Events in History in 1919

  • Jan 1 Belorussian SSR established

Historic Event

Jan 1 British naval officer David Beatty is promoted to full admiral

Historic Event

Jan 1 Edsel Ford succeeds his father, Henry Ford, as president of the Ford Motor Company

Historic Event

Jan 3 Herbert Hoover is placed in charge of war relief in Europe

  • Jan 3 The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement, which was a short-lived agreement for the development of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, is signed by the King of Iraq and the President of the World Zionist Organization
  • Jan 5 German Workers' Party forms, precursor to the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi)
  • Jan 5 Left-wing Spartacus organization instigates a revolt in Berlin; terrified by the spread of Bolshevism, German troops brutally suppress the uprising
  • Jan 7 Montenegrin guerrilla fighters rebel, but fail to prevent Serbia's annexation of Montenegro
  • Jan 7 The Industrial and Commercial Workers' Union of South Africa is founded, led by Clements Kadalie
  • Jan 11 3 year old German communist party (Spartacus) crushed
  • Jan 11 Romania annexes Transylvania
  • Jan 15 Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, two of the most prominent socialists in Germany, are tortured and murdered by the Freikorps
  • Jan 15 Semana Tragica (Tragic Week): Bloodbath in Buenos Aires
  • Jan 15 Two million gallons of molasses flood Boston Massachusetts in the "Great Molasses Flood" when a storage tank burst, drowning 21 and injuring 150
  • Jan 15 W Collison & O Harbach's "Up in Mabel's Room" premieres in NYC

Prohibition is Ratified

Jan 16 The 18th Amendment to the US Constitution, authorizing the prohibition of alcohol, is ratified by a majority of US states

Historic Event

Jan 18 Bentley Motors Limited is founded by Walter Owen Bentley in London, England

  • Jan 18 The Paris peace conference (aka the Versailles peace conference) opens to draw up the treaties formally ending the Great War (WWI)
  • Jan 19 National elections held in Germany to form a National Constituent Assembly and draft a constitution
  • Jan 21 Irish militant nationalist party Sinn Féin creates its own parliament in Dublin and declares Ireland independent of Great Britain, sparking the Irish War of Independence
  • Jan 25 Founding of League of Nations, 1st meeting 1 year later
  • Jan 25 The Hotel Pennsylvania, at the time the world's largest, opens in Manhattan
  • Jan 31 The Battle of George Square takes place in Glasgow, Scotland: troops deployed against protesters for fear of a Bolshevik uprising
  • Feb 2 Monarchist riot in Portugal
  • Feb 3 Socialist conference convenes (Berne, Switzerland)
  • Feb 3 The Bolshevik army is defeated in a series of clashes with the White Russians, who are fighting to reclaim the government after the 1917 revolution
  • Feb 4 City of Bremen's Soviet Republic overthrown
  • Feb 5 NL President John Heydler dismisses charges that Hal Chase bet against his team and threw games in collusion with gamblers
  • Feb 6 1st day of 5-day Seattle general strike
  • Feb 6 The first day of the Weimar Republic which, because of its support of the Treaty of Versailles, does not receive proper allegiance from the German nation
  • Feb 11 Friedrich Ebert (SPD) elected president of Germany
  • Feb 14 The Polish-Soviet War begins.
  • Feb 14 United Parcel Service forms
  • Feb 15 American Legion organizes in Paris

Historic Event

Feb 19 Pan-African Congress, organized by W.E.B. Du Bois in Paris

Assassination Attempt

Feb 20 French Prime Minister Georges Clémenceau injured during assassination attempt

  • Feb 21 German National Meeting accepts Anschluss: incorporation of Austria
  • Feb 21 Kurt Eisner, Premier of the Bavarian Republic, is assassinated by a far-right German nationalist in Munich
  • Feb 21 Revolutionary strike in Barcelona

Historic Event

Feb 23 Fascist Party formed in Italy by Benito Mussolini

  • Feb 25 Oregon is 1st state to tax gasoline (1 cent per gallon)
  • Feb 26 Acadia National Park forms (as Lafayette N P), Maine
  • Feb 26 US Congress establishes Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona
  • Feb 27 1st public performance of Holst's "Planets"
  • Feb 27 American Association for Hard of Hearing forms (NYC)
  • Mar 1 The March 1st, or Samil Movement, begins in Korea: it is a demonstration of resistance to Japanese occupation
  • Mar 2 1st congress of Communist International opens at the Kremlin
  • Mar 3 1st international air mail service from US, Seattle-Victoria, BC
  • Mar 3 Communist Party in Germany announces a general strike
  • Mar 11 General strike in Germany crushed
  • Mar 12 Austrian National Meeting affirms Anschluss (incorporate into Germany)
  • Mar 15 American Legion forms (Paris)
  • Mar 17 Dutch steel workers strike for 8 hr day & minimum wages
  • Mar 18 Order of DeMolay forms in Kansas City

Historic Publication

Mar 19 Literary Magazine "Littérature", edited by André Breton, Philippe Soupault, and Louis Aragon publishes its first issue

Historic Event

Mar 23 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party re-establishes a five-member Politburo which becomes the center of political power in the Soviet Union. Original members Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, Lev Kamenev and Nikolai Krestinsky

  • Mar 23 Bashkir ASSR, in RSFSR, constituted
  • Mar 23 Benito Mussolini forms Fascist movement in Milan Italy

Conference of Interest

Mar 25 Woodrow Wilson's dream of a League of Nations becomes a reality after the League Covenant is adopted at the Paris Peace Conference

  • Mar 30 Belgian Army occupies Düsseldorf

Historic Event

Mar 30 Gandhi announces resistance against Rowlatt Act

  • Mar 30 Paul Claudel's "Tête d'Or" premieres in Paris
  • Mar 31 Strike against Ruhrgebied government of Scheidemann
  • Apr 3 Austria expels all Habsburgers

Historic Event

Apr 5 Eamon de Valera becomes President of Dail Eireann

  • Apr 5 Polish Army executes 35 young Jews
  • Apr 6 Bavaria proclaims itself a soviet republic
  • Apr 6 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi orders a General Strike
  • Apr 7 1st parcel of land is purchased for Cleveland Metroparks
  • Apr 10 Mexican Revolution leader Emiliano Zapata is ambushed and shot dead by government forces in Morelos
  • Apr 11 The International Labour Organization is founded.
  • Apr 12 British Parliament passes a 48-hour work week with minimum wages
  • Apr 13 British troops open fire on demonstrators in Amritsar, India, killing 350
  • Apr 13 Establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
  • Apr 19 French assembly decides on 8 hour work day
  • Apr 19 Leslie Irvin of US makes first premeditated free-fall parachute jump
  • Apr 20 King Nicholas of Montenegro abdicates under duress
  • Apr 20 Polish Army captures Vilno, Lithuania from Soviet Army
  • Apr 28 1st jump with US Army Air Corps (rip-cord type) parachute (Les Irvin)

Historic Event

May 1 "L'Ordine Nuovo" Italian socialist weekly newspaper established in Turin by Antonio Gramsci, Angelo Tasca and Palmiro Togliatti

  • May 1 British naval officer David Beatty is promoted to Admiral of the Fleet
  • May 1 Mount Kelud (Indonesia) erupts, boiling crater lake which broke through crater wall killing 5,000 people in 104 small villages
  • May 3 Afghanistan Emir Amanoellah begins war against Great Britain
  • May 4 Demonstrates organised by students erupt in China, after news from the Paris Peace Conference that the Allies intend to give Shangtung to Japan
  • May 6 Paris Peace Conference disposes of German colonies; German East Africa is assigned to Britain and France, German South West Africa to South Africa
  • May 7 A draft of the Versailles Treaty is shown to Germans
  • May 8 1st transatlantic flight take-off by a navy seaplane

End of World War I

May 8 Edward George Honey first proposes the idea of a moment of silence to commemorate The Armistice of World War I, leads to the creation of Remembrance Day

  • May 10 Race riot in Charleston, South Carolina, 2 blacks killed
  • May 12 The Transvaal British Indian Association calls a mass meeting to organise opposition to the proposed Asiatics (Land and Trading) Amendment Act; in the Act, Transvaal Indians are prohibited from owning shares in limited companies
  • May 14 Pope Benedictus XV publishes encyclical In hac tanta
  • May 17 UK War Department orders use of National Star Insignia on all airplanes
  • May 19 Kelud volcano on Java, erupts killing 5,160

Historic Event

May 19 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk lands at Samsun on the Black Sea coast, beginning the Turkish War of Independence

Historic Event

May 22 A. E. Douglass establishes the relative dates of two archaeological sites using ancient wood samples, marking a major step forward in the dating of archaeological sites

  • May 26 The Supreme Council of Allies, meeting at Versailles, decides to recognize two White Russian leaders, Admiral Kolchak and General Denikin, and support them against the Bolsheviks
  • May 27 1st transatlantic flight ends; US Navy flying boat takes 11 days

Historic Expedition

May 29 Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity, that when light passes a large body, gravity will bend the rays confirmed by Arthur Eddington's expedition to photograph a solar eclipse on the island of Principe, West Africa

Historic Invention

May 29 Charles Strite files patent for the automatic pop-up toaster

  • May 29 The Republic of Prekmurje founded - a short-lived, unrecognised state, which on June 6, 1919 was incorporated into the newly established Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed "Yugoslavia" in 1929)
  • May 31 NC-4 aircraft commanded by AC Read completes 1st crossing of Atlantic
  • Jun 1 Rhineland Republic forms in Wiesbaden
  • Jun 2 Pulitzer prize awarded to Carl Sandburg (Cornhuskers)
  • Jun 3 Supreme Liberty Life Insurance Co (Chicago) - first insurance company organized by African Americans formed
  • Jun 4 US Congress passes the Women's Suffrage Bill, the 19th Amendment
  • Jun 4 US marines invade Costa Rica
  • Jun 6 Assent is given to an Act to amend the Canadian Currency Act, 1910
  • Jun 6 Finland declares war on bolsheviks
  • Jun 6 The Republic of Prekmurje ends
  • Jun 7 Sette giugno: Riot in Malta; four are killed.
  • Jun 9 General steel strike in France
  • Jun 9 Red Army captures Ufa in Russia
  • Jun 12 Dutch 2nd Chamber accord for equal Christian-public education
  • Jun 14 1st nonstop air crossing of Atlantic (Alcock & Brown) leaves Newfoundland
  • Jun 15 1st nonstop Atlantic flight (Alcock & Brown) lands in Ireland
  • Jun 19 Opposed to dismemberment of Turkey by the Allies, Mustafa Kemal declares his Turkish Nationalist Congress, headquartered in Ankara, independent of Constantinople
  • Jun 20 150 die at the Teatro Yaguez fire, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

Signing of the Treaty of Versailles

Jun 20 Philipp Scheidemann resigns as chancellor of the new German Republic, which he helped establish, refusing to sign the Treaty of Versailles

  • Jun 20 Treaty of Versailles: Germany ends incorporation of Austria
  • Jun 21 Social Democrat Gustav Bauer forms a German government

Scuttling at Scapa Flow

Jun 21 The German Navy, feeling betrayed by the terms of the Versailles Treaty, scuttles most of its ships interned at Great Britain's Scapa Flow Naval base in the Orkney Islands

Historic Event

Jun 23 Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) incorporates

  • Jun 23 Nitti government forms in Italy
  • Jun 25 1st advanced monoplane airliner flight (Junkers F13)
  • Jun 25 Revolt of Spartacus in Hamburg
  • Jun 26 NY Daily News begins publishing
  • Jun 28 Treaty of Versailles, ending WWI and establishing the League of Nations, is signed in France
  • Jul 1 US 1st class postage drops from 3 cents to 2 cents
  • Jul 4 ADGB (Allgemeine Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund) party forms
  • Jul 6 British R-34 lands in NY, 1st airship to cross Atlantic (108 hr)

Historic Event

Jul 6 Institute for Sexual Science opened in Berlin by physician Magnus Hirschfeld to establish study of sexual science

  • Jul 8 US President Woodrow Wilson returns to NYC from Versailles Peace Conference
  • Jul 10 Dutch parliament approves women's right to vote
  • Jul 10 US President Woodrow Wilson personally delivers Treaty of Versailles to Senate
  • Jul 11 Dutch 2nd chamber approves 8-hour day and no Sunday work
  • Jul 13 Race riots in Longview, Gregg County, Texas
  • Jul 17 Finland adopts constitution
  • Jul 19 Following Peace Day celebrations marking the end of World War I, ex-servicemen rioted and burnt down Luton Town Hall.
  • Jul 21 Anthony Fokker's establishes airplane factory at Hamburg and Amsterdam
  • Jul 21 Dirigible crashes through bank skylight killing 13 in Chicago, Illinois
  • Jul 22 De Falla & Massine's "Three-cornered Hat" premieres in London
  • Jul 24 Race Riot in Washington, D.C. (6 killed, 100 wounded)
  • Jul 27 Chicago race riot (15 whites & 23 blacks killed, 500 injured)
  • Jul 28 Vrije Vakbewegings Internationale (VVI) forms in Amsterdam
  • Jul 31 The Weimar Constitution establishing the German Republic is adopted
  • Aug 4 Hungarian communist leader Béla Kun flees to Vienna after the Hungarian Soviet Republic is overthrown by the Romanian Army

Historic Event

Aug 4 Rodin Museum opens in Paris in The hôtel Biron containing works left to the state by the sculptor Auguste Rodin

  • Aug 6 1st air flight over a major body of water in Australia (Harry Butler)
  • Aug 6 Romanian forces bring down Hungarian Soviet Republic in Budapest
  • Aug 8 Treaty of Rawalpindi, British recognise Afghanistan's independence
  • Aug 10 Ukrainian National Army massacres 25 Jews in Podolia Ukraine
  • Aug 11 Weimar Republic begins in Germany
  • Aug 18 Anti-Cigarette League of America forms in Chicago, Illinois
  • Aug 19 After nearly 100 years of British control, Afghanistan declares itself independent
  • Aug 25 1st scheduled passenger service by airplane (Paris-London)
  • Aug 28 General John Smuts becomes premier of South Africa
  • Aug 30 Ernst Toller's "Die Wandlung" premieres in Berlin
  • Aug 31 John Reed forms American Communist Labor Party in Chicago
  • Aug 31 Petlyura's Ukrainian Army kills 35 members of a Jewish defense group
  • Aug 31 Ukrainian (Petlyura) Army recaptures Kiev
  • Sep 2 Communist Party of America organizes in Chicago
  • Sep 2 Italy agrees to general voting rights and proportional representation
  • Sep 3 President Woodrow Wilson set out on a tour of the USA to rouse public opinion behind the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations
  • Sep 4 British intervene in Petrograd
  • Sep 4 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who founded the Republic of Turkey, gathers a congress in Sivas to make decisions as to the future of Anatolia and Thrace.
  • Sep 9 Boston's police force strikes
  • Sep 10 China becomes a member of the League of Nations

Historic Event

Sep 10 NYC welcomes home General John J. Pershing and 25,000 WWI soldiers

  • Sep 10 Treaty of St Germain: Austria ends incorporation with Germany
  • Sep 11 US Marines again send troops to Honduras

Agreement of Interest

Sep 12 Adolf Hitler joins the obscure German Worker's Party as its seventh member, agreeing not with worker's rights, but with its German Nationalism and antisemitism

  • Sep 12 The poet Gabriele D'Annunzio organizes a militant nationalist group and takes Fiume (Rijeka) for Italy
  • Sep 13 Guy Bolton & George Middleton's "Adam & Eve," premieres in NYC
  • Sep 14 British regime forbids Sinn Féin Dáil
  • Sep 16 American Legion incorporated by an act of US Congress
  • Sep 16 Dutch Ruether beats Giants 4-3 to clinch Cincinnati 1st NL pennant
  • Sep 18 Dutch second chamber accepts female suffrage
  • Sep 18 Hurricane tides 16 feet above normal drowns 280 along Gulf Coast
  • Sep 20 Booth Tarkington's play "Clarence," premieres in NYC
  • Sep 22 -Jan 20] Steel strike in the US
  • Sep 25 US President Woodrow Wilson suffers a breakdown in Colorado, his health never recovers
  • Sep 27 British troops withdraw from the North Russian town of Archangelsk after fighting Bolsheviks/Soviets
  • Sep 27 Democratic National Committee votes to allow female members
  • Sep 30 Avery Hopwood's "Gold Diggers" premieres in NYC
  • Sep 30 Elaine Massacre: Arkansas state militia and rioters kill over 200 hundred Black people in response to sharecroppers' attempt to organize against landowners; trials of survivors for murder leads to Supreme Court enacted judicial reforms [1] [2] [3]
  • Oct 2 1st edition "Volkskrant" (People's newspaper) published in Neth
  • Oct 2 US President Woodrow Wilson has a stroke, leaving him partially paralyzed
  • Oct 3 Serbian, Croatian and Slavic Parliament passes an accord for an 8 hr work day
  • Oct 5 Norwegian population agrees to prohibition
  • Oct 6 Stambuliski becomes premier of Bulgaria
  • Oct 7 First London-Amsterdam airline service (British Aerial Transport & KLM)
  • Oct 7 Fritz Kreisler & F Jacobi's "Apple Blossoms" premieres in NYC
  • Oct 7 KLM, Royal Dutch Airlines, established (oldest existing airline)
  • Oct 15 14 horses begin 300-mile race from Vermont to Massachusetts for $1000 prize money
  • Oct 17 Radio Corporation of America (RCA) is created as a subsidiary of General Electric
  • Oct 18 Belvin Maynard wins the first transcontinental air race in round trip of nine days, four hours, 25 minutes and 12 seconds, race costs nine lives with 54 crashes or forced landings
  • Oct 18 David Beatty is created 1st Earl Beatty, Viscount Borodale, and Baron Beatty of the North Sea and Brooksby
  • Oct 19 1st US Distinguished Service Medal awarded to a living female recipient, Anna Howard Shaw
  • Oct 26 US President Woodrow Wilson's veto of Prohibition Enforcement Bill is overridden