- Feb 25 Portuguese garrison on Ambon surrenders to Admiral Van der Haghen
- May 16 Camillo Borghese elected to succeed Pope Leo XI, becomes Paul V
- Jun 10 False Dimitri I, an impostor, crowned Russian tsar (rules 1605-1606)
- Aug 8 The city of Oulu, Finland, is founded by Charles IX of Sweden.
- Aug 18 Spanish army under of general Spinola conquers Lingen
- Sep 27 The armies of Sweden are utterly defeated by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Battle of Kircholm.
- Oct 3 Chinese uprising on Philippines, Tondo/Quiapo massacre
- Oct 27 Spanish army under General Spinola occupies Wachtendonk
Nov 5 Gunpowder Plot: Catholic conspirator Guy Fawkes attempts to blow up King James I and the British Parliament. Plot discovered, Guy Fawkes caught, tortured and later executed along with seven others. Celebrated ever since as Guy Fawkes Day, where his effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, accompanied by fireworks.