Events in History on April 8

Assassination

217 Roman Emperor Caracalla is assassinated (and succeeded) by his Praetorian Guard prefect, Marcus Opellius Macrinus

  • 1093 The new Winchester Cathedral is dedicated by bishop Walkelin in Winchester, England

Historic Event

1139 Roger II of Sicily is excommunicated

  • 1149 Pope Eugene III takes refuge in the castle of Ptolemy II of Tusculum
  • 1195 Alexius III Angelus drives out brother Isaak II as Byzantine emperor
  • 1232 Mongol army under General Subedei begins the siege of Chinese Jin capital of Kaifeng - 1st occasion gunpowder used in a major engagement
  • 1271 Krak des Chevaliers, the greatest fortress built by medieval crusaders in the Levant, is finally taken by the forces of Mamlūk sultan Baybars I
  • 1341 Petrarch crowned a poet on the Capitoline Hill in Rome
  • 1378 Bartolomeo Prignano elected as Pope Urban VI

Election of Interest

1455 Alfonso de Borgia elected as Pope Callistus III

Victory in Battle

1500 Battle at Novara: King Louis XII of France defeats Duke Ludovico Sforza of Milan

  • 1530 Holy Roman Emperor convenes Imperial Diet in German city of Augsburg to address Protestant tensions
  • 1730 Congregation Shearith Israel opens the 1st North American synagogue in New York City on Mill Street in Lower Manhattan
  • 1759 British troops chase French out of Masulipatam, India
  • 1766 1st fire escape patented, wicker basket on a pulley & chain
  • 1767 Ayutthaya kingdom falls to Burmese invaders

Historic Event

1783 Catherine II of Russia annexes the Crimea

Historic Event

1796 Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, proves the quadratic reciprocity law (the ability to determine the solvability of any quadratic equation in modular arithmetic)

  • 1801 Soldiers riot in Bucharest, kill 128 Jews
  • 1802 French Protestant church becomes state-supported & -controlled

Historic Event

1808 Roman Catholic Diocese of Baltimore promoted to an archdiocese by Pope Pius VII, with the founding of the dioceses of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Bardstown (now Louisville)

Venus de Milo

1820 The famous ancient Greek statue, Venus de Milo is discovered on the Aegean island of Milos

  • 1838 Steamship "Great Western" makes her maiden voyage from Bristol, England, to New York
  • 1848 1st battle at Gioto: Sardinia-Piemonte beats Austrians
  • 1848 Battle at Xaquixaguana, Peru: Pedro de la Gasca beats Gonzalo Pizarro
  • 1861 US mint at Dahlonega, Georgia, seized by Confederacy (US Civil War)
  • 1862 John D. Lynde patents aerosol dispenser
  • 1864 Battle of Mansfield, Louisiana; Federals routed by General Richard Taylor
  • 1866 Italy and Prussia ally against Austria-Hungary.
  • 1869 American Museum of Natural History opens in New York City
  • 1879 Khedive Ismael of Egypt fires French and British ministers
  • 1879 Milk sold in glass bottles for 1st time

Historic Event

1886 William Ewart Gladstone introduces the first Irish Home Rule Bill into the British House of Commons.

  • 1893 The Critic reports that ice cream soda is America's national drink
  • 1898 Battle of Atbara River, Anglo-Egyptian forces crush 6,000 Sudanese
  • 1902 Demonstration organised by socialists in Belgium as people demand better education, living conditions, the right to strike and universal male suffrage result in a riot and some deaths
  • 1902 Russia and China sign the Convention of Evacuation under which Russia agrees to evacuate Manchuria within 18 months
  • 1904 British mystic Aleister Crowley transcribes the first chapter of the Book of the Law
  • 1904 Entente Cordiale between Britain and France
  • 1904 Great Britain and France establish their Entente Cordiale, a technical treaty settling long-standing disagreements over Morocco, Egypt, Africa, and the Pacific
  • 1904 New York City changes the name of Longacre Square to Times Square, in honor of The New York Times’s move to the area
  • 1910 1st race at the Playa Del Ray Motordrome near Los Angeles begins (1st US auto speedway)
  • 1912 Steamers collide on the Nile, drowning 200
  • 1913 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified by Congress, providing for election of senators by popular vote
  • 1913 Opening of China's 1st parliament takes place in Peking (now Beijing)
  • 1914 US & Colombia sign a treaty concerning Panama Canal Zone
  • 1916 Norway approves active & passive female suffrage
  • 1924 South African State pass the Industrial Conciliation Act No 11: provides for job reservation, excluded blacks from membership of registered trade unions, prohibited registration of black trade unions

Historic Event

1929 Indian Independence Movement: At the Delhi Central Assembly, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt throw handouts and bombs to court arrest

  • 1931 "White Horse Inn" opens in London
  • 1933 Manchester Guardian warns of unknown Nazi terror
  • 1935 Works Progress Administration approved by Congress
  • 1939 King Zog I of Albania flees after Italy invades
  • 1940 German battle cruisers sink British aircraft carrier Glorious
  • 1943 Hakuun Yasutani Roshi, founder of Sanbo Kyodan, receives dharma

Historic Event

1943 U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt, in an attempt to check inflation, freezes wages and prices, prohibits workers from changing jobs unless the war effort would be aided thereby, and bars rate increases to common carriers and public utilities.

  • 1945 Dutch Nazi occupiers executed, Nazi general Christiansen flees Netherlands
  • 1946 League of Nations assembles for the last time
  • 1947 Largest recorded sunspot ever observed at 40 times the diameter of Earth
  • 1948 Soen Nakagawa & Nyogen Senzaki (Zen teachers) meet in San Francisco
  • 1952 US President Harry Truman seizes steel mills to avert a strike

Historic Event

1953 Jomo Kenyatta convicted of involvement with the Mau Mau rebellion and sentenced to 7 years jail in Kenya

  • 1956 6 US Marine Corps recruits drown during a night "marsh march" in Ribbon Creek at Parris Island, South Carolina; drill instructor Staff Sergeant Matthew McKeon is court-martialed
  • 1960 Netherlands and Germany sign accord concerning war casualties
  • 1960 US Senate passes Civil Rights Bill with measures against discriminatory voting practices
  • 1961 British liner "Dara" explodes in Persian Gulf, kills 236
  • 1962 Accords of Evian (Algeria) accepted by referendum in France
  • 1964 Unmanned Gemini 1 launched
  • 1965 India & Pakistan forces engage in a border fight
  • 1966 OAO 1, 1st orbiting astronomical observatory, launched
  • 1966 Time publishes its "Is God Dead" issue - its first issue without an image
  • 1968 Czechoslovakia Oldřich Černík government forms

Historic Event

1968 Gangsters Henry Hill and Jimmy Burke commit the Air France robbery, stealing $420,000 from cargo terminal at New York City's JFK International Airport

  • 1968 New socialist constitution of East Germany takes effect
  • 1970 Senate rejects Nixon's nomination of Judge G. Harrold Carswell to US Supreme Court
  • 1971 1st legal off-track betting system begins (OTB-New York)
  • 1973 Thirty-two terrorist bombings in Cyprus

Historic Event

1977 Israeli premier Yitzhak Rabin resigns

  • 1979 People's Republic of China joins IOC
  • 1984 U.S. Census Bureau estimates rank Los Angeles as second most populated city, displacing Chicago which held the position since 1890; New York City remains the top
  • 1985 Amdahl releases UTS/V, 1st mainframe Unix
  • 1985 India files suit against Union Carbide over Bhopal disaster
  • 1990 King Birendra of Nepal lifts 30-year ban on political parties
  • 1990 New Democracy wins the national election in Greece.
  • 1990 Norwegian ferry Scandinavian Star catches fire; 159 people die
  • 1992 After 151 years Britain's "Punch Magazine" publishes its final issue
  • 1993 STS-56 (Discovery) launches into orbit
  • 1994 Japanese Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa resigns
  • 1994 Smoking banned in Pentagon & all US military bases
  • 1995 BPAA US Open won by Dave Husted
  • 1997 Microsoft releases Internet Explorer 4 Beta
  • 1997 STS 83 (Columbia 22) lands
  • 1999 Haryana Gana Parishad, a political party in the Indian state of Haryana, merges with the Indian National Congress.
  • 2000 Nineteen US Marines are killed when a V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft crashes near Marana, Arizona
  • 2004 Darfur conflict: The Humanitarian Ceasefire Agreement is signed by the Sudanese government and two rebel groups
  • 2006 Shedden massacre: The bodies of eight men, all shot to death, are found in a field in Ontario, Canada. The murders are soon linked to the Bandidos motorcycle gang.
  • 2008 The construction of the world's first building to integrate wind turbines completes, in Bahrain.

Historic Event

2012 German writer Günter Grass labelled 'persona non grata' by Israeli internal affairs minister Eli Yishai, due to his poem "What Must Be Said"

Easter Message

2012 Pope Benedict XVI calls for an end to Syrian blood shed in papal Easter message

  • 2013 15 people are killed and 53 are wounded by a car bombing in Damascus
  • 2013 163 people are killed and 50,000 are displaced after tribal violence erupts in Darfur, Sudan
  • 2013 Filip Vujanović’s election as President of Montenegro is confirmed by the electoral commission
  • 2017 Fifth day of protests by thousands in Caracas, Venezuela against the government

Election of Interest

2018 Hungarian parliamentary election won by right-wing Fidesz–KDNP alliance with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister

  • 2019 1 in 4 Japanese adults a virgin aged 18-39 according to new research by Tokyo University
  • 2019 14 tons of black market Pangolin scales from 36,000 animals discovered in Singapore, one of largest ever found worldwide
  • 2019 600 million birds die each year in the US after striking tall buildings with Chicago the worst city, according to Cornell Lab of Ornithology

Anti Omar al-Bashir Protest

2019 Protests in Sudan against the government of Omar al-Bashir continue with seven killed and 2,500 arrested in Khartoum

  • 2019 Record 17ft (5.2M) invasive Burmese python pregnant with 73 eggs captured in Florida's Big Cypress National Preserve

Historic Event

2020 Bernie Sanders drops out of the Democratic race for US president

  • 2020 Saudi-backed coalition fighting Houthi fighters in Yemen calls for a ceasefire after five years to stop the spread of COVID-19
  • 2020 World Trade organization predicts a drop in global trade greater than the 2008 financial crisis, between 13% and 32% for 2020

Historic Event

2021 Dr. Anthony Fauci thanks American health workers for their sacrifice during the pandemic, acknowledging their more than 3,600 deaths

  • 2021 Egyptian archaeologists announce their most important find since Tutankhamun's tomb - discovery of a lost 'golden city' the 3,000-years-old ancient city of Aten near Luxor [1]
  • 2021 Seventh night of unrest in Belfast, Northern Ireland even after joint call for calm by UK PM and Irish Premier

Historic Event

2021 US President Joe Biden says "Gun violence in this country is an epidemic" as he unveils package of executive actions including restrictions on "ghost guns"

  • 2022 First all-private space flight, Axiom-1 launches to the International Space Station [1]