On This Day

On This Day in History for September 20

Events in History

  • 368 Emperor Valentinianus visits Nijmegen

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

451 Roman General Flavius Aetius defeats Attila the Hun at The Battle of the Catalaunian Plains (Chalons-sur-Marne), halting Hun invasion of Roman Gaul

Roman General Flavius Aetius
Roman General
Flavius Aetius
  • 622 Islamic Prophet Muhammed/Abu Bakr arrives in Jathrib (Medina)
  • 1066 Battle of Fulford, Yorkshire: Harald III Hardrada of Norway defeats Northern Saxon Earls Edwin and Morcar

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1187 Saladin begins the Siege of Jerusalem.

1st Sultan of Egypt and Syria Saladin
1st Sultan of Egypt and Syria
Saladin
  • 1258 Salisbury Cathedral inaugurated
  • 1378 Robert de Geneve, "butcher of Cesena" crowned anti-pope Clemens VII

DiscoveryHistoric Expedition

1519 Spanish expedition led by Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan sets off on the 1st successful circumnavigation of the globe (Magellan killed on route)

  • 1530 Luther advises protestant monarch compromise
  • 1565 Spaniards capture Fort Caroline Florida & massacre the French
  • 1596 Diego de Montemayor founded the city of Monterrey in New Spain.
  • 1602 Spanish held city of Grave surrenders to Maurice of Orange during Eighty Years' War
  • 1604 Spanish army under Spinola recaptures Oostende

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1620 Battle at Jassy: Turks beat king Sigismund III of Poland

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1643 First Battle of Newbury (English civil war): King Charles I's forces beaten by a parliamentary army led by the Earl of Essex and Philip Stapleton

King of England Charles I
King of England
Charles I
  • 1664 Maryland passes 1st anti-amalgamation law to stop intermarriage of English women & black men

  • 1674 2nd West Indies Company forms
  • 1688 French troops occupies Palts
  • 1697 Peace of Saki (ends 9 years war)
  • 1737 Runner Edward Marshall completes his journey in the Walking Purchase forcing the cession of 1.2 million acres (4,860 km²) of Lenape-Delaware tribal land to the Pennsylvania Colony

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1746 Bonnie Prince Charlie flees to France from Scotland

Pretender to the British throne Bonnie Prince Charlie
Pretender to the British throne
Bonnie Prince Charlie

BattleBattle of Interest

1777 Battle of Paoli; British forces under Major General Charles Grey attacks Brigadier General Anthony Wayne's encampment. Claims the British gave no quarter leads to engagement becoming known as the "Paoli Massacre"

Military Leader Anthony Wayne
Military Leader
Anthony Wayne
  • 1787 Prince Willem V returns to Hague
  • 1792 French defeat Prussians at Valmy
  • 1793 British troops under Major-general Williamson lands on (French) Haiti
  • 1814 "Star Spangled Banner" published as a song, lyrics by Francis Scott Key, tune by John Stafford Smith
  • 1830 1st Negro Convention of Free Men agree to boycott slave-produced goods

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1833 Charles Darwin arrives in Buenos Aires after travelling through the Argentine interior with guachos

Naturalist Charles Darwin
Naturalist
Charles Darwin
  • 1835 Farroupilha's Revolution begins in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
  • 1839 1st railroad in Netherland opens (Amsterdam-Haarlem)
  • 1848 The American Association for the Advancement of Science is created.
  • 1850 Slave trade abolished in DC, but slavery allowed to continue

Battle of InterestBattle of the Alma

1854 Battle of the Alma: first major battle of Crimean War. British and French alliance defeat the Russians

Learn More
2nd Rifle Brigade leading the Light Division across the river at the Battle of the Alma on September 20, 1854 during the Crimean War
2nd Rifle Brigade leading the Light Division across the river at the Battle of the Alma on September 20, 1854 during the Crimean War
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  • 1859 George Simpson patents electric range
  • 1860 First British royalty to visit US, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII)
  • 1861 Battle of Lexington, MI-captured by Union

  • 1863 Battle of Shepardstown VA

BattleBattle of Interest

1863 US Civil War Battle of Chickamauga, near Chattanooga, Tennessee ends with a Union withdrawal

Union General Gordon Granger
Union General
Gordon Granger
  • 1870 Capture of Rome by Italian army, Pope Pius IX surrenders to King Victor Emmanuel which unifies Italy and ends 1,116 year reign of Papal States

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1870 Mayor William Tweed accused of robbing NY treasury

Politician and Businessman Boss Tweed
Politician and Businessman
Boss Tweed
  • 1871 Bishop John Coleridge Patteson martyred on the island of Nukapu, a Polynesian outlier island now in the Temotu province of the Solomon Islands. He was the first bishop of Melanesia.
  • 1873 Panic sweeps NY Stock Exchange (railroad bond default/bank failure) NY shut banks for 10 days due to a bank scandal
  • 1877 Chase National Bank opens in NYC (later merges into Chase Manhattan)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1879 Ulysses S. Grant and family go to SF for elaborate extended visit

Union General and US President Ulysses S. Grant
Union General and US President
Ulysses S. Grant

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1881 Chester A. Arthur sworn in as 21st president

21st US President Chester A. Arthur
21st US President
Chester A. Arthur
  • 1884 6.2 mile Arlberg railroad tunnel completed in Austria
  • 1884 Equal Rights Party nominates female candidates for US President and Vice President
  • 1893 The first gasoline-powered car debuts in Springfield, Massachusetts
  • 1904 George Ade's "College Widow," premieres in NYC

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1904 Orville & Wilbur Wright fly a circle in their Flyer II

Aviator Wilbur Wright
Aviator
Wilbur Wright
  • 1905 Cleveland makes AL record 7 errors in an inning
  • 1906 Cunard Line's RMS Mauretania is launched at the Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson shipyard in Newcastle, England.
  • 1909 The British Parliament passes the South Africa Act; it calls for union of Cape Colony, Natal, Orange River Colony, and Transvaal; and both English and Dutch as official languages
  • 1914 John Redmond urges Irish Volunteers to enlist in the British Army
  • 1917 British assault on Polygon Forest, France
  • 1917 Paraguay becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
  • 1918 Royal Dutch Blast furnace & Steel factory opens in Hague
  • 1919 Booth Tarkington's "Clarence," premieres in NYC
  • 1920 Foundation of the Spanish Legion.
  • 1922 Rogers Hornsby ends hitting streak of 33 games

MurderAssassination Attempt

1926 Bugs Moran attempts to assassinate Al Capone in a drive-by shooting but fails

Gangster Bugs Moran
Gangster
Bugs Moran
Gangster Al Capone
Gangster
Al Capone
  • 1930 Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is formed by Archbishop Mar Ivanios.
  • 1932 Dutch South Seas rebaptized in IJsselmeer

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1932 Gandhi begins hunger strike against treatment of untouchables

Pacifist and Spiritual Leader Mahatma Gandhi
Pacifist and Spiritual Leader
Mahatma Gandhi
  • 1935 Pitts Crawfords beat NY Cubans to win Negro NL Championship, 3-0
  • 1938 Emlyn Williams' "Corn is Green," premieres in London
  • 1939 British navy captures German U-27 boat
  • 1942 Gunther Hagg becomes world champ of all records from 1500m to 5000m
  • 1943 Liberator bomber sinks U-338
  • 1944 Nijmegen is liberated from German occupation
  • 1944 Polish forces free Terneuzen Neth
  • 1945 German rocket engineers begin work in US
  • 1946 Churchill argues for a 'United States of Europe'
  • 1949 Dutch Guilder devalued 30.3%
  • 1951 1st North Pole jet crossing
  • 1951 NL President Ford Frick elected 3rd commissioner of baseball
  • 1951 Swiss males votes against female suffrage
  • 1954 1st FORTRAN computer program run
  • 1954 1st National People's Congress adopts Chinese constitution
  • 1954 Los Stravinsky's "In Memoriam Dylan Thomas," premieres in Angeles
  • 1954 New Zealand's Special Committee on Moral Delinquency in Children and Adolescents reports just ten days after concluding hearings.
  • 1958 Ferhat Abbas forms Algerian government in exile (Cairo)
  • 1958 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
  • 1960 UN General Assembly admit 13 African countries & Cyprus (96 nations)
  • 1961 After 84 1/3 innings Bill Fischer gives up a base on balls
  • 1961 African-American student James Meredith is refused enrolment to the segregated University of Mississippi
  • 1961 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
  • 1962 Ben Bella wins 1st elections in independent Algeria
  • 1962 Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett refuses to admit an African-American, James Meredith, to Mississippi University

DiscoveryVoyage of Discovery

1963 JFK proposes a joint US-Soviet voyage to the moon

35th US President John F. Kennedy
35th US President
John F. Kennedy

Music releaseTheater Premiere

1964 Günter Grass' play "Die Plebejern proben den Aufstand," premieres in Berlin

Writer and playwright Günter Grass
Writer and playwright
Günter Grass
  • 1966 US Surveyor B launched toward Moon; crashed Sept 23
  • 1967 Benin separates from Nigeria

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1967 British liner Queen Elizabeth II launched at Clydebank Scotland

Queen of the United Kingdom Elizabeth II
Queen of the United Kingdom
Elizabeth II
  • 1967 Hurricane Beulah hits Texas-Mexican border, kills 38
  • 1970 Soviet spcecraft Luna 16 lands on Moon's Mare Fecunditatis, drills core sample
  • 1972 Libya acquires a 50 percent interest in two ENI oil concessions
  • 1972 The Social Democratic and Labour Party issues a document entitled "Towards a New Ireland", proposing that the British and Irish governments should have joint sovereignty over Northern Ireland
  • 1975 Gary Sentman draws a record 176 lb longbow to a maximum 28½" draw
  • 1976 Metroliner official opens in Brussels

Birthdays in History

  • 1486 Arthur, Prince of Wales, English crown prince, son of King Henry VII of England, 1st husband of Catherine of Aragon, born in Winchester, England (d. 1502)
  • 1599 Christian the Younger, German Protestant military leader during the Thirty Years' War, born in Gröningen, Germany (d. 1626)
  • 1665 Johannes van der Hagen, Dutch vicar and genealogist, born in Leiden, Netherlands (d. 1739)
  • 1744 Giacomo Quarenghi, Italian-Russian master builder and architect (Hermitage Theater), born in Rota d'Imagna, Republic of Venice (d. 1817)
  • 1744 Thomas Grosvenor, American Revolutionary War hero (d. 1825)
  • 1746 Móric Beňovský, Slovak military officer, explorer and self-declared King of Madagascar, born in Verbó, Kingdom of Hungary (d. 1786)
  • 1791 Sergey Aksakov, Russian writer (Semejnaja chronika), born in Ufa, Russian Empire (d. 1859) [NS 10/01]
  • 1809 Sterling "Old Pap" Price, American lawyer, U.S. Army Brigadier General and politician (11th Governor of Missouri), born in Prince Edward County, Virginia (d. 1867)
  • 1810 Alpheus Starkey Williams, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Deep River, Connecticut (d. 1878)
  • 1820 George Washington Morgan, American lawyer, politician, and Brigadier General (Union Army), born in Washington County, Pennsylvania (d. 1893)
  • 1820 John Fulton Reynolds, American Major General (Union Army), born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania (d. 1863)

Person of interestErnesto Teodoro Moneta

1833 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Italian journalist, soldier and pacifist (Nobel Peace Prize 1907), born in Milan, Lombardy (d. 1918)

Italian Pacifist Ernesto Teodoro Moneta
Italian Pacifist
Ernesto Teodoro Moneta
  • 1842 James Dewar, Scottish chemist and physicist (Dewarfles/cordiet), born in Kincardine-on-Forth, Scotland (d. 1923)
  • 1844 William H. Illingworth, English-American photographer, born in Leeds, England (d. 1893)
  • 1847 Sergey Nechayev, Russian Nihilist (Catechism Revolutionary), born in Ivanovo, Russia (d. 1882)
  • 1852 Édouard Empain, Belgian railway builder (Paris Metro), born in Belœil, Belgium (d. 1929)
  • 1853 Rama V [Chulalongkorn], King of Thailand (1868-1910), born in Grand Palace, Bangkok, Siam (d. 1910)
  • 1861 Herbert Putnam, American Librarian of Congress, born in NYC, New York (d. 1955)
  • 1865 Lubor Niederle, Czech archaeologist and anthropologist, born in Klatovy, Czech Republic (d. 1944)
  • 1869 Marcel Cachin, French politician and co-founder of the French Communist Party, born in Plourivo, Côtes d'Armor, France (d. 1958)
  • 1872 Maurice Gamelin, French Army general (unable to stop the German assault on France (May 1940)), born in Paris (d. 1958)

Person of interestUpton Sinclair

1878 Upton Beall Sinclair, American writer (Jungle), born in Baltimore, Maryland (d. 1968)

  • 1879 Victor Sjöström, Swedish director (Wind, Under the Red Robe), born in Årjäng, Värmland, Sweden (d. 1960)
  • 1880 Louise Peete, American convicted serial killer, born in Bienville, Louisiana (d. 1947)
  • 1883 Johannes Gerard van Dillen, Dutch economic historian (Of Wealth & Oligarchists), born in Amsterdam (d. 1969)
  • 1883 Maria Baers, Flemish social worker and founder of the Christian Workers' Women's Movement (KAV), born in Antwerp, Belgium (d. 1959)

Person of interestMaxwell Perkins

1884 Maxwell Perkins, American editor and publisher, born in NYC, New York (d. 1947)

  • 1886 Charles Williams, British poet and writer, born in London (d. 1945)
  • 1890 Rachel Bluwstein, Hebrew poet, born in Saratov, Imperial Russia (d. 1931)
  • 1893 Hans Scharoun, German architect (Berlin Philharmonic), born in Bremen, Germany (d. 1972)
  • 1896 Fjodor Panfjorov, Russian author (Volga), born in Pavlovka, Russia (d. 1960) [NS=Oct 2]
  • 1899 Elliott Nugent, American director (And So They Were Married), born in Dover, Ohio (d. 1980)
  • 1899 Leo Strauss, German-American political philosopher, born in Kirchhain, Hesse-Nassau, German Empire (d. 1973)
  • 1900 Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco, Brazilian military leader and 26th President of Brazil (1964-67), born in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (d. 1967)
  • 1902 Stevie [Florence Margaret] Smith, English poet and novelist (Not Waving but Drowning), born in Kingston upon Hull, England
  • 1908 Alexander Mitscherlich, German psychotherapist, born in Munich, Germany (d. 1982)
  • 1911 Shriram Sharma, Indian spiritual leader and founder of "All World Gayatri Pariwar", born in Agra, India (d. 1990)
  • 1920 Jay Ward, American cartoonist (Rocky & his Friends, Bullwinkle), born in Berkeley, California (d. 1989)
  • 1922 David Nicolson, British businessman and politician (Chairman of BTR Industries-1969), born in London (d. 1996)
  • 1923 Geraldine Clinton Little, Irish poet (A Little Bouquet), born in Northern Ireland (d. 1997)
  • 1924 James Galanos, American fashion designer (Coty Hall of Fame 1959), born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (d. 2016)
  • 1924 John Vassall, British spy and civil servant (spied for Soviet Union), born in London (d. 1996)
  • 1925 Rama VIII [Ananda Mahidol], King of Siam (1935-46), born in Heidelberg, Republic of Baden, Germany (d. 1946)
  • 1928 Donald Hall, American writer, literary critic and Poet Laureate of the United States, born in Hamden, Connecticut (d. 2018)
  • 1933 Bob Banas, American choreographer (Malibu U, Jonathan Winters Show), born in NYC, New York
  • 1935 Keith Roberts, English writer (Irish Encounter, Ladies from Hell), born in Kettering, Northamptonshire (d. 2000)
  • 1937 Birgitta Dahl, Swedish politician (Speaker of the Parliament of Sweden 1994-2002), born in Råda, Härryda Municipality, Västra Götaland County, Sweden
  • 1938 George J. Hochbrueckner, American politician (Rep-D-NY), born in Queens, New York
  • 1939 Robert L. Gerry III, American businessman and petroleum industry executive, born in New York
  • 1940 Joe DioGuardi, American accountant and politician (Rep-R-NY, 1985-89), born in NYC, New York
  • 1941 Dale Chihuly, American glass sculptor (Louis Tiffany Award 1967), born in Tacoma, Washington
  • 1941 John Wismont, American watercolor painter (over 50,000), born in NYC, New York
  • 1942 Gérald Tremblay, Québec politician (41st Mayor of Montreal), born in Ottawa, Ontario

Person of interestSani Abacha

1943 Sani Abacha, de facto President of Nigeria (1993-98), born in Kano, Nigeria (d. 1998)

President of Nigeria Sani Abacha
President of Nigeria
Sani Abacha
  • 1947 Chuck Panozzo, American rocker (Styx), born in Chicago, Illinois
  • 1948 George R. R. Martin, American fantasy and sci-fi author (A Song of Ice and Fire), born in Bayonne, New Jersey
  • 1950 James P[aul] Blaylock, American sci-fi author (Elfin Ship, Homunculus), born in Long Beach, California
  • 1951 Javier Marías, Spanish translator and novelist (Corazón tan blanco), born in Madrid, Spain
  • 1954 Anne Mcintosh, British member of European parliament, born in Edinburgh, Lothian, Scotland
  • 1954 Brinke Stevens [Charlene Brinkman], American actress (Slumber Party Massacre), born in San Diego, California
  • 1955 Christine Oddy, British member European parliament, born in Coventry, England
  • 1957 Rich DiSilvio, American new media developer & artist
  • 1960 James A. Pawelczyk, American astronaut (sk STS 90), born in Buffalo, New York
  • 1960 Deborah Roberts, American journalist and TV reporter, born in Perry, Georgia
  • 1974 Michael Waddington, American defense lawyer, born in New Castle, Pennsylvania
  • 1976 Reuben Singh, British entrepreneur
  • 1981 Joanie Dodds, America's Next Top Model contestant

Weddings in History

  • 2012 Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah's daughter Princess Hajah Hafizah Sururul Bolkiah (32) weds Pengiran Haji Muhammad Ruzaini (29) at the Throne Hall of Istana Nurul Iman palace in Brunei

Deaths in History

  • 1168 Paschal III, [Guido di Crema], Italian anti-Pope, dies
  • 1246 Mikhail of Chernigov, ruler of Kiev
  • 1384 Louis, duke of Anjou/wife of Marie of Bretagne
  • 1493 Philippe Pot, governor/viceroy of Burgundy, dies
  • 1586 Anthony Babington, page and conspirator to Mary, Queen of Scots, executed at 24
  • 1613 Willem H van Est (Estius), theologist, dies
  • 1624 Isaac Le Maire, Amsterdam ship owner, dies at about 66
  • 1625 Heinrich Meibom, German historian and poet, dies at 69
  • 1627 Jan Gruter, Flemish-born Dutch critic, dies at 66
  • 1639 John Meursius, [van Meurs], historian, dies at 60
  • 1643 Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland, English politician and writer
  • 1679 Cornelis Evertsen the Younger, Dutch vice admiral of Zealand, dies at 51
  • 1703 Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll, Scottish privy councillor, dies at 52
  • 1731 Sicco van Goslinga, Fries diplomat/sect of High Council, dies at 67
  • 1773 Pieter de Swart, architect (Delfts Port Rotterdam), dies at 63
  • 1803 Robert Emmet, Irish nationalist, executed
  • 1806 Utamaro Kitagawa, painter, dies
  • 1810 Wouter Johannes van Troostwijk, Dutch painter, dies at 28
  • 1839 Jose Gaspar de Francia, dictator of Paraguay (1816-39), dies at 74
  • 1852 Philander Chase, American Episcopal Church bishop and founder of Kenyon College, dies at 76
  • 1863 Benjamin Hardin Helm, US attorney/Confederate brigadier general, dies at 33

Person of interestJacob Grimm

1863 Jacob Grimm, German philologist, folklorist and editor of "Grimm's Fairy Tales", dies at 78

Author Jacob Grimm
Author
Jacob Grimm
  • 1863 William Haines Lytle, US politician, poet and Brigadier General (Union Army), killed in action during the American Civil War at 36
  • 1865 William H Revere Jr, US Union brigadier general, dies
  • 1873 Lulu Strauss und Torney, German poetess/writer, dies
  • 1880 Donald McKay, Canadian-American naval architect (built fastest clipper ships), dies at 70
  • 1884 Leopold Fitzinger, Austrian zoologist, dies at 82
  • 1898 Theodor Fontane, German author (Der Stechlin), dies at 78
  • 1905 Vjenceslav Novak, Croatian Realist writer (Pavao Šegota), dies at 46
  • 1906 Robert R. Hitt, American politician (b. 1834)
  • 1917 Herbert Morris, Jamaican deserter in France, executed at 17
  • 1932 Max Slevogt, German painter, dies at 63
  • 1932 Wovoka, Paiute visionary
  • 1933 Annie Besant, English social reformer and supporter of Indian independence, dies at 85
  • 1939 Paul Bruchési, French Canadian Catholic archbishop of Montreal, dies at 83
  • 1944 John Grayburn, British soldier who was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross for gallantry during the defence of Arnhem bridge, dies during the battle at 26
  • 1945 William Buehler Seabrook, Writer, journalist, occultist and explorer (b. 1884)
  • 1945 Augusto Tasso Fragoso, Brazilian president (b. 1869)

Person of interestEduard Wirths

1945 Eduard Wirths, Nazi physician at Auschwitz, commits suicide at 36

Nazi Physician Eduard Wirths
Nazi Physician
Eduard Wirths
  • 1947 Fiorello La Guardia, American politician (Mayor-R-NYC, 1933-45), dies at 64
  • 1960 Lee Duncan, owner/trainer (Rin Tin Tin), dies of heart attack at 67
  • 1971 William F. Albright, American old testament scholar and archaeologist, dies at 80
  • 1975 Saint-John Perse, French diplomat and poet (Nobel 1960), dies at 78
  • 1976 Kermit Bloomgarden, American producer (The Diary of Anne Frank, Music Man), dies at 71
  • 1979 Ludvík Svoboda, Czech general and politician (8th President of Czechoslovakia, 1968-75), dies at 83
  • 1987 Michael Stewart [Myron Stuart Rubin], American playwright (Hello, Dolly!), dies at 63
  • 1993 Erich Hartmann, German WW II pilot (downed 352 Russian aircraft), dies at 71
  • 1994 Davidson Nicol, Sierra Leonean diplomat and author, dies at 70
  • 1995 Monica Maurice, industrialist and Managing Director and Chairman of the Wolf Safety Lamp Company, Sheffield, dies at 87
  • 1996 Max Manus, Norwegian resistance fighter and author who specialized in sabotage during World War II, dies at 81
  • 1996 Murtaza Bhutto, Pakistani politician, dies at 42
  • 1996 Paul Erdos, mathematician, dies of heart attack at 83
  • 1999 Raisa Gorbachyova, wife of Mikhail Gorbachev (b. 1932)
  • 2000 Gherman Titov, cosmonaut (b. 1935)
  • 2001 Marcos Pérez Jiménez, President of Venezuela (1953-58), dies at 87
  • 2003 Lord Williams of Mostyn, Welsh barrister, politician, and Lord President of the Council, dies at 62
  • 2003 Simon Muzenda, Zimbabwean politician (1st Vice-President of Zimbabwe), dies at 80
  • 2004 Townsend Hoopes, American politician (b. 1922)
  • 2005 Simon Wiesenthal, Austrian-Polish Nazi hunter (b. 1908)
  • 2005 Tobias Schneebaum, American writer, anthropologist and explorer dies at 83
  • 2011 Burhanuddin Rabbani, President of Afghanistan from 1992 to 1996. (b. 1940)
  • 2011 Robert Whitaker, British photographer, dies at 71
  • 2015 Charles Kenneth "C K" Williams, American poet and translator (Pulitzer prize 2000), dies at 78
  • 2019 Su Beng [Lim Tiau-hui], Taiwanese revolutionary, 'Father of Taiwanese Independence' (Taiwan’s 400-Year History), dies at 100