On This Day in History for September 6

Events in History

Events 1 - 100 of 134

  • 3114 BC Date Maya/Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar starts dating from (as corresponds to the Julian Calendar).
  • 394 Battle of Frigidus in Northern Italy: forces of Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius I defeat those of Western Emperor Eugenius

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1492 Christopher Columbus' fleet leaves Gomera, Canary islands

Explorer of the New World Christopher Columbus
Explorer of the New World
Christopher Columbus

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1522 Ferdinand Magellan's Spanish expedition aboard the Vitoria returns to Spain without their captain. First to circumnavigate the earth.

  • 1543 French & Turkish fleet occupies Nice
  • 1620 The Mayflower departs Plymouth, England with 102 Pilgrims and about 30 crew for the New World
  • 1622 Spanish silver fleet disappears off Florida Keys; 1,000s die
  • 1628 Puritans from Masschusetts Bay Colony land at Salem
  • 1634 Battle at Nordlingen ends in Swedish/protestant German defeat

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1651 King Charles II of England spends a day hiding in an oak tree during his escape after losing Battle of Worcester

King of England Charles II
King of England
Charles II
  • 1666 After St Paul's Cathedral and much of the city had been burned down over four days, the Great Fire of London is finally extinguished.
  • 1669 The siege of Candia ends with the Venetian fortress surrendering to the Ottomans.
  • 1672 Willem III's troops reconquer Naarden from France
  • 1675 Swedish admiral Stenbock sails out with fleet of 66 ships
  • 1683 Le Plecta appointed French minister of Finance
  • 1688 Austrian armies occupy Belgrade
  • 1690 King Wiliam III escapes back to England
  • 1715 Pro-James III-uprising in Scotland
  • 1716 1st lighthouse built in north America (Boston)
  • 1732 VOC dismisses Dutch east indies governor-general Diederik Dare
  • 1776 Hurricane hits Martinique; 100 French and Dutch ships sink; 600 die
  • 1776 1st (failed) submarine attack: David Bushnell's "Turtle" attacks British sailboat "Eagle" in Bay of NY
  • 1776 Hurricane hits Guadeloupe, killing more than 6,000.
  • 1781 The Battle of Groton Heights takes place, resulting a British victory.
  • 1819 Thomas Blanchard patents lathe
  • 1837 Oberlin Collegiate Institute of Ohio goes co-ed (4 women, 30 men)
  • 1839 Cherokee Nation unites and ratifies constitution at Tahlequah, Oklahoma
  • 1839 Great fire in New York
  • 1848 National Black Convention meets in Cleveland

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1861 General Ulysses S. Grant occupies Paducah, Kentucky

Union General and US President Ulysses S. Grant
Union General and US President
Ulysses S. Grant

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1862 Stonewall Jackson occupies Frederick, Maryland

Confederate General Stonewall Jackson
Confederate General
Stonewall Jackson
  • 1863 -7] After 59 day siege Confederate troops vacate Fort Wagner SC (1700 casualties)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1866 Frederick Douglass is 1st US black delegate to a national convention

Abolitionist Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
  • 1869 1st westbound train arrives in San Francisco
  • 1869 Mine fire kills 110 at Avondale, Pennsylvania
  • 1870 Ship sinks in Gulf of Biscay; 483 die
  • 1873 Regular Cable Car service begins on Clay Street, San Francisco
  • 1876 Race riot in Charleston, South Carolina
  • 1876 Southern Pacific line from Los Angeles to San Francisco completed
  • 1883 Cub's Burns (extra bases), Williamson & Pfeiffer get 3 hits in 1 inn
  • 1885 Eastern Rumelia declares its union with Bulgaria. The Unification of Bulgaria is accomplished.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1886 Queen Victoria establishes Distinguished Service Order (DSO)

Queen of the United Kingdom Victoria
Queen of the United Kingdom
  • 1888 Queen Victoria grants William Mackinnon's Imperial British East Africa Company political & commercial rights
  • 1888 Charles Turner becomes the first bowler to take 250 wickets in an English season - a feat since accomplished only by Tom Richardson (twice), J.T. Hearne, Wilfred Rhodes (twice) and Tich Freeman (six times).
  • 1889 King Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda resigns

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1898 Lord Kitchener destroys Mahdi's tomb in Omdurman

General and Secretary of War Horatio Kitchener
General and Secretary of War
Horatio Kitchener
  • 1899 Carnation processes its first can of evaporated milk
  • 1899 US minister of Foreign affairs John Hay publishes his "Open Through Note"
  • 1900 British General Buller occupies Lydenburg, South Africa

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1901 US President William McKinley is shot by Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist, while visiting the Pan-American Exposition in New York

25th US President William McKinley
25th US President
William McKinley
  • 1903 Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Creeping Man" (BG)

  • 1905 Atlanta Life Insurance Company forms
  • 1905 General Trade journal publishes 1st Dutch photo (train accident)
  • 1909 Word received that American explorer Robert Peary had discovered the North Pole, 5 months earlier
  • 1910 Saskatchewan (then Regina) Roughrider football club formed
  • 1912 NY Giant Jeff Tesreau no-hits Philadelphia, 3-0
  • 1913 1st aircraft to loop the loop - Adolphe Pégoud in France
  • 1913 Hamilton Alerts apply for ORFU reinstatement, taking the name Hamilton Rowing Club

1stFirst Supermarket

1916 1st true supermarket, the "Piggly Wiggly" is opened by Clarence Saunders in Memphis, Tennessee

  • 1917 French pilot Georges Guynemer shoots down 54th German aircraft
  • 1923 Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands celebrates her silver jubilee

MurderAssassination Attempt

1924 Assassination attempt on Benito Mussolini fails

Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini
Italian Dictator
Benito Mussolini
  • 1924 Charles Paddock captures 100 & 200 yd AAU national senior outdoor track & field championships

AgreementTreaty of Interest

1928 USSR signs Briand-Kellogg-pact

US Secretary of State Frank Kellogg
US Secretary of State
Frank Kellogg

BattleCoup d'état

1930 Democratically elected Argentine president Hipólito Yrigoyen is deposed in a military coup.

Argentine President Hipólito Yrigoyen
Argentine President
Hipólito Yrigoyen
  • 1937 Spanish Civil War: The start of the Battle of El Mazuco.
  • 1938 Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands celebrates 40th anniversary
  • 1939 1st German air attack on Great Britain in WW II
  • 1939 South Africa declares war on Nazi-Germany
  • 1939 World War II: The Battle of Barking Creek.
  • 1940 Crown prince Michael succeeds Carol II as king of Romania
  • 1940 Generalissimo Gamelin arrested in France
  • 1941 All Jews over age 6 in German territories ordered to wear a star
  • 1941 Jews of Vilna Poland confined to their ghetto
  • 1943 "Congressional Limited" train derails near Frankfort, Philadelphia, kills 79
  • 1944 Gen Von Zangen's 15th army escape from Zealand
  • 1946 Terence Rattigan's "The Winslow Boy" premieres in London
  • 1948 Juliana crowned Queen of The Netherlands
  • 1949 Howard Unruh kills 13 neighbors in 12 minutes in Camden, New Jersey
  • 1952 Canadian TV begins in Montreal

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

1953 Konrad Adenauer's CDU wins elections in German Federal Republic

Chancellor of West Germany Konrad Adenauer
Chancellor of West Germany
Konrad Adenauer
  • 1954 US plane shot down above Siberia
  • 1954 Yankees use a record 10 pinch hitters
  • 1955 J van Tilburg appointed governor of Suriname
  • 1957 Elvis records "White Christmas", "Silent Night" & "Here Comes Santa Claus"
  • 1958 US performs nuclear test at S Atlantic Ocean
  • 1961 USSR performs nuclear test at Kapustin Yar USSR
  • 1962 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1963 The Centre for International Industrial Property Studies (CEIPI) is founded.
  • 1965 India invades West Pakistan - official beginning of the Indo-Pakistani War
  • 1966 Race riot in Atlanta, Georgia
  • 1968 Swaziland gains independence from Britain (National Day)
  • 1970 Palestinians seize 3 airliners
  • 1970 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR

Conference meetingMeeting of Interest

1971 British Prime Minister Edward Heath meets with Irish Prime Minister/Taoiseach Jack Lynch at Chequers in England to discuss the situation in Northern Ireland

British Prime Minister Edward Heath
British Prime Minister
Edward Heath
  • 1971 William Craig and Ian Paisley speak at a rally in Belfast before a crowd of approximately 20,000 people and call for the establishment of a 'third force' to defend 'Ulster'
  • 1973 New York Times reports almost all Superfectas run at Yonkers, Roosevelt & Monticello from Jan-Mar of 1973 were fixed
  • 1974 Saudi Arabia increases its oil buy-back price from 93 percent to 94.9 percent of posted price
  • 1975 6.8 quake along Anatolian Fault kills over 2,000 in Lice, Turkey
  • 1975 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Birthdays in History

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 105

  • 1656 Guillaume Dubois, French cardinal and statesman, born in Brive-la-Gaillarde, France (d. 1723)
  • 1697 Willem Gideon Deutz, Amsterdam regent, banker and merchant, born in Amsterdam (d. 1757)
  • 1711 Henry Muhlenberg, German-born founder of the U.S. Lutheran Church, born in Einbeck, Germany (d. 1787)
  • 1729 Moses Mendelssohn, German Jewish enlightenment philosopher (Haksalah), born in Dessau, Principality of Anhalt (d. 1786)
  • 1732 Johan Wilcke, Swedish physicist, born in Wismar, Germany (d. 1796)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1757 Marquis de Lafayette, American patriot and French revolutionary, born in Chavaniac, France (d. 1834)

French General and Aristocrat Marquis de Lafayette
French General and Aristocrat
Marquis de Lafayette
  • 1762 Theodorus F van Capellen, Dutch vice-admiral (Algiers), born in Nijmegen, Dutch Republic (d. 1824)
  • 1766 John Dalton, English physicist, developed atomic theory of matter, born in Eaglesfield, England (d. 1844)
  • 1788 Friedrich Wilhelm von Schadow, German painter (Modern Vasari), born in Berlin (d. 1862)
  • 1795 Frances Wright, Scottish writer and lecturer, born in Dundee, Scotland (d. 1852)
  • 1797 Wililam "Extra Billy" Smith, American lawyer and Confederacy (Confederate Army), born in King George County, Virginia (d. 1887)
  • 1802 Alcide d'Orbigny, French naturalist, born in Couëron, France (d. 1857)
  • 1805 Horatio Greenough, American neo-classical sculptor and writer (Form & Function), born in Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1852)
  • 1808 Emir Abdelkader, Algerian political and military leader, born in Mascara, Algeria (d. 1883)
  • 1811 James Melville Gilliss, American astronomer and Founder of Naval Observatory in Washington, born in Georgetown, Washington (d. 1865)
  • 1811 Johanna D Courtmans-Berchmans, Flemish author (Rozeken Pot), born in Auderghem, Belgium (d. 1890)
  • 1814 George Cartier, Canadian co-PM (1858-62), born in Saint-Antoine-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, Canada (d. 1873)
  • 1815 St. John Richardson Liddell, American Civil War Confederate General, born in Wilkinson County, Mississippi (d. 1870)
  • 1816 Francis Stebbins Bartow, Confederate colonel, born in Chatham County, Georgia (d. 1861)
  • 1817 Alexander Tilloch Galt, Canadian politician, a father of Canadian Confederation, born in Chelsea, England (d. 1893)
  • 1819 Nicolae Filimon, Romanian writer and critic (Ciocoii Vechi Si Noi), born in Bucharest, Romania (d. 1865)
  • 1819 William Starke Rosecrans, American inventor, politician and US Army General (Union Army), born in Delaware County, Ohio (d. 1898)
  • 1827 John Morrison Oliver, American Brevet Major General (Union Army), born in Penn Yan, New York (d. 1872)
  • 1829 Marie Zakrzewska, Polish physician, born in Berlin, Germany (d. 1902)
  • 1838 Samuel Arnold, Lincoln conspirator, born in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. (d. 1906)
  • 1850 Louis Apol, Dutch painter, etcher and literary, born in The Hague, Netherlands (d. 1936)
  • 1857 Zelia Nuttall, American archeologist and historian, born in San Francisco, California (d. 1933)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1860 Jane Addams, American pacifist, social worker and feminist (Nobel 1931), born in Cedarville, Illinois (d. 1935)

Social Worker and Nobel Laureate Jane Addams
Social Worker and Nobel Laureate
Jane Addams
  • 1863 Rodolfo Lenz, German-Chilian linguist (El Papiamento), born in Halle, Saxony (d. 1938)
  • 1868 Heinrich Häberlin, Swiss politician, member of the Federal Council, born in Weinfelden, Switzerland (d. 1947)
  • 1869 Felix Salten [Siegmund Salzmann], Austrian author (Bambi, a Life in the Woods), born in Budapest, Austria-Hungary (d. 1947)
  • 1876 John Macleod, Scottish-Canadian physiologist (Nobel 1923), born in Clunie, Dunkeld, Scotland (d. 1935)
  • 1876 Willem Adriaan Bonger, Dutch criminologist (Race & Crime), born in Amsterdam (d. 1940)
  • 1880 Jean-Louis Pisuisse, Dutch night club performer (French governess), born in Flushing, Netherlands (d. 1927)
  • 1885 Franz Theodor Csokor, Austrian author (Writings on the Wall), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1969)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1888 Joseph P Kennedy, diplomat, father of JFK, RFK & Teddy, born in Boston, Massachusetts

Patriarch of the Kennedy family Joseph P. Kennedy
Patriarch of the Kennedy family
Joseph P. Kennedy
  • 1889 Sarat Chandra Bose, Indian activist for independence, born in Howrah, British India (d. 1950)
  • 1892 Edward Victor Appleton, English physicist (Nobel Prize 1947), born in Bradford, West Riding of Yorkshire, England (d. 1965)
  • 1893 Claire Chennault, American military leader, born in Commerce, Texas (d. 1958)
  • 1896 Mario Praz, Italian literary critic and scholar (La carne, la morte, e il diavolo), born in Rome, Italy (d. 1982)
  • 1899 Billy Rose [William Samuel Rosenberg], American theatrical producer (Diamond Horse Show), born in NYC, New York (d. 1966)
  • 1900 Julien Green, American-French writer (Frere Francois), born in Paris (d. 1998)
  • 1900 W.A.C. Bennett, Canadian politician, born in New Brunswick, Canada (d. 1979)
  • 1901 John Erik Jonsson, American businessman and Mayor of Dallas, born in NYC, New York (d. 1995)
  • 1902 Morgan Beatty, news anchor (Du Mont Evening News), born in Little Rock, Arkansas
  • 1904 Karlo Arvi Kivimaa, Finnish writer (Groenende Cross)
  • 1906 Alexander Bodon, Hungarian-Dutch architect (RAI, Dollywood), born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1993)
  • 1906 John Meulenhoff, Dutch publisher
  • 1907 Elizabeth Ferrars, British crime writer, born in Yangon, Myanmar (d. 1995)
  • 1907 Johnny Kelly, American marathon runner (Berlin 1936, Boston 1935..1991), born in Medford, Massachusetts (d. 2004)
  • 1908 Anthony Wagner, genealogist
  • 1910 Frank Fidler, English artist, born in London (d. 1995)
  • 1911 Bentley Bridgewater, British Museum secretary
  • 1915 Franz Josef Strauss, German politician, Minister of Defense (1956-62), born in Munich, Germany (d. 1988)
  • 1916 Anne Cavendish-Bentinck, English landowner
  • 1917 Philipp von Boeselager, German Wehrmacht officer, failed assassin of Adolf Hitler, born in Bonn, Germany (d. 2008)
  • 1919 Wilson Greatbatch, American engineer and pioneering inventor, born in Buffalo, New York (d. 2011)
  • 1921 Robert Millar, journalist
  • 1921 Carmen Laforet, Spanish author, born in Barcelona, Spain (d. 2004)
  • 1921 Norman Joseph Woodland, inventor (barcode), born in Atlantic City, New Jersey (d. 2012)
  • 1923 Peter II Karadjordjevic, last King of Yugoslavia (1934-45), born in Belgrade, Serbia (d. 1970)
  • 1924 John Melcher, (Sen-D-MO)
  • 1926 Claus von Amsberg, husband of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, born in Hitzacker, Germany (d. 2002)
  • 1928 Robert M. Pirsig, American author (Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance), born in Minneapolis, Minnesota (d. 2017)
  • 1930 Andre Beullens, Flemish painter
  • 1931 Sander M Levin, (Rep-D-Michigan, 1983- )
  • 1932 Earl of Cawdor, British large landowner
  • 1937 Irina Bayanovna Solovyova, Russian cosmonaut
  • 1937 Jo Anne Worley, American comedienne (Laugh-in), born in Lowell, Indiana
  • 1937 John Bernard, Dutch TV weatherman
  • 1937 Sergio Aragonés, Spanish-born illustrator, born in Sant Mateu, Spain
  • 1938 Alan Charles Downes, cameraman
  • 1939 Susumu Tonegawa, Japanese molecular biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, born in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan
  • 1939 Dan Cragg, American soldier and author, born in Rochester, New York
  • 1941 Monica Mason, England's ballerina, born in Johannesburg, South Africa
  • 1941 Willibrord Frequin, Dutch TV reporter, born in Arnhem, Netherlands
  • 1942 Les Burns, local councillor
  • 1943 Richard J. Roberts, English biochemist and molecular biologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, born in Derby, England
  • 1944 Gordon DeMarco, American writer and activist, born in Akron, Ohio (d. 1995)
  • 1944 M N Aubrey Mokoape, S Afr's VP (Azanian People Org)
  • 1946 Bryan D O'Connor, Orange Cal, Col USMC/astronaut (STS 61B, STS 40)
  • 1947 Sylvester, rocker (Do Ya Wanna Funk)
  • 1949 Mhlabunzima Maphumulo, South African Kwazulu politician
  • 1950 Ria Oomen-Ruijten, Dutch politician (CDA), born in St. Joost, Netherlands
  • 1951 Barry Troyna, teacher/educational sociologist
  • 1954 Jon Erikson, American 1st to triple cross English Channel (1981)
  • 1954 Carly Fiorina, Former CEO of Hewlett-Packard and political (R) candidate, born in Austin, Texas
  • 1955 Carl Erwin Walz, Mjr USAF/Astronaut (STS 51, 65, 79), born in Cleveland, Ohio
  • 1956 Bill Ritter, American politician
  • 1957 Michaëlle Jean, 27th Governor-General of Canada
  • 1957 José Sócrates, Prime Minister of Portugal
  • 1961 Simon Reeve, Australian journalist
  • 1962 Elizabeth Vargas, American journalist
  • 1962 Chris Christie, US politician (Governor of New Jersey (R) 2010-), born in Newark, New Jersey
  • 1963 Alice Sebold, American novelist
  • 1963 Geert Wilders, Dutch politician
  • 1963 Bryan Simonaire, American politician
  • 1968 Paul Rea, American television journalist
  • 1968 Christopher Brookmyre, Scottish writer
  • 1969 Ben Finegold, American chess player

Weddings in History

HeartWedding of Interest

1840 Publisher James Gordon Bennett (45) weds Henrietta Agnes Crean in NYC, New York

Founder of the New York Herald James Gordon Bennett
Founder of the New York Herald
James Gordon Bennett

HeartWedding of Interest

1980 81st Prime Minister of UK Theresa May (23) weds investment banker Philip May at the Church of St Mary the Virgin in Wheatley, Oxfordshire

British Prime Minister Theresa May
British Prime Minister
Theresa May
  • 2014 Actress Katie Leclerc (27) weds long-time boyfriend Brian Stuart Habecost in Palm Springs, California

Deaths in History

  • 394 Eugenius, linguistic/anti emperor of Rome (392-94), dies in battle
  • 957 Liudolf, Duke of Swabia
  • 972 John XIII Crescentii, pope (965-72), dies
  • 1276 Vicedomino de Vicedominis, Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (b. ca. 1215)
  • 1511 Ashikaga Yoshizumi, Japanese shogun (b. 1481)
  • 1536 William Tyndale, Protestant bible translator (b. c. 1494)
  • 1625 Thomas Dempster, Scottish historian (b. 1579)
  • 1635 Adrian A Metius, mathematician/fort architect, dies at 63
  • 1649 Famiano Strada, Italian jesuit (bello belgico decades duae), dies at 77
  • 1649 Robert Dudley, English navigator and writer (Arcano del Mare), dies
  • 1708 Sir John Morden, English merchant and philanthropist (b. 1623)
  • 1748 Edmund Gibson, English jurist (b. 1669)

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1780 William Allen, Mayor of Philadelphia, dies at 76

Mayor of Philadelphia William Allen
Mayor of Philadelphia
William Allen
  • 1782 Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, wife of Thomas Jefferson (b. 1748)
  • 1808 Louis-Pierre Anquetil, French historian (b. 1723)
  • 1863 Lucius March Walker, Confederate brigadier general (in duel), dies at 33
  • 1868 Pierre Adolphe Rost, Louisiana judge, Confederate commissioner (b. 1797)
  • 1902 Frederick A Able, English chemist/inventor (cordiet), dies at 75
  • 1902 Philip James Bailey, English poet (Universal hymn), dies at 86
  • 1903 Charles Ammi Cutter, US bibliographer, dies at 66
  • 1919 Pier Pander, Dutch sculptor, dies at 55
  • 1939 Arthur Rackham, artist/illustrator (Grimm's Fairy Tales), dies at 71
  • 1941 Hugo Loudon, president-director (Royal Oil), dies at 81
  • 1944 Robert Lejour, Belgian lawyer/resistance fighter, murdered
  • 1945 John S. Mccain Snr., US admiral, (WW II-Pacific Ocean), dies of a heart attack at 61
  • 1947 Paul Guthnick, German astronomer, dies at 76
  • 1948 Gerrit H Kersten, vicar/founder (Calvinist Party), dies at 66
  • 1950 Olaf Stapledon, British writer and philosopher (b. 1886)
  • 1951 James W. Gerard, American jurist and diplomat, dies at 84
  • 1966 Hendrik Verwoerd, South African Prime Minister (1958-66), assassinated at 64 by Dimitri Tsafendas

Person of interestPerson of Interest

1966 Margaret Sanger, US feminist and birth control pioneer, dies at 86

  • 1978 Adolf Dassler, German founder of sportswear company Adidas, dies at 78
  • 1981 Christy Brown, Irish author (b. 1932)
  • 1990 Issan Dorsey, American founder of the Hartford St Zen Center in San Francisco, dies of AIDS at 57
  • 1991 Donald Henry "Pee Wee" Gaskins, American serial killer (claimed to have murdered over 100 people), executed in the electric chair at 58
  • 1993 Josephine Rich Corday, vaudevillian, dies of kidney failure at 79
  • 1994 Duccio Tessari, Italian director, dies of cancer at 67
  • 1994 Wolf Donner, Austrian movie historian/festival director, dies at 55
  • 1996 William James Moyce, armaments scientist, dies at 82
  • 1997 Philippe Rossillon, administrator, dies at 66
  • 1997 P. H. Newby, British author and BBC radio director (b. 1918)
  • 2000 Breanna Lynn Bartlett-Stewart, first Kleihauer-Betke stillbirth (b. 2000)
  • 2003 Mohammad Oraz, Iranian mountain climber (b. 1969)
  • 2005 Hasan Abidi, Pakistani journalist and Urdu poet (b. 1929)
  • 2007 Madeleine L'Engle, American author (b. 1918)
  • 2007 Alex, African Grey parrot "student" of Dr. Irene Pepperberg (b. 1976)