Events in History on August 19

Election of Interest

43 BC Octavian, later known as Augustus, compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul

  • 1263 King James I of Aragon censors Hebrew writing

Royal Coronation

1274 Edward I is crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey after returning from the Ninth Crusade

Victory in Battle

1399 King Richard II of England surrenders to his cousin Henry

  • 1458 Aenea Silvio Piccolomini chosen as Pope Pius II
  • 1493 Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I becomes Archduke of Austria
  • 1504 Battle of Knockdoe, bloodiest battle of medieval Ireland fought in Galway between two Anglo-Irish lords, Gearoid Fitzgerald, Lord Deputy, defeats Ulick Finn Burke

Historic Siege

1524 Emperor Charles V's troops besiege Marseille, France

Historic Event

1561 Mary Queen of Scots arrives in Leith, Scotland to assume the throne after spending 13 years in France

Historic Event

1587 Sigismund III becomes King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania

Historic Event

1591 French King Henry IV occupies Rouen

Victory in Battle

1627 Prince Frederick Henry conquers fort Groenlo

  • 1691 Battle at Slankamen: "the Bloodiest battle of the Century" Austrian Hapsburg force defeats Ottoman army, killing Grand Vizer Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha

Salem Witch Trials

1692 Five more people hanged for witchcraft (19 in all) in Salem, Massachusetts

  • 1702 -24] Battle at Santa Marta Venz: English fleet beat French

Historic Event

1745 Jacobite Rising 1745 : Bonnie Prince Charlie, raises his standard at Glenfinnan, Scotland, igniting the second Jacobite rebellion.

  • 1757 Battle at Gross Jagerndorf: Russian army beats Prussia [NS=Aug 30]
  • 1768 Saint Isaac's Cathedral is founded in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Historic Event

1772 King Gustav III seizes effective control of Swedish government and restores full power of monarchy, which had been subordinate to parliament since 1720

United States Declaration of Independence

1791 Benjamin Banneker sends a copy of his Almanac and writes a letter to Thomas Jefferson criticizing his pro-slavery stance and requesting justice for African Americans using language from the Declaration of Independence

  • 1793 Yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, then the US capital has its 1st fatality. Lasts till November killing around 5,000 people
  • 1796 Spain & France sign anti-British alliance
  • 1812 US warship Constitution defeats British warship Guerriere
  • 1813 Gervasio Antonio de Posadas joins Argentina's second triumvirate
  • 1816 Java returns to Dutch rule after being controlled by the British for five years

Coup d'état

1821 Failed liberal coup against French King Louis XVIII

  • 1826 Canada Co. chartered to colonize Upper Canada (Ontario)
  • 1836 HMS Beagle anchors at Angra, Azores

Historic Invention

1839 Details of Louis Daguerre's 1st practical photographic process are released in Paris

Discovery of Gold in California

1848 New York Herald is the first major eastern newspaper to report the discovery of gold in California

  • 1861 Confederacy Congress allies with government of Missouri
  • 1864 2nd day of battle at Globe Tavern, Virginia, Union forces attempt to destroy Weldon Railroad Confederate supply route (successful 21 Ausgust)

Historic Event

1887 Dmitri Mendeleev makes a solo ascent by balloon to an altitude of 11,500 feet (3.5 km) above Klin, Russia to observe an eclipse

  • 1891 William Huggins describes astronomical application of spectrum
  • 1895 American frontier murderer and outlaw, John Wesley Hardin is shot and killed by John Selman Sr. in a saloon in El Paso, Texas
  • 1897 1st electric taxis driven in London

Historic Event

1905 Russian Tsar Nicholas II installs "Imperial Duma", without legislative powers

  • 1912 Percy Grainger's orchestral piece "Shepherd's Hey" premieres
  • 1913 Frenchman Adolphe Célestin Pégoud makes 1st parachute jump in Europe

Theater Premiere

1914 Elmer Rice's play "On Trial" premieres in NYC

  • 1914 German army executes 150 Belgians by firing squad
  • 1914 German fleet bombs the English coast
  • 1914 Harris Theater (Candler, Coan & Harris) opens at 226 W 42nd St NYC

Historic Communication

1914 In a message to the Senate, US President Woodrow Wilson urges the American people to be 'neutral in fact as well as name'

  • 1915 British liner "SS Arabic" sunk by German submarine without warning leaving Liverpool for New York; killing 44. Creates diplomatic incident
  • 1915 Rationing laws go into effect in Netherlands
  • 1915 World War I: the Battle of Van begins
  • 1919 After nearly 100 years of British control, Afghanistan declares itself independent
  • 1927 Metropolitan Sergius proclaims the declaration of loyalty of the Russian Orthodox Church to the Soviet state
  • 1931 Lefty Grove wins AL record tying 16th consecutive game
  • 1934 The first All-American Soap Box Derby is held in Dayton, Ohio
  • 1936 Trial against Ljev Kamenev & Grigori Zinovjev because of "Trotskyism" opens in Moscow
  • 1939 37.6 cm rainfall at Tuckerton, NJ (state record)

Germany Invades the Soviet Union

1941 Romania annexes the Transnistria territory from the Soviet Union after Operation Barbarossa

Meeting of Interest

1942 -20] Winston Churchill visits Field Marshal Montgomery's headquarter in Burg-al-Arab

Historic Event

1942 World War II: General Friedrich Paulus orders the German 6th Army to conquer Stalingrad

  • 1942 World War II: Over 4,000 Canadian and British soldiers killed, wounded or captured raiding Dieppe, France
  • 1943 Belgian church excommunicates Nazi collaborator Léon Degrelle
  • 1943 US air raid on German bases at Gilze-Rijen/Vlissingen
  • 1944 Allied air raid on Maastricht, 80+ killed
  • 1944 Last Japanese troops driven out of India
  • 1944 Nazis give parts of Paris to Resistance
  • 1944 Paris police strike against nazi occupiers
  • 1944 Polish 1st Division occupies Hill 262 (Mont Ormel), Normandy
  • 1944 US 15th Army Corps occupies Mantes-Gassicourt at Paris
  • 1944 US 90th/Polish 1st Division occupy Chambois, Normandy
  • 1947 J Arens & D van Dorpen synthetise vitamin A

Coup d'état

1953 Democratically elected Prime Minister of Iran Mohammad Mosaddegh is overthrown in a coup orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name 'Operation Boot') and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project)

Historic Event

1954 American Ralph Bunche named undersecretary of the UN

  • 1955 32.4 cm precipitation at Burlington, Connecticut (state record)
  • 1955 Hurricane Diane kills 200 people, becomes 1st billion $ damage storm (N.E. US)
  • 1957 US Major David Simons reaches 30,933m in a balloon
  • 1958 NAACP Youth Council begin sit-in at "whites-only" lunch counter at Katz Drug Store in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma [1]
  • 1959 Honolulu seeks a franchise in Continental League
  • 1959 Satellite Discoverer 6 launched into polar orbit

Historic Event

1960 American CIA pilot Francis Gary Powers convicted of spying by USSR (U-2 incident); sentence to 3 years in prison plus 7 in a labor camp, he served 17 months before being exchanged for a captured Soviet KGB spy

  • 1960 Soviet Sputnik 5 carries 2 dogs, 2 rats, 40 mice, 1 rabbit and fruit flies into space, 1st animals to return alive from orbit
  • 1960 The first commercial atomic energy reactor, owned by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company, achieves a self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Rowe, Deerfield River, Massachusetts

Historic Event

1961 US vice-president Lyndon B. Johnson visits West Berlin

  • 1963 NAACP Youth Council begins sit-ins at lunch counters, Oklahoma City, OKlahoma
  • 1964 Communication satellite Syncom 3 launched
  • 1965 Auschwitz trials end with 6 life sentences
  • 1965 The Yardbirds launch their first US tour
  • 1966 Earthquake strikes Varto region in eastern Turkey with 6.8 magnitude killing around 2,400
  • 1970 The Chinese Community in South Africa is granted 'White' status
  • 1973 France performs nuclear test at Mururoa atoll

Presidential Convention

1976 President Gerald Ford wins Republican presidential nomination at KC convention

  • 1977 USSR performs nuclear test at Sary Shagan USSR
  • 1979 Soviet Cosmonauts Vladimir Lyakov and Valery Ryumin return to Earth aboard Soyuz 34 after a record 175 days in space
  • 1980 Saudi Arabian Lockhead Tristar crashes on landing at Riyadh, 301 die
  • 1981 2 US Navy F-14 jet fighters shoot down 2 Soviet-built Libyan SU-22
  • 1982 Soyuz T-7 launched, Svetlana Savtiskaya 2nd woman in space

Presidential Convention

1984 Republican convention in Dallas, Texas nominates incumbent Ronald Reagan for President

Historic Event

1985 Following the Rubicon speech four days earlier, Archbishop Desmond Tutu snubs P. W. Botha's invitation to attend a meeting to discuss the role and actions of the police and security forces in South Africa

  • 1985 Japan launches its 2nd probe of Halley's Comet, Suisei
  • 1986 Car bomb kills 20 in Tehran, Iran
  • 1987 Hungerford Massacre: in England, Michael Ryan kills sixteen people with an assault rifle and then commits suicide
  • 1988 Iran and Iraq begin a cease-fire in their 8-year-old war (11 PM EDT)
  • 1988 Maung Maung succeeds General Sein Lwin as the 7th President of Burma
  • 1989 1st crack in the Iron Curtain when Hungary opens its borders to Austria for a pan-European picnic for a few hours
  • 1989 Tadeusz Mazowiecki, elected 1st non-communist president of Poland
  • 1991 -20] Hurricane Bob hits US

Coup d'état

1991 Conservative members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union attempt to depose Mikhail Gorbachev in a coup d'état

  • 1993 Dow Jones hits record high of 3612.13
  • 1993 George Tiller, abortion doctor, shot in his arms by Rachelle Shannon
  • 1993 Mattel & Fisher Price toy companies merge
  • 1995 After 5 days Shannon Faulkner quits as 1st woman at the Citadel
  • 1996 The major South African political parties begin their submission to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)
  • 1997 STS 85 (Discovery 23) lands
  • 1998 South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission chairperson, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, releases documents revealing an alleged plot by Western countries to assassinate UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld of Sweden

Historic Event

1999 In Belgrade tens of thousands of Serbians rally to demand the resignation of Slobodan Milošević as president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

  • 2002 A Russian Mi-26 helicopter carrying troops is hit by a Chechen missile outside of Grozny, killing 118 soldiers.
  • 2003 A car-bomb attack on United Nations headquarters in Iraq kills the agency's top envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello and 21 other employees.
  • 2003 A Hamas planned suicide attack on a bus in Jerusalem kills 23 Israelis, 7 of them children
  • 2005 A series of strong storms lashes Southern Ontario spawning several tornadoes as well as creating extreme flash flooding within the city of Toronto and its surrounding communities. In Toronto, it is also dubbed as the Toronto Supercell.
  • 2005 The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, called Peace Mission 2005 begins
  • 2009 A series of bombings in Baghdad, Iraq, kills 101 and injures 565 others
  • 2010 Operation Iraqi Freedom ends, with the last of the United States brigade combat teams crossing the border to Kuwait
  • 2012 Plane crash in mountainous region of Talodi, Sudan kills 32, including several government officials and staff, enroute to Eid al-Fitr festival marking end Muslim holy month of Ramadan; crash blamed on bad weather conditions
  • 2013 24 Egyptian policemen are killed in an attack in Rafah
  • 2013 37 pilgrims are killed in a train accident in India
  • 2013 91 people are killed by floods across China

Death of the Aral Sea

2014 NASA satellites take photos showing that the eastern basin of the Aral Sea had for the first time completely dried up

  • 2014 The 24 hour ceasefire extension renewal between Israel and Palestine is violated as Hamas fire rockets; Israeli Air Force respond, killing 9 Gazans
  • 2015 US Food and Drug administration approves Female Viagra libido pill Addyi
  • 2018 Limerick wins All Ireland Hurling Championship for first time in 45 years with a 3-16 to 2-18 win over defending champions Galway at Croke Park, Dublin
  • 2018 Monsoon rains finally ease in Kerala State, India, with flooding taking 350 lives with 200,000 in relief camps
  • 2018 Two more earthquakes hit Lombok in Indonesia killing 14 two weeks after previous earthquakes
  • 2018 Weinstein accuser Asia Argento is alleged to have sexually assaulted a 17-year old in article by "The New York Times"
  • 2019 Evelyn Hernández cleared of killing her newborn baby in landmark case in a retrial in El Salvador

Historic Event

2019 Sudanese Ex-President Omar al-Bashir admits he has received $90 million from Saudi Arabian royals at the start of his corruption trial in Khartoum

  • 2020 Apple becomes the 1st US company to be valued at $2 trillion, just 2 years after it reached $1 trillion valuation
  • 2020 Golfing dinner termed #GolfGatet appearing to flout COVID-19 restrictions, attended by Irish political figures, prompts two politicians to later resign
  • 2020 Largest floods in 70 years wet the toes of giant 71m Leshan Buddha carved by a river just outside Chengdu, China with 100,000 people evacuated
  • 2020 US Postmaster General Louis DeJoy says he will suspend controversial plan to cut costs until after the election
  • 2021 Iran's official COVID-19 death toll passes 100,000 amid its fifth wave of infections, according to its Health Ministry
  • 2022 30-hour siege begins on Hayat Hotel, Mogadishu, by Shabab militants leaving 21 dead and 117 injured [1]
  • 2022 European drought uncovers river 'hunger stones' that once warned of famine, including Děčín stone (earliest inscription 1417) on Elbe river, with carving "if you see me, then weep" [1]
  • 2022 Mexico's former attorney general Jesús Murillo Karam arrested in connection with disappearance of 43 students in 2014, one of the country's worst human rights tragedies [1]