On This Day

Events in History on August 19

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

43 BC Octavian, later known as Augustus, compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul

Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar
Roman Emperor
Augustus Caesar
  • 1099 Crusaders beat Saracens in Battle of Ascalon
  • 1263 King James I of Aragon censors Hebrew writing

CrownRoyal Coronation

1274 Edward I is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey after returning from the Ninth Crusade

King of England Edward I
King of England
Edward I

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1399 King Richard II of England surrenders to his cousin Henry

King of England Richard II
King of England
Richard II
  • 1458 Aenea Silvio Piccolomini chosen Pope Pius II
  • 1493 Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I becomes Archduke of Austria
  • 1504 Battle of Knockdoe in Galway Ireland.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1524 Emperor Charles V's troops besiege Marseille, France

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1561 Mary Queen of Scots arrives in Leith, Scotland to assume throne after spending 13 years in France

Queen of Scotland Mary, Queen of Scots
Queen of Scotland
Mary, Queen of Scots

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1587 Sigismund III becomes King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1591 French King Henry IV occupies Rouen

Victory in battleVictory in Battle

1627 Prince Frederick Henry conquers fort Groenlo

Prince of Orange Frederick Henry
Prince of Orange
Frederick Henry
  • 1691 Battle at Szalankemen: Austrians beat Turks

USASalem Witch Trials

1692 Five more people hanged for witchcraft (20 in all) in Salem, Massachusetts
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Dramatic lithograph of the Salem witch trials produced in 1892
Dramatic lithograph of the Salem witch trials produced in 1892
  • 1702 -24] Battle at Santa Marta Venz: English fleet beat French

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1745 Jacobite Rising 1745 : Bonnie Prince Charlie, raises his standard at Glenfinnan, Scotland, igniting the second Jacobite rebellion.

Pretender to the British throne Bonnie Prince Charlie
Pretender to the British throne
Bonnie Prince Charlie
  • 1757 Battle at Gross Jagerndorf: Russian army beats Prussia [NS=Aug 30]
  • 1768 Saint Isaac's Cathedral is founded in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1772 King Gustav III seizes effective control of Swedish government and restores full power of monarchy, which had been subordinate to parliament since 1720

King of Sweden Gustav III
King of Sweden
Gustav III

USAUnited States Declaration of Independence

1791 Benjamin Banneker sends a copy of his Almanac and writes a letter to Thomas Jefferson criticizing his pro-slavery stance and requesting justice for African Americans using language from the Declaration of Independence
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Engrossed copy of the United States Declaration of Independence
Engrossed copy of the United States Declaration of Independence
  • 1796 Spain & France sign anti-British alliance
  • 1812 US warship Constitution defeats British warship Guerriere
  • 1813 Gervasio Antonio de Posadas joins Argentina's second triumvirate.
  • 1816 Java again in Dutch hands

BattleCoup d'état

1821 Failed liberal coup against French King Louis XVIII

King of France Louis XVIII
King of France
Louis XVIII
  • 1826 Canada Co chartered to colonize Upper Canada (Ontario)
  • 1836 HMS Beagle anchors at Angra Azores

InventionHistoric Invention

1839 Details of Louis Daguerre's 1st practical photographic process are released in Paris

Photographer and Inventor Louis-Jacques Daguerre
Photographer and Inventor
Louis-Jacques Daguerre
  • 1849 NY Herald reports gold discovery in California
  • 1861 Confederacy Congress allies with government of MO
  • 1864 2nd day of battle at Globe Tavern, Virginia

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1887 Dmitri Mendeleev makes a solo ascent by balloon to an altitude of 11,500 feet (3.5 km) above Klin, Russia to observe an eclipse

Chemist and Inventor Dmitri Mendeleev
Chemist and Inventor
Dmitri Mendeleev
  • 1891 William Huggins describes astronomical application of spectrum
  • 1895 American frontier murderer and outlaw, John Wesley Hardin, is killed by an off-duty policeman in a saloon in El Paso, Texas.
  • 1897 1st electric taxis drive in London

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1905 Russian Tsar Nicholas II installs "Imperial Duma", without legislative powers

  • 1911 NY Giant Christy Mathewson loses after beating Reds 22 straight times
  • 1912 Percy Aldridge Grainger's "Shepherd's Key" premieres
  • 1913 Frenchman Adolphe Célestin Pégoud makes 1st parachute jump in Europe
  • 1914 Elmer Rice' "On Trial" premieres in NYC
  • 1914 German army executed 150 Belgians by firing squad
  • 1914 German fleet bombs English coast
  • 1914 Harris Theater (Candler, Coan & Harris) opens at 226 W 42nd St NYC

CommunicationHistoric Communication

1914 In a message to the Senate, US President Woodrow Wilson urges the American people to be 'neutral in fact as well as name'

28th US President Woodrow Wilson
28th US President
Woodrow Wilson
  • 1915 Rationing laws go into effect in Netherlands
  • 1915 World War I: the Battle of Van begins
  • 1915 British liner "SS Arabic" sunk by German submarine without warning leaving Liverpool for New York; killing 44. Creates diplomatic incident
  • 1919 Afghanistan declares independence from UK
  • 1927 Metropolitan Sergius proclaims the declaration of loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Soviet state.
  • 1931 Lefty Grove wins AL record tying 16th consecutive game
  • 1934 The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio.
  • 1936 Trial against Ljev Kamenev & Grigori Zinovjev because of "Trotskyism" opens in Moscow
  • 1939 37.6 cm rainfall at Tuckerton, NJ (state record)
  • 1941 Ump Jocko Conlan ejects Pirate manager Frankie Frisch for coming out on field holding an umbrella to get a rainout

Soviet UnionGermany Invades the Soviet Union

1941 Romania annexes the Transnistria territory from the Soviet Union after Operation Barbarossa
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German troops cross the border point between Nazi Germany and the Sovet Union on June 22, 1941
German troops cross the border point between Nazi Germany and the Sovet Union on June 22, 1941
  • 1942 -20] Churchill visits Montgomery's headquarter in Burg-al-Arab
  • 1942 World War II: Over 4,000 Canadian and British soldiers killed, wounded or captured raiding Dieppe, France

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1942 World War II: General Friedrich Paulus orders the German 6th Army to conquer Stalingrad

German Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus
German Field Marshal
Friedrich Paulus
  • 1943 Belgian church excommunicates nazi Leon Degrelle
  • 1943 US air raid on German bases at Gilze-Rijen/Vlissingen
  • 1944 Allied air raid on Maastricht, 80+ killed

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1944 US general Omar Bradley visits British general Bernard Montgomery

British WWII Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery
British WWII Field Marshal
Bernard Montgomery
US WWII General Omar Bradley
US WWII General
Omar Bradley
  • 1944 Last Japanese troops driven out of India
  • 1944 Nazis give parts of Paris to Resistance
  • 1944 Paris police strike against nazi occupiers
  • 1944 Polish 1st Division occupies Hill 262 (Mont Ormel), Normandy
  • 1944 US 15th Army Corps occupies Mantes-Gassicourt at Paris
  • 1944 US 90th/Polish 1st Division occupy Chambois, Normandy
  • 1947 J Arens & D van Dorpen synthetise vitamin A

BattleCoup d'état

1953 The democratically elected Prime Minister of Iran Mohammad Mosaddegh is overthrown in a coup orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name 'Operation Boot') and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project)

Prime Minister of Iran Mohammad Mosaddegh
Prime Minister of Iran
Mohammad Mosaddegh

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1954 American Ralph Bunche named undersecretary of the UN

Diplomat and Nobel Laureate Ralph Bunche
Diplomat and Nobel Laureate
Ralph Bunche
  • 1955 32.4 cm precipitation at Burlington, Connecticut (state record)
  • 1955 Hurricane Diane kills 200 & 1st billion $ damage storm (N.E. US)
  • 1957 US Major David Simons reaches 30,933m in a balloon
  • 1958 NAACP Youth Council begin sit-ins at Oklahoma City Lunch counters
  • 1959 Doctor X beats Wilber Snyder in Omaha, to become NWA wrestling champ
  • 1959 Honolulu seeks a franchise in Continental League
  • 1959 Satellite Discoverer 6 launched into polar orbit
  • 1960 Francis Gary Powers convicted of spying by USSR (U-2 incident)
  • 1960 Soviet Sputnik 5 carries 2 dogs, 2 rats, 40 mice, 1 rabbit and fruit flies into orbit, - 1st animals to return alive from obit
  • 1960 The first commercial atomic energy reactor, owned by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company, achieves a self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Rowe, Deerfield River, Massachusetts

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1961 US vice-president Lyndon B. Johnson visits West Berlin

36th US President Lyndon B. Johnson
36th US President
Lyndon B. Johnson
  • 1963 NAACP Youth Council begins sit-ins at lunch counters, Oklahoma City
  • 1964 Communication satellite Syncom 3 launched
  • 1965 Auschwitz trials end with 6 life sentences
  • 1965 The Yardbirds launch their first US tour
  • 1966 Earthquake strikes Varko Turkey: 2,400 killed
  • 1970 The Chinese Community in South Africa is granted 'White' status
  • 1973 France performs nuclear test at Mururoa atoll

Electoral defeatPresidential Convention

1976 President Gerald Ford wins Republican presidential nomination at KC convention

38th US President Gerald Ford
38th US President
Gerald Ford

  • 1977 USSR performs nuclear test at Sary Shagan USSR
  • 1979 Soviet Cosmonauts Vladimir Lyakov and Valery Ryumin return to Earth aboard Soyuz 34 after a record 175 days in space
  • 1980 Saudi Arabian Lockhead Tristar crashes on landing at Riyadh, 301 die
  • 1981 2 US Navy F-14 jet fighters shoot down 2 Soviet-built Libyan SU-22
  • 1982 Soyuz T-7 launched, Svetlana Savtiskaya 2nd woman in space

Electoral defeatPresidential Convention

1984 Republican convention in Dallas, Texas nominates incumbent Ronald Reagan for President

US President & Actor Ronald Reagan
US President & Actor
Ronald Reagan
  • 1985 Japan launches its 2nd probe of Halley's Comet, Suisei

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1985 Following the Rubicon speech four days earlier, Archbishop Desmond Tutu snubs P. W. Botha's invitation to attend a meeting to discuss the role and actions of the police and security forces in South Africa

Anglican Archbishop and Activist Desmond Tutu
Anglican Archbishop and Activist
Desmond Tutu
President of South Africa P. W. Botha
President of South Africa
P. W. Botha
  • 1986 Car bomb kills 20 in Tehran, Iran
  • 1987 Hungerford Massacre: in England, Michael Ryan kills sixteen people with an assault rifle and then commits suicide
  • 1988 Iran-Iraq begin a cease-fire in their 8-year-old war (11 PM EDT)
  • 1988 Maung Maung succeeds General Sein Lwin as the 7th President of Burma
  • 1989 Tadeusz Mazowiecki, elected 1st non-communist president of Poland
  • 1989 1st crack in the Iron Curtain when Hungary opens its borders to Austria for a pan-European picnic for a few hours
  • 1990 Dodger Jose Offerman hits HR in his 1st at bat
  • 1991 -20] Hurricane Bob hits US

BattleCoup d'état

1991 Conservative members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union attempt to depose Mikhail Gorbachev in a coup d'état

Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev
Soviet General Secretary
Mikhail Gorbachev
  • 1993 Dow Jones hits record high of 3612.13
  • 1993 George Tiller, abortion doctor, shot in his arms by Rachelle Shannon
  • 1993 Mattel & Fisher Price toy companies merge
  • 1995 After 5 days Shannon Faulkner quits as 1st woman at the Citadel
  • 1996 The major South African political parties begin their submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)
  • 1997 STS 85 (Discovery 23) lands
  • 1998 South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission chairperson, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, releases documents revealing an alleged plot by Western countries to assassinate UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld of Sweden

Event of interestEvent of Interest

1999 In Belgrade tens of thousands of Serbians rally to demand the resignation of Slobodan Milošević as president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

President of Serbia and Yugoslavia Slobodan Milošević
President of Serbia and Yugoslavia
Slobodan Milošević
  • 2002 A Russian Mi-26 helicopter carrying troops is hit by a Chechen missile outside of Grozny, killing 118 soldiers.
  • 2003 A Hamas planned suicide attack on a bus in Jerusalem kills 23 Israelis, 7 of them children
  • 2003 A car-bomb attack on United Nations headquarters in Iraq kills the agency's top envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello and 21 other employees.
  • 2005 The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, called Peace Mission 2005 begins
  • 2005 A series of strong storms lashes Southern Ontario spawning several tornadoes as well as creating extreme flash flooding within the city of Toronto and its surrounding communities. In Toronto, it is also dubbed as the Toronto Supercell.

  • 2009 A series of bombings in Baghdad, Iraq, kills 101 and injures 565 others
  • 2010 Operation Iraqi Freedom ends, with the last of the United States brigade combat teams crossing the border to Kuwait
  • 2012 32 people are killed after a plane crash in Talodi, Sudan
  • 2013 24 Egyptian policemen are killed in an attack in Rafah
  • 2013 37 pilgrims are killed in a train accident in India
  • 2013 91 people are killed by floods across China
  • 2014 The 24 hour ceasefire extension renewal between Israel and Palestine is violated as Hamas fire rockets; Israeli Air Force respond, killing 9 Gazans

Historic DiscoveryDeath of the Aral Sea

2014 NASA satellites take photos showing that the eastern basin of the Aral Sea had for the first time completely dried up
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The Aral Sea in 1989 (left) and in 2014 (right)
The Aral Sea in 1989 (left) and in 2014 (right)
  • 2015 US Food and Drug administration approves Female Viagra libido pill Addyi
  • 2018 Monsoon rains finally ease in Kerala State, India, with flooding taking 350 lives with 200,000 in relief camps
  • 2018 Two more earthquakes hit Lombok in Indonesia killing 14 two weeks after previous earthquakes
  • 2018 Weinstein accuser Asia Argento is alleged to have sexually assaulted a 17-year old in article by "The New York Times"
  • 2018 Limerick wins All Ireland Hurling Championship for first time in 45 years with a 3-16 to 2-18 win over defending champions Galway at Croke Park, Dublin
  • 2019 Evelyn Hernández cleared of killing her newborn baby in landmark case in a retrial in El Salvador

Event of interestEvent of Interest

2019 Sudanese Ex-President Omar al-Bashir admits he has received $90 million from Saudi Arabian royals at the start of his corruption trial in Khartoum

President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir
President of Sudan
Omar al-Bashir