National Land Settlement Administration with Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO)

6th President of the Philippines Elpidio Quirino
6th President of the Philippines
Elpidio Quirino

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1951 English chemist Rosalind Franklin first identifies the two types of carbon produced by temperature, in paper published by the Royal Society [1]

Chemist and Molecular Biologist Rosalind Franklin
Chemist and Molecular Biologist
Rosalind Franklin
  • 1953 France grants Laos' sovereignty
  • 1953 German FR applies to NATO
  • 1954 Britain, France & US agree to end occupation of Germany
  • 1954 Pakistan Governor-General Ghoelan Mohammed disbands parliament
  • 1956 Thousands of Hungarians protest against the government and Soviet occupation. (The Hungarian Revolution is crushed on November 4).
  • 1957 First test firing of Vanguard satellite launch vehicle, TV-3
  • 1958 De Gaulle offers Algerians defiance "peace of the brave"

Nobel prizeNobel Prize

1958 Soviet novelist Boris Pasternak, wins Nobel Prize for Literature

Novelist & Poet Boris Pasternak
Novelist & Poet
Boris Pasternak
  • 1958 USSR lends money to UAR to build Aswan High Dam
  • 1958 The Springhill Mine Bump - underground earthquake traps 174 miners in No. 2 colliery at Springhill, Nova Scotia, deepest coal mine in North America. By 1st November rescuers had dug out 100 victims, with death toll at 74.
  • 1959 Chinese troops move into India, 17 die
  • 1961 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR

United Nations <b>Speech</b>United Nations Speech

1962 Adlai Stevenson speaks at the United Nations about the Cuba crisis

US Governor and Presidential Candidate Adlai Stevenson II
US Governor and Presidential Candidate
Adlai Stevenson II
  • 1962 USAF Major Robert A Rushworth takes X-15 to 40,800m

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1963 Neil Simon's "Barefoot in the Park" premieres in NYC

Playwright and screenwriter Neil Simon
Playwright and screenwriter
Neil Simon
  • 1964 Time Magazine uses term "op art" for 1st time
  • 1970 Gary Gabelich sets auto speed record 622.4 mph (1,001 kph)
  • 1970 Charles Haughey and two others are found not guilty of illegal arms importation by a Dublin jury; the 'Arms Trial' began on 28 May 1970
  • 1971 Two female members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) are shot dead by the British Army in the Lower Falls area of Belfast
  • 1971 Three Catholic civilians are shot dead by the British Army during an attempted robbery in Newry, County Down
  • 1972 Access credit cards introduced in Great Britain
  • 1972 Loyalist paramilitaries carry out raid on an Ulster Defence Regiment

AgreementAgreement of Interest

1973 Richard Nixon agrees to turn over White House tape recordings to Judge John Sirica

US Federal Judge John Sirica
US Federal Judge
John Sirica
37th US President Richard Nixon
37th US President
Richard Nixon
  • 1973 UN's revised International Telecommunication Convention adopted
  • 1973 Arab oil embargo extended to the Netherlands
  • 1974 Lake Isaac in Cleveland Metroparks' Big Creek Reservation dedicated
  • 1975 Battle between Cuba & South Africa troops in Angola
  • 1975 Islander Glenn Resch's 5th shut-out opponent-Flyers 3-0
  • 1975 Women take the day off in Iceland to commemorate “International Women’s Year”, shutting the country down for a day
  • 1977 Panamanians vote 2:1 to approve new Canal treaties
  • 1977 Paleontologist Elso Barghoorn announces discovery of a 3.4-billion year old one-celled fossil, one of the earliest life forms on Earth
  • 1978 China & Japan formally ends 4 decades of dissension
  • 1980 Soviet PM Nikolai Tichonov succeeds Alexei Kosygin, due to illness
  • 1981 US national debt hits $1 trillion
  • 1983 400,000 demonstrate in Brussels, against cruise missile

Birthdays in History

Person of interestMarcus Agrippa

63 BC Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Roman general (Battle of Actium) (or 64 BC), born in an uncertain location but possibly in Arpino, Istria or Asisium (d. 12 BC)

Roman General Marcus Agrippa
Roman General
Marcus Agrippa
  • 1503 Isabella of Portugal, Queen of Spain and empress of Germany, born in Lisbon, Portugal (d. 1539)
  • 1516 Charlotte of Valois, Princess of France as second daughter of King Francis I and his wife Claude, born in Château d'Amboise, France (d. 1524)
  • 1543 Juan de la Cueva, Spanish dramatist, born in Sevilla, Spain (d. 1612)
  • 1634 Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, Queen of Sweden by marriage to Charles X Gustav of Sweden (1654-60) (d. 1715)
  • 1698 Ange-Jacques Gabriel, French court architect (Palace de la Concorde), born in Paris (d. 1782)
  • 1705 Maximilian Ulysses Count Browne, Austrian field marshal, born in Basel, Switzerland (d. 1757)
  • 1713 Pieter Burman the Younger, Dutch philologist, born in Amsterdam, Netherlands (d. 1778)
  • 1715 Peter II Alexeyevich, Tsar of Russia (1727-30), born in Saint Petersburg, Russia (d. 1730)
  • 1762 Samuel Morey, American inventor (early internal combustion engines and was a pioneer in steamships), born in Hebron, Connecticut (d. 1843)
  • 1766 Emmanuel, marquis de Grouchy, French general and marshal, born in Paris (d. 1847)
  • 1767 H Benjamin Constant [de Rebeque], French politician/writer
  • 1771 Jean-Andoche Junot, French general (d. 1813)
  • 1788 Sarah Hale, founder (Seaman's Aid Society of Boston)
  • 1790 Chauncey Allen Goodrich, American clergyman (d. 1860)
  • 1796 Stefano Franscini, Swiss Federal Councilor (d. 1857)
  • 1797 John J Rochussen, governor-general of Dutch-Indies (1845-51)
  • 1805 Adalbert Stifter, Austrian author (Nachsommer)
  • 1805 John Russell Bartlett, American linguist (d. 1886)
  • 1810 William Leidesdorff, Mixed-race early Californian businessman, born in Christiansted, Virgin Islands, Danish West Indies (d. 1848)

Person of interestLudwig Leichhardt

1813 Ludwig Leichhardt, German explorer of inland Australia, born in Trebatsch, Prussia (d. c. 1848)

Explorer and Naturalist Ludwig Leichhardt
Explorer and Naturalist
Ludwig Leichhardt
  • 1815 João Maurício Wanderley, Brazilian magistrate and politician (d. 1889)
  • 1817 Pierre Athanase Larousse, French lexicographer (d. 1875)
  • 1820 James Monroe Goggin, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1889)
  • 1824 Thomas Gamble Pitcher, American Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Rockport, Indiana (d. 1895)
  • 1828 Turner Ashby, Brigadier General (Confederate Army), (d. 1862)
  • 1835 Adlai Stevenson, (D) 23rd VP (1893-97)
  • 1844 Robert Bridges, English poet (Testament of beauty) and British Poet Laureate (1913-30), born in Walmer, Kent (d. 1930)
  • 1852 Jean-Louis Forain, French etcher/lithographer
  • 1865 Neltje Blanchan, American writer (d. 1918)
  • 1868 Frederick Lanchester,, English Engineer who built the first British petrol automobile (1896), born in London, England
  • 1870 Francis Kelley, Catholic Bishop of Oklahoma (d. 1948)
  • 1873 William D. Coolidge, American physicist and inventor (d. 1975)
  • 1875 Gilbert N. Lewis, American chemist (d. 1946)
  • 1876 Franz Schlegelberger, German judge and politician (d. 1970)
  • 1885 Lawren Harris, Canadian painter (d. 1970)
  • 1888 Onésime Gagnon, Canadian politician (d. 1961)
  • 1893 Ernest Julius Öpik, Kunda, Estonian Astronomer and Astrophysicist known for his studies of meteors and the structure and evolution of the cosmos
  • 1896 André Lévêque, French engineer (d. 1930)
  • 1905 Felix Bloch, Swiss/US nuclear physicist (Nobel 1952)
  • 1908 Ilya Mikhaylovich Frank, Russian Physicist and Nobel Laureate (Cherenkov radiation), born in Saint Petersburg, Russia (d. 1990
  • 1909 Zellig S. Harris, Russian-American linguist, born in Balta, Russia (d. 1992)
  • 1914 Dick Durrance, American skier, born in Tarpon Springs, Florida (d. 2004)
  • 1919 Manolis Andronikos, Greek archaeologist who discovered ancient royal Macedonian tombs in northern Greece, born in Bursa, Ottoman Empire (d. 1992)
  • 1920 Ted Fujita, Japanese meteorologist (d. 1998)
  • 1921 Tom Manders, Dutch cabaret artist (Dorus)
  • 1922 Stuart Sloan, war hero/test pilot
  • 1927 Edward Kienholz, US sculptor (Roxy)
  • 1927 Leszek Kolakowski, Polish philosopher (Conversations with the Devil)
  • 1932 Vasily Belov, Northern Krai, USSR, author (Business as Usual, Everything's Ahead), (d. 2012)
  • 1936 Philip Kaufman, director (Right Stuff, Henry & June)
  • 1938 John Heinz, American businessman and Republican politician (Senator from Pennsylvania, 1977-1991), born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (d. 1991)
  • 1941 Igor Smirnov, Moldovan politician
  • 1942 Anita Roddick, English businesswoman and cosmetic manufacturer (Body Shop), born in Littlehampton, West Sussex (d. 2007) [1]

Person of interestMichael Crichton

1942 Michael Crichton, novelist (Andromeda Strain, Congo, Looker), born in Chicago, Illinois (d. 2008)

  • 1946 Mel Martinez, American politician
  • 1948 Hermann Hauser, Austrian-born entrepreneur
  • 1949 Nick Tosches, American writer
  • 1951 Fatmir Sejdiu, President of Kosovo
  • 1957 Paul Kagame, Rwandan leader, head of Rwandan Patriotic Front, President of Rwanda (2000-), born in Tambwe, Ruanda-Urundi
  • 1958 Michael Eric Dyson, American activist, professor, author
  • 1960 Randy Pausch, American computer science professor, author
  • 1961 Laurie Halse Anderson, American writer
  • 1962 Daria Scagliola, Italian/Dutch photographer (vuurtorenpostzegels)
  • 1965 Augusten Burroughs [Christopher Richter Robison], American writer (Running with Scissors), born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • 1970 Grant Imahara, American TV Mythbuster
  • 1974 Derek Landy, Lusk, Irish author (Skulduggery Pleasant series)
  • 1983 Josh Strickland, American entertainer
  • 1985 James Kotecki, American political blogger
  • 1991 Princess Mako of Akishino of Japan

Weddings in History

LoveWedding of Interest

1938 SS Officer Amon Göth (29) weds Anny Geiger on a civil ceremony

SS Officer Amon Göth
SS Officer
Amon Göth

LoveWedding of Interest

1943 55th UK Prime Minister David Lloyd George (80) weds second wife Frances Stevenson

British Prime Minister David Lloyd George
British Prime Minister
David Lloyd George
  • 1996 American caricaturist Al Hirshfeld (93) weds Louise Kerz

Deaths in History

Person of interestMarcus Junius Brutus

42 BC Marcus Junius Brutus, Roman senator and the most famous of the assassins of Julius Caesar, commits suicide at about 42/43 (b. 85 BC)

Roman Republican Politician Marcus Junius Brutus
Roman Republican Politician
Marcus Junius Brutus
  • 930 Daigo, 60th Emperor of Japan (897-930), dies at 45
  • 1260 Koetoez, Turkish sultan of Egypt, murdered
  • 1456 Saint John of Capistrano, Franciscan friar and Catholic priest from the Italian town of Capestrano, Abruzzo, dies at 70
  • 1550 Tiedemann Giese, Polish Catholic bishop (b. 1480)
  • 1581 Michael Neander, German mathematician and astronomer, dies at 52
  • 1602 Franciscus Junius, French-Dutch calvinist theologist and vicar, dies at 57
  • 1616 Leonhard Hutter, German theologian (b. 1563)
  • 1688 Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange, French philologist (b. 1610)
  • 1764 Emmanuel-Auguste de Cahideuc, Comte Dubois de la Motte, French naval officer (b. 1683)
  • 1774 Michel Benoist, French Jesuit missionary and scientist, dies at 59
  • 1799 William Paca, American judge and signer (Declaration of Independence), dies at 58
  • 1856 Alexander Ross, Canadian fur trader, dies at 73
  • 1868 Cullen Whipple, American inventor (pointed screw machine), dies at 67

Person of interestEdward Smith-Stanley

1869 Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, British Prime Minister (Conservative: 1852, 1858-59, 1866-68), dies at 70

British Prime Minister Edward Smith-Stanley
British Prime Minister
Edward Smith-Stanley
  • 1872 Théophile Gautier, French writer, historian and poet (Albertus, La Chanson de Roland, Émaux et camées), dies at 61
  • 1874 Abraham Geiger, German theologian and leader of Reform Judaism, dies at 64
  • 1885 Charles S. West, American jurist and politician, dies at 56
  • 1890 Charles Verlat, Flemish painter, dies at 65
  • 1892 Emin Pasha, German explorer and governor (Equatoria), murdered at 52
  • 1899 W Penn Symons, British gen-maj, dies in battle
  • 1901 Georg von Siemens, founder (Deutsche Bank), dies
  • 1903 Francis Ellingwood Abbot, American theologian (Scientific Theism), dies at 66
  • 1910 Rama V [Chulalongkorn], King of Thailand (1868-1910), dies at 57
  • 1913 Edwin Klebs, German physician and bacteriologist (bacterial theory of infection, diphtheria bacillus), dies at 79
  • 1921 John B Dunlop, Scottish inventor air tire (Dunlop Rubber), dies at 81
  • 1928 François Victor Alphonse Aulard, French historian, dies at 79
  • 1929 Thomas Frederick Tout, British historian (Manch school of historiography), dies at 74
  • 1935 Abe Landau, American gangster, murdered
  • 1935 Dutch Schultz [Arthur Flegenheimer], American gangster, murdered at 33
  • 1935 Otto "Aba Daba" Berman, American gangster, murdered
  • 1939 Zane Grey, American western writer (Spirit of the Border), dies at 67
  • 1942 Georg Stumme, German general/commandant of African corps, dies
  • 1944 Hana Brady, Jewish Czech Holocaust victim (Hanna's Suitcase), dies at 13
  • 1944 Charles Glover Barkla, English physicist (1917 Nobel Prize for Physics for X-ray scattering), dies at 67
  • 1953 Maurice Lugeon, Swiss geologist (nappism), dies at 83

Person of interestChristian Dior

1957 Christian Dior, French fashion designer (New Look), dies of a heart attack at 52

Fashion Designer Christian Dior
Fashion Designer
Christian Dior
  • 1986 Edward A Doisy Sr, American bio-chemist (Vitamin K1, Nobel 1943), dies at 92
  • 1990 Louis Althusser, French philosopher, dies
  • 1991 Lance Baker, dies at 31
  • 1992 Kees Spermon, Dutch painter and graphic artist, dies
  • 1996 Diana Trilling, writer, dies at 91
  • 1996 Lin Onus, Australian Aboriginal artist (Michael and I are just slipping down to the pub for a minute), dies at 47
  • 1996 Ronald Alfred Gardyne "Rags" Butler, sailor, dies at 68
  • 1997 Luther George Simjian, Turkish-American Inventor (teleprompter and first self-posing portrait camera), dies at 92
  • 1998 Barnett Slepian, American physician, murdered by anti-abortionist James Charles Kopp at 52
  • 2001 Ronald William Kirby, British artist, dies at 72
  • 2002 Elizabeth Pakenham, Countess of Longford, British historian, dies at 96

Person of interestSoong Mei-ling

2003 Soong Mei-ling [Madame Chiang Kai-shek], Chinese political figure and First Lady of the Republic of China (1948-75), dies at 106

First Lady of the Republic of China Soong Mei-ling
First Lady of the Republic of China
Soong Mei-ling
  • 2005 Stella Obasanjo, Nigerian first lady (b. 1945)
  • 2005 John Muth, American economist (b. 1930)
  • 2006 Lebo Mathosa, South African entertainer (b. 1977)
  • 2007 John Ilhan, Australian entrepreneur, Crazy John's mobile phones (b. 1965)
  • 2007 Lim Goh Tong, Founder of Genting Group (b. 1918)
  • 2010 Leo Cullum, American cartoonist (The New Yorker), dies at 68
  • 2013 Bill Mazer, American sports broadcaster (New York institution in sports reporting; sports trivia expert), dies at 92
  • 2016 Tom Hayden, American civil rights and antiwar activist and politician (Rep-D-Ca), dies at 76
  • 2016 Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani, Emir of Qatar (1972-95), dies at 84
  • 2020 David Barnes, New Zealand sailor (470 world champion 1981, 83, 84), dies from multiple sclerosis at 62