Events in History on August 23

The 17 Year-Old Witness to the Eruption of Vesuvius

79 Mount Vesuvius begins stirring, on feast day of Vulcan, Roman god of fire (goes on to destroy Pompeii) [approx date] [1] [2]

Victory in Battle

406 Battle at Florence: Stilicho's Roman army beats Radagaisus' Barbarians

  • 476 Odoacer proclaimed King of Italy by his troops, 1st barbarian King of Italy
  • 1046 King Henry III gives money to Utrecht Deventer diocese
  • 1059 Treaty of Melfi: Pope Nicholas II recognizes the Norman conquest of Southern Italy by appointing Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard Duke of Apulia and Calabria and Count of Sicily

William Wallace Executed

1305 Scottish patriot William Wallace is executed for high treason by Edward I of England at Smithfield, London

  • 1328 Battle at Kassel: French troops stop uprising of Flemish farmers
  • 1441 Holland & Hanzesteden sign cease fire treaty

Historic Event

1500 Governor Francisco De Bobadilla arrives in the Indies, soon after arrests and sends former Governor Christopher Columbus back to Spain in chains

  • 1514 Battle of Chaldiran ended with a decisive victory for the Sultan Selim I, Ottoman Empire, over the Shah Ismail I, Safavids founder.

Voyage of Discovery

1541 French explorer Jacques Cartier lands near Quebec City in his third voyage to Canada

  • 1542 Rabbi Joseph Caro completes his commentary of Tur Code
  • 1553 Bishop Stephen Gardiner appointed English Lord Chancellor
  • 1566 Beeldenstorm reaches Amsterdam
  • 1582 Francis of Valois, Duke of Anjou pays tribute to earl of Flanders
  • 1595 Michael the Brave confronts the Ottoman army in the Battle of Calugareni.
  • 1614 University of Groningen opens
  • 1617 1st one-way streets open (London)
  • 1708 Meidingnu Pamheiba is crowned King of Manipur.
  • 1711 Admiral Hovenden Walkers fleet reach St Lawrence
  • 1784 Eastern Tennessee settlers declare their area an independent state & name it Franklin; a year later the Continental Congress rejects it
  • 1789 French Revolution: The National Assembly proclaims freedom of religious opinions

French Revolution

1793 French Revolution: The National Convention adopts the levée en masse, conscripting all able-bodied men between 18 and 25 for military service during the French Revolutionary Wars

  • 1796 African Methodist Episcopal Church incorporated

Historic Event

1799 Napoleon leaves Egypt for France en route to seize power.

  • 1813 Battle of Grossbeeren - Prussians under Von Bulow repulse French
  • 1838 Mt Holyoke Female Seminary (South Hadley, Mass) 1st graduating class
  • 1839 British capture Hong Kong from China
  • 1850 1st US National Women's Rights Convention convenes in Worcester, Massachusetts
  • 1862 Skirmish at Big Hill, Kentucky (2 Federal regiments)
  • 1864 Union troops/fleet occupy Fort Morgan, Alabama
  • 1866 Treaty of Prague ends Austro-Prussian war
  • 1869 1st carload of rail freight (boots & shoes) arrives in San Francisco, from Boston after a 16-day trip
  • 1872 1st Japanese commercial ship visits San Francisco, carrying tea
  • 1873 Albert Bridge crossing the river Thames in London opens
  • 1879 Governor-general Charles Gordon of Sudan returns to Cairo
  • 1889 1st ship-to-shore wireless message ("Sherman is sighted") received in the US from Lightship No. 70 to a coastal receiving station at Cliff House in San Francisco
  • 1896 First Cry of the Philippine Revolution is made in Pugad Lawin (Quezon City), in the province of Manila.
  • 1900 National Negro Business League organizes (Boston)
  • 1903 6th Zionist Congres, Theodor Herzl declares Jewish state
  • 1904 Automobile tire chain patented
  • 1906 Cuba's 1st president Tomés Estrada Palma asks for US intervention
  • 1910 Fred Clarke makes a record 4 outfield assists for Pittsburgh

Historic Event

1911 British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith holds secret meeting about British strategy in case of war with Germany

  • 1914 -24] German troops plunder Belgium
  • 1914 Battle of Mons: General Alexander von Kluck's troops forced a British withdrawal.
  • 1914 Gen von Hausen executes 612 inhabitants of Dinant, Belgium
  • 1914 Japan declares war on Germany in World War I
  • 1915 Tsar Nicolaas II takes control of Russian Army
  • 1916 Military court of Berlin sentences socialist Karl Liebknecht to 4 years
  • 1917 Race riot in Houston Texas (2 blacks & 11 whites killed)
  • 1920 Mary Roberts Rinehart & Avery Roberts play "The Bat" based on Reinhart's novel "The Circular Staircase"premieres on Broadway in New York
  • 1921 Austria and the US formally end war; the US does the same with Germany on the 25th, and Hungary on the 29th
  • 1921 British declare a truce with Irish Nationalists Sinn Féin
  • 1923 Capt. Lowell Smith and Lt. John P. Richter performed the first mid-air refueling on De Havilland DH-4B, setting an endurance flight record of 37 hours.
  • 1924 Mars' closest approach to Earth since 10th century
  • 1929 Arabs attack Jews in Israel
  • 1930 1st British Empire Games close in Hamilton, Canada
  • 1931 Count Gyula Károlyi becomes premier of Hungary
  • 1931 Philadelphia A's Lefty Grove, loses 1-0 (Browns) after winning 16 straight

Historic Event

1933 Mahatma Gandhi released from Indian jail following another hunger strike

  • 1938 England score 7-903 declared v Australia, Len Hutton scores 364
  • 1939 John Cobb (Britain) drives 365.85 MPH (593.48 KPH) at Bonneville Flats

Treaty of Interest

1939 Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union agree the Molotov-Ribbentrop non-aggression pact and secretly divide Poland between themselves, setting the stage for World War II

  • 1940 German Luftwaffe begins night bombing on London
  • 1942 1st US flights to land on Guadalcanal
  • 1942 Battle of Stalingrad: 600 Luftwaffe planes bomb Stalingrad (40,000 die)

Historic Event

1942 British Prime Minister Winston Churchill flies back to London from Cairo, Egypt

  • 1942 World War II: last cavalry charge in history takes place at Isbushenskij, Russia; the Italian Savoia Cavalleria charges Soviet infantry
  • 1943 50th day of Battle of Kursk, USSR: Largest tank battle in history ends with Russia's defeat of Germany; over 10,000 tanks take part, nearly 250,000 combatants killed
  • 1943 Red army recaptures Charkow
  • 1944 94.5°F (34.7°C) in De Bilt Netherlands & 101.5°F (38.6°C) in Warnsvelt
  • 1944 Allied troops capture Marseille, France
  • 1944 General George Leclerc's troops advance towards Paris
  • 1944 Romanian Royal coup: King Michael orders forces to cease fire against Allies and dismisses pro-Axis premier, Marshal Ion Antonescu
  • 1944 Sammellager Drancy freed
  • 1944 US 20th Army corp enter Fontainebleau/Melun de Seine
  • 1944 US B-24 crashes into school in Freckelton England, 76 killed
  • 1946 Ordinance No. 46 of the British Military Government constitutes the German Land (state) of Schleswig-Holstein.
  • 1948 Earl Bernadotte asks aid for fugitives to Palestine
  • 1948 World Council of Churches formed by 147 churches from 44 countries
  • 1950 West Germany & Japan readmitted to Intl Amateur Athletic Federation
  • 1952 Arab League security pact goes into effect
  • 1952 Giants Bob Elliott is ejected for arguing a strike, Bobby Hoffman completes his bat, he strikes out & is also ejected for arguing
  • 1953 Dutch DC-6 crashes near Ymuiden in North Sea, 21 die
  • 1953 USSR performs nuclear test
  • 1954 First flight of the C-130 Hercules transport aircraft.

Historic Event

1954 President Getulio Vargas of Brazil resigns temporarily

  • 1957 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1958 People's Republic of China resumes bombardment of the Quemoy and Matsu islands in the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
  • 1960 World's largest frog (3.3 kg) caught (Equatorial Guinea)
  • 1961 Belgium sends troops to Rwanda-Urundi
  • 1961 East Germany imposed new curbs on travel between West & East Berlin
  • 1961 US lunar probe Ranger 1 reaches 190 km from Earth, falls back
  • 1963 Ringo admits he wrote a song "Don't Pass Me By"
  • 1963 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1966 Lunar Orbiter 1 takes 1st photograph of Earth from Moon
  • 1972 4 civilians and 1 British soldier are injured in separate overnight shooting incidents in North Ireland
  • 1973 Intelsat communications satellite launched
  • 1975 Classical Way wins Championship Cup at Roosevelt Raceway
  • 1975 Communists take over Laos
  • 1975 Ethiopian junta under Mengistu Haile
  • 1975 Philip Kapleau conducts 1st jukai ceremony in Poland
  • 1975 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
  • 1976 Heavy earthquake strikes China, 1,000s die
  • 1977 1st man-powered flight of a mile (Bryan Allen in Gossamer Condor)
  • 1977 Marxist philosopher Rudolf Bahro imprisoned in German DR
  • 1978 Iranian students occupies Iranian embassy at Wassenaar
  • 1979 Iranian army opens offensive against Kurds
  • 1979 UN's Vienna office opens
  • 1982 Lebanese falangist leader Bechir Gemayel elected as president
  • 1982 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1985 Said Aouita of Morocco sets 1.5k record (3:29.46) in Berlin
  • 1985 South African attorney/UDF leader "Dulah" Omar arrested
  • 1985 West German top counter espionage Hans Tiedge moves to German DR
  • 1987 15-year old boy hijacks KLM B737, demands $1 billion
  • 1987 Violent rainfall and floods in Bangladesh, kill 100's of people
  • 1989 Lewis, Everett, Burrell and Heard run world record 4x200 m (1:19.38)
  • 1989 The Baltic Way - two million people form a human chain across Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania in a peaceful pro-independence demonstration against Soviet occupation [1]
  • 1990 Armenia declares independence
  • 1990 East & West Germany announced that they would unite on Oct 3
  • 1990 US begins call up of 46,000 reservists to the Persian Gulf
  • 1992 Wilhelm Verwoerd, grandson of former South African Prime Minister, Hendrik Verwoerd, main architect of apartheid, joins the African National Congress
  • 1993 NY Dow Jones index reaches record high of 3,638.96 points
  • 1995 Indians' Jose Mesa sets record with his 38th consecutive save

Declaration of War

1996 Osama bin Laden issues message entitled "A declaration of war against the Americans occupying the land of the two holy places"

  • 2000 A Gulf Air Airbus A320 crashes into the Persian Gulf near Manama, Bahrain, killing 143.
  • 2000 Nicaragua becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty. This essentially deprecated the Buenos Aires Convention treaty, because as of this date, all members of the BA Convention were also signatories to Berne.

Hurricane Katrina

2005 Hurricane Katrina forms over the Bahamas, later becoming a category 5 hurricane

  • 2005 TANS Peru Flight 204 crashes near Pucallpa, Peru, killing 41.
  • 2006 Natascha Kampusch, who was abducted at the age of 10, managed to escape from her captor Wolfgang Priklopil, after 8 years of captivity.
  • 2007 Hashtag invented and first used in a tweet by US product designer Chris Messina
  • 2010 Manila hostage crisis, which occurred at the Quirino Grandstand in Manila, where a dismissed police officer took hostage a tour bus full of Chinese nationals.
  • 2011 5.8 earthquake occurs in Mineral, Virginia felt as far north as Ontario and as far south as Atlanta, Georgia

Historic Event

2011 Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi is overthrown after the National Transitional Council forces take control of Bab al-Azizia compound during the 2011 Libyan Civil War.

  • 2012 At least 30 are killed as a result of monsoon rain in Rajasthan, India
  • 2012 Four people are killed and 28 injured in a hot air ballooning accident in Slovenia
  • 2013 26 people are killed and 55 are injured by a suicide bombing in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2013 50 people are killed in mosque bombings in Tripoli, Lebanon
  • 2013 UN inspectors are stopped by Syrian government from investigating a reported site of a chemical massacre
  • 2015 12 year old boy trips and rips 17th-century painting "Flowers" by Paolo Porpora worth $1.5m at exhibition in Taiwan
  • 2015 Destruction by IS of the 1st century AD temple of Baalshamin in ancient ruins of Palmyra confirmed by Syrian officials
  • 2017 Air strike on hotel in Yemen capital Sanaa by Saudi-led coalition leaves at least 30 dead
  • 2017 India toll from swine flu rises above 1000 for the year, 22,186 cases reported
  • 2017 Nearly 60 million people in the Indus Valley, Pakistan at risk from arsenic in research published in "Science Advances"
  • 2017 US Navy fires Vice Admiral Joseph Aucoin as commander of the Seventh Fleet following series of collisions in Asian waters
  • 2017 World's driest place, the Atacama desert in Chile blooms after unexpected rainfall
  • 2019 Russia launches the 1st floating nuclear power station the Akademik Lomonosov from port of Murmansk
  • 2020 President Trump adviser Kellyanne Conway announces she is stepping away from the White House for family reasons

Historic Event

2020 US black man Jacob Blake shot and injured by police in front of his children in Kenosha, Wisconsin, prompting violent protests

Republican Party

2020 US Republican party convention begins by formally renominating Donald Trump for a second presidential term

  • 2021 US Food and Drug Administration grants full approval to Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for people 16 and over. First vaccine to move past emergency-use status in the US.

Historic Event

2022 Former Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak begins a 12-year prison sentence for money laundering, after the High Court rejects his final appeal [1]

  • 2022 In US domestic terrorism case two men found guilty of plotting to kidnap Michigan Governor Gretchen Witmer [1]