On This Day

Events in History in 1923

  • Jan 1 Union of Socialist Soviet Republics established
  • Jan 1 Britain's Railways are grouped into the Big Four: LNER, GWR, SR, and LMSR.
  • Jan 2 Ku Klux Klan surprise attack on black residential area Rosewood Florida, 8 killed (compensation awarded in 1995)
  • Jan 7 Baltimore Sun warns of the Ku Klux Klan
  • Jan 8 Typography strike in Amsterdam
  • Jan 9 Juan de la Cierva makes 1st autogiro flight, Spain
  • Jan 9 Swaraj political party founded in India with Chittaranjan Das as president and Motilal Nehru its secretary
  • Jan 10 Last US troops leave Rhineland (Germany)
  • Jan 10 Lithuania seizes & annexes country of Memel
  • Jan 11 1st Dutch Dada-evening (Theo Van Doesburg & Kurt Schwitters)
  • Jan 11 French & Belgian troops occupy Ruhr to collect reparations

Historic Event

Jan 13 Taking advantage of the chaotic condition of Germany, Hitler stages a demonstration of 5000 storm troopers and denounces the 'November crime'

  • Jan 17 Belgian Working people Party protest against occupied Ruhrgebied
  • Jan 17 Origin of Brown lunation numbers
  • Jan 18 1st radio telegraph message from Netherlands to Dutch East Indies
  • Jan 19 WMC-AM in Memphis TN begins radio transmissions

Agreement of Interest

Jan 19 UK Chancellor of the Exchequer Stanley Baldwin and US Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon agree to reschedule repayment of Britain's $4.5 billion war debt over 62 years

  • Jan 23 Taxi strike in Amsterdam begins (through March 9th)
  • Jan 24 Aztec Ruins National Monument in New Mexico established
  • Jan 25 NVV donates 100,000 guilders to mine workers of Ruhrgebied
  • Jan 28 Demonstration against a Dutch University in Ghent
  • Jan 29 1st flight of autogiro (Juan de la Cierva, Madrid Spain)
  • Feb 1 Allied ultimatum on Lithuanian occupation of Memel

Historic Event

Feb 1 Fascists Voluntary Militia forms in Italy under Benito Mussolini

  • Feb 2 Ethyl gasoline 1st marketed, Dayton, Ohio
  • Feb 2 US signs friendship treaty with Central American countries
  • Feb 3 The Alpha Zeta chapter of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia founded at Pennsylvania State University.
  • Feb 5 General mine strike against wage cuts in Saar
  • Feb 5 Mass arrests of socialists & communists in Italy
  • Feb 8 Coal mine explosion at Dawson, New Mexico kills 120
  • Feb 8 German NSDAP Volkischer Beobachter newspaper becomes a daily
  • Feb 9 Soviet Aeroflot airlines forms
  • Feb 10 Ink paste manufactured for 1st time by Standard Ink Company
  • Feb 10 Owen Davis' "Icebound" premieres in NYC
  • Feb 10 SDAP speaks out against allied occupation of the Ruhr
  • Feb 16 Allies accept Latvia's occupation of Memel territory

Tutankhamun's Burial Chamber Found

Feb 16 Howard Carter opens the inner burial chamber of Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun's tomb and finds the sarcophagus

  • Feb 18 Belgium: Borinage-mine workers strike for higher wages
  • Feb 19 Philip Barry's "You & I" premieres in NYC
  • Feb 22 1st successful chinchilla farm in US (Los Angeles California)
  • Feb 22 Transcontinental airmail service begins
  • Feb 23 German Republic day with laws against worker
  • Feb 23 Great Britain lowers import duty on German products from 26% to 5%
  • Feb 24 Flying Scotsman goes into service
  • Feb 24 Mass arrests in US of mafia
  • Feb 25 Bread in Berlin rises to 2,000 marks
  • Feb 26 Italian nationalist & fascists merge (blue-shirts & black-shirts)
  • Feb 28 Swedish King Gustaaf V begins state visit to Netherlands
  • Mar 1 Allies occupy Ruhrgebied: killing railroad striker
  • Mar 3 Time magazine publishes 1st issue featuring Joseph G. Cannon (Speaker of US House of Representatives)
  • Mar 3 US Senate rejects membership of the International Court of Justice, The Hague

Historic Event

Mar 4 Vladimir Lenin's last article in Pravda (about Soviet bureaucracy)

  • Mar 5 Montana & Nevada become 1st states to enact old age pension laws
  • Mar 9 Amsterdam taxi strike ends

Historic Event

Mar 9 Elmer Rice's "Adding Machine" premieres in NYC

  • Mar 13 American inventor Lee de Forest demonstrates his sound-on-film moving pictures (NYC)
  • Mar 14 Allies accepts Vilnius taking East-Galicia in Poland
  • Mar 14 German Supreme Court prohibits NSDAP (Nazi party)

Historic Event

Mar 14 US President Warren G. Harding becomes 1st president to pay taxes

  • Mar 15 Vladimir Lenin suffer his 3rd stroke
  • Mar 16 Hugo von Hofmannsthal's "Der Unbestechliche" premieres in Vienna
  • Mar 20 Bavarian minister of interior refuses to forbid Nazi Sturm Abteilung
  • Mar 20 Belgian Senate rejects Dutch University in Ghent
  • Mar 21 US foreign minister Charles Hughes refuses USSR recognition
  • Mar 25 British government grants Trans-Jordan autonomy
  • Mar 30 Zeta Phi Beta Sorority formed at Howard U in 1920 incorporates
  • Mar 31 French soldiers fire on workers at Krupp factory in Essen; 13 die

Historic Event

Apr 5 Firestone Tire and Rubber Company starts producing inflatable tires

  • Apr 6 The first Prefects Board in Southeast Asia is formed in Victoria Institution, Malaysia
  • Apr 7 1st brain tumor operation under local anesthetic performed (Beth Israel Hospital in NYC) by Dr K Winfield Ney
  • Apr 7 Workers Party of America (NYC) becomes official communist party
  • Apr 9 Sean O'Casey's "Shadow of a Gunman" premieres in Dublin
  • Apr 9 In 'Adkins vs Children's Hospital', the US Supreme Court finds that the minimum wage law for women and children, adopted by the District of Columbia, is unconstitutional
  • Apr 10 Adolf Hitler demands "hatred & more hatred" in Berlin, Germany
  • Apr 13 US Army wins 1st college three-weapon fencing championships
  • Apr 14 Etienne Oehmichen sets helicopter distance record of 358 meters
  • Apr 15 1st sound on film public performance shown at Rialto Theater (NYC)
  • Apr 15 Insulin becomes generally available for diabetics
  • Apr 18 Poland annexes Central Lithuania
  • Apr 19 New Egyptian law allows suffrage for men, except soldiers
  • Apr 23 Inauguration ceremonies take place at Gdynia, Poland to mark its new status as a temporary military port and fishers' shelter
  • Apr 24 General harbor strike begins in NYC
  • May 1 Adolf Hitler and Ernst Rohm attempt to break up socialist May Day demonstrates, inviting Nazis from as far away as Nuremberg to take part in the violence
  • May 3 1st nonstop north American transcontinental flight (NY-San Diego) completed
  • May 4 Bloody street battles between Nazis, socialist & police in Vienna
  • May 4 New York state revokes its Mullan-Gage Act Prohibition law; federal Volstead Act still in place
  • May 7 Mine strike at Belgian Borinage railroad
  • May 13 Pulitzer prize awarded to Willa Carter for "One of Ours"
  • May 15 Cooperation of Dutch Molen forms
  • May 17 Fire during closing day ceremonies at Grover Cleveland School, South Carolina
  • May 19 KPD (communist revolts) in German Ruhr cities occupied by Allies
  • May 23 Launch of Belgium's SABENA airline: first flight from Brussels to Lympne, England
  • May 25 Britain recognizes Transjordan with Abdullah as its leader
  • May 26 Socialist Workers Youth International forms in Hamburg
  • May 28 US Attorney General says it is legal for women to wear trousers anywhere
  • May 31 China & USSR exchange diplomats
  • May 31 The South African Indian Congress (SAIC) forms in Durban, South Africa, with Omar Hajee Amod Jhaveri as President

Historic Event

Jun 6 Gangster Albert Anastasia is convicted of illegal possession of a firearm and sentenced to two years in prison

  • Jun 9 Brinks unveils 1st armored security vans
  • Jun 9 Bulgarian premier Stamboeliski & King Boris III overthrown

Historic Event

Jun 12 Harry Houdini frees himself from a straight jacket while suspended upside down, 40 feet (12 m) above ground in NYC

  • Jun 15 Belgium's Theunis government falls because of mine, post and railroad strike

Historic Event

Jun 16 Sun Yat Sen founds Chinese military academy

  • Jun 19 Comic Strip "Moon Mullins" debuts

Historic Event

Jun 21 Marcus Garvey sentenced to 5 years for using mail to defraud

Historic Event

Jun 24 Pope Pius XI speaks against allies occupying Ruhrgebied

Historic Event

Jun 28 Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Henry of the Netherlands state visit to London

  • Jul 1 1st permanent radio network-AT&T (WEAF NY & WMAF Mass)
  • Jul 3 Dockers' strike in Hull, Grimsby, Cardiff and Bristol over to London
  • Jul 6 Rail crash on New Zealand's main trunk line; 17 killed and 28 injured
  • Jul 6 The Central Executive Committee accepts the Treaty of Union, signed in Moscow in December 1922, and the Russian Empire becomes the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  • Jul 7 University of Delaware invents "junior year abroad" (at Sorbonne)
  • Jul 8 Warren G. Harding becomes 1st sitting US President to visit Alaska (Metlakahtla)
  • Jul 8 Walter Mittelholzer flies a Junkers F-13 to Spitsbergen/Oostland
  • Jul 10 2-pound hailstones kill 23 and many cattle in Rostov, Russia
  • Jul 10 All non-fascist parties dissolved in Italy
  • Jul 13 American explorer Roy Chapman Andrews discovers the first recognised dinosaur eggs, in the Gobi Desert, Mongolia
  • Jul 15 Italian parliament accepts new constitution
  • Jul 17 Carl Mays gives up 13 runs and 20 hits in 13-0 lose to Indians
  • Jul 18 British House of Lords accepts new divorce law
  • Jul 19 WRC-AM in Washington, D.C. begins radio transmissions
  • Jul 24 Allied Powers and Turkey sign peace treaty, Lausanne
  • Jul 25 German mark devalued to 600,000 Mark=$1

Historic Event

Jul 29 Albert Einstein speaks on pacifism in Berlin

  • Jul 29 KPD holds struggle day against fascism, in Germany
  • Jul 30 New Zealand claims Ross Dependency in Antarctica
  • Jul 31 Belgian Chamber discusses bilinguality at Ghent University

Historic Event

Aug 3 Vice President Calvin Coolidge becomes 30th US President upon death of President Warren G. Harding

  • Aug 6 Henry Sullivan becomes 3rd person and first American to swim English Channel (27 hours 25 minutes Dover-Calais)

Historic Event

Aug 6 Gustav Stresemann is named chancellor and foreign minister during riots and strikes in Germany

  • Aug 11 Dutch Premier de Geer resigns
  • Aug 12 Dutch AR-leader Coair replaces De Geer as minister of finances
  • Aug 12 Enrico Tiraboschi is 1st to swim English Channel westward
  • Aug 13 Gustav Stresemann becomes premier of German coalition government

Appointment of Interest

Aug 13 Turkish National Congress selects Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Pasja as 1st President of Turkey

  • Aug 13 US Steel Corp initiates 8-hour work day

Historic Event

Aug 15 Eamon de Valera arrested in Irish Free State

  • Aug 15 Mexico & US reaches accord over oil concession of 1917
  • Aug 20 London dock strike ends
  • Aug 23 Capt. Lowell Smith and Lt. John P. Richter performed the first mid-air refueling on De Havilland DH-4B, setting an endurance flight record of 37 hours.
  • Aug 31 League of Nations gives Belgium mandate of Ruanda-Urundi (was German)
  • Aug 31 Italian troops occupy Corfu
  • Aug 31 Mussolini orders the Greek Government to apologize for the deaths of an Italian general and his staff on the Greco-Albanian border
  • Sep 1 A magnitude 7.9 earthquake strikes Tokyo and Yokohama in Japan, killing 142,000 people
  • Sep 3 Dorothys Donelly's "Poppy" premieres in NYC
  • Sep 4 A Charlot & N Coward's revue "London Calling" premieres in London
  • Sep 4 Maiden flight of the first U.S. airship, the USS Shenandoah
  • Sep 6 Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands celebrates her silver jubilee
  • Sep 7 Interpol forms in Vienna
  • Sep 8 Honda Point Disaster: nine US Navy destroyers run aground off the California coast. Seven are lost.
  • Sep 9 Albin Stenroos runs world record 20 km (1:07:11.2)
  • Sep 10 Irish Free state joins League of Nations
  • Sep 11 ZR-1 (biggest active dirigible) flies over NY's tallest skyscraper, Woolworth Tower
  • Sep 12 Britain takes over Southern Rhodesia from British South Africa Co
  • Sep 13 With Spain's king Alfonso XIII assist, army coup under de Rivera
  • Sep 14 Miguel Primo de Rivera becomes dictator of Spain
  • Sep 15 Governor Walton of Oklahoma declares state of siege because of Ku Klux Klan terror
  • Sep 17 Sutton Vane's "Outward Bound," premieres in London
  • Sep 19 Ernst Tollers "Hinkemann," premieres in Leipzig
  • Sep 23 80,000 demonstrate in Amsterdam against Fleet law
  • Sep 26 Gustav Stresemann government ends resistance against occupiers in Ruhrgebied
  • Sep 26 The Commonwealth Conference is held in London, where Britain recognizes the right of the Dominions to make treaties with foreign powers
  • Sep 27 Italian troops leave occupied Corfu
  • Sep 28 Abyssinia (Ethiopia) leaves League of Nations
  • Sep 28 Radio Times 1st published
  • Sep 29 Steinhart Aquarium in Golden Gate Park opens to public
  • Oct 2 British occuping army leaves Constantinople

Historic Event

Oct 5 Edwin Hubble identifies Cepheid variable star

  • Oct 6 US Lt Al Williams fly 392.2 KPH (record)
  • Oct 6 USSR adopts experimental calendar
  • Oct 10 Saxony gets Social Democratic & Communist coalition government
  • Oct 11 German Mark falls to 10 billion per £, 4 billion per $
  • Oct 13 Angora (Ankara) becomes Turkey's capital
  • Oct 16 John Harwood patents self-winding watch (Switzerland)
  • Oct 17 Catholic University of Nijmegen Neth opens
  • Oct 19 Beierse government refuses to prohibit NSDAP newspaper Völkischer Beobachter
  • Oct 21 1st planetarium opens at Deutsche Museum in Munich
  • Oct 24 General Otto von Lossow calls Reichswehr to Berlin to form a dictatorship

Historic Publication

Oct 25 Senate committee publishes 1st report on Teapot Dome scandal

  • Oct 26 Dutch second Chamber rejects Fleet laws (50-49 vote)
  • Oct 26 Dutch Government of Ruijs de Beerenbrouck resigns
  • Oct 29 Army move SPD/KPD-government to German part of Saxony
  • Oct 29 Textile strike against lower wages begins in Enschede, Netherlands
  • Oct 29 Turkey declares independence (successor state to Ottoman Empire)
  • Oct 29 Mustafa Kemal officially confirms Turkey as a republic (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), now commemorated annually as the Republic Day of Turkey
  • Oct 31 160 consecutive days of 100 degrees F begin at Marble Bar, Australia
  • Nov 1 Bruno E Lucander forms Aero E/Y (Finnair)
  • Nov 2 Bloody street fights in Aachen led to establishment of the ill-fated Rhenish Republic
  • Nov 2 Gustav Stresemann's SPD-ministers in Germany, step down
  • Nov 6 USSR adopts experimental calendar, with 5-day "weeks"
  • Nov 8 Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party stage "Beer Hall Putsch" in Munich, Germany
  • Nov 9 Beer Hall Putsch's second day in Munich; Nazis fail to overthrow government, 16 die and Adolf Hitler flees
  • Nov 10 German ex-crown prince flees Netherlands for Germany
  • Nov 11 Eternal flame lit for the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier under the Arc de Triomphe in Paris
  • Nov 12 In Germany, Adolf Hitler is arrested for attempt to seize power during "Beer Hall Putsch" coup
  • Nov 12 Dr Hjalmar Schacht is appointed special commissioner to deal with the currency problem in Germany; by November 1924 the currency will have been restored
  • Nov 14 Kentaro Suzuki completes his ascent of Mount Iizuna.
  • Nov 19 The Oklahoma State Senate ousts Governor Walton for anti-Ku Klux Klan measures