335 Roman Emperor Constantine the Great rules that Jews are not allowed to purchase and circumcise Christian slaves
1512 Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg.
1520 Explorer Ferdinand Magellan and his fleet reach Cape Virgenes and become the first Europeans to sail into the Pacific Ocean
1555 Emperor Charles V makes Erard of Pallandt earl of Culemborg
1803 English scientist John Dalton reads his paper on the absorption of gases by water to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Soc - 1st outline of his atomic theory
1805 Battle of Trafalgar: British Admiral Horatio Nelson defeats combined French and Spanish fleet. Nelson shot and killed during battle.
1854 Florence Nightingale with a staff of 38 nurses is sent to the Crimean War
1878 German chancellor Otto von Bismarck delegates end of "Socialism"
1915 William Jennings Bryan's successor as US Secretary of State, Robert Lansing, sends a note to Britain protesting interference with US shipping
1937 Francisco Franco's troops occupy Gijon
1949 Author of "Brave New World" Aldous Huxley writes to congratulate George Orwell on his new novel "Nineteen Eighty-Four"
1954 Dorothy Parker/Arnaud d'Usseau's "Ladies of the Corridor" premieres
1959 Guggenheim Museum, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, opens in New York
1960 JFK & Nixon clashed in 4th & final presidential debate (NYC)
1964 Society Hill Towers, a complex of three 31-story skyscrapers designed by I.M. Pei and Associates, inaugurated in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1966 116 children and 28 adults died as a coal waste heap slid and engulfed a school in Aberfan, South Wales
1969 German statesman Willy Brandt is elected chancellor of West Germany (1969-1974)
1971 Nobel prize for literature awarded to Pablo Neruda
1976 Nobel prize for literature awarded to American Saul Bellow
1979 Israeli minister of Foreign affairs Moshe Dayan resigns
1980 Mikhail Gorbachev elected member of Politburo
1982 Private funeral service held for Bess Truman, former First Lady of the United States
1983 Pope John Paul II names 3 new Dutch bishops
1988 Philippine former first couple Ferdinand & Imelda Marcos indicted on racketeering charges
1991 Former California Governor Jerry Brown announces his run for the US Presidency
2012 Kateri Tekakwitha canonized as the 1st Native American saint by Pope Benedict XVI
2013 The Parliament of Canada confers Honorary Canadian citizenship on women's rights and education activist Malala Yousafzai
2015 German Chancellor Angela Merkel says German view of Holocaust will not change, after Benjamin Netanyahu says idea came from Mufti of Jerusalem
2017 Spanish government suspends Catalonia's autonomy in the face of a deepening political crisis over the region's push for independence
2019 Canadian Federal Election: Justin Trudeau's Liberal Party loses its majority but wins the most seats (157) to form a minority government