Events in History in 1937

  • Jan 1 Anastasio Somoza García becomes President of Nicaragua
  • Jan 1 German officer Claus von Stauffenberg promoted to captain
  • Jan 1 Safety glass in vehicle windscreens becomes mandatory in Great Britain.
  • Jan 1 US Army Air Corps physiological research laboratory completed, Ohio
  • Jan 5 Only unicameral state legislature in US opens 1st session in Nebraska
  • Jan 8 -50°F (-45.6°C), San Jacinto, Nevada (state record)
  • Jan 9 Italian regime bans marriages between Italians & Abyssinians

Theater Premiere

Jan 9 Maxwell Anderson's stage drama "High Tor" premieres at Martin Beck Theatre, NYC; runs for 171 performances, wins Drama Critics' Circle Award for Best Play

  • Jan 12 Plough for laying submarine cable patented
  • Jan 15 Spanish Civil War: Second Battle of the Corunna Road ends after both forces withdraw

Historic Event

Jan 19 Millionaire Howard Hughes sets transcontinental air record (7h 28m 25s)

  • Jan 20 -45°F (-43°C), Boca, California (state record)
  • Jan 20 1st US Presidential Inauguration day held on Jan 20th, (previously March 4th)

Historic Event

Jan 23 Karl Radek and sixteen others go on trial in Moscow as part of the Great Purge, many are sentenced to death

  • Jan 25 Miami-to-Tampa bus overturned in a canal, kills 13
  • Feb 1 Stapleton, Staten Island, becomes a customs-free port
  • Feb 4 Jim Margie, Philadelphia, bowls 900 in 3 (unsanctioned) games

Historic Event

Feb 5 FDR proposes enlarging Supreme Court, "court packing" plan failed

  • Feb 6 K Elizabeth Ohi becomes 1st Japanese-US female lawyer
  • Feb 8 Maxwell Anderson's "Masque of Kings" premieres in NYC
  • Feb 11 44-day sit-down strike at General Motors in Flint Mich ends
  • Feb 13 "Prince Valiant" comic strip appears; known for historical detail
  • Feb 13 US male Figure Skating championship won by Robin Lee
  • Feb 16 DuPont Corp patents nylon, developed by employee Wallace Carothers

Historic Event

Feb 16 Jean Anouilh's "Le Voyageur Sans Baggage" premieres in Paris

  • Feb 20 1st automobile/airplane combination tested, Santa Monica, California
  • Feb 21 Initial flight of the first successful flying car, Waldo Waterman's Arrowbile
  • Feb 21 The League of Nations bans foreign national "volunteers" in the Spanish Civil War
  • Feb 24 1st US group hospital-medical cooperative authorized, Washington, D.C.
  • Feb 26 Christopher Isherwood and W. H. Auden's "Ascent of F6" premieres in London
  • Mar 1 1st permanent automobile license plates issued (Ct)
  • Mar 1 Governor Wouters innaugrates the radio station on the Dutch Antilles
  • Mar 1 US Steel raises workers' wages to $5 a day
  • Mar 2 Mexico nationalizes oil
  • Mar 3 Australia snatches series against England 3-2 after being 2-0 down
  • Mar 7 Bucharin, Jagoda & Rykov pushed out of CPSU in USSR

Catholic Encyclical

Mar 14 Pope Pius XI publishes anti-nazi-encyclical Mit brennender Sorge

  • Mar 15 1st state contraceptive clinic opens in Raleigh, North Carolina
  • Mar 15 First American blood bank in a hospital is opened at Cook County Hospital in Chicago, Illinois
  • Mar 18 Gas explosion in school in New London, Texas: 294 die
  • Mar 18 The human-powered aircraft, Pedaliante, flies 1 kilometre (0.62 miles) outside Milan.
  • Mar 19 Astronomer Fritz Zwicky publishes his research on stellar explosion in which he coins the term "supernova" and hypothesizes that they were the origin of cosmic rays
  • Mar 19 Pope Pius XI publishes encyclical Divini redemptoris against communism

Battle of Interest

Mar 20 Franco offensive at Guadalajara, Spain

  • Mar 21 Ponce massacre, police kill 19 at Puerto Rican Nationalist parade
  • Mar 23 LA Railway Co starts using PCC streetcars
  • Mar 24 Bus carrying a roller skater troupe to Cincinnati from St.Louis crashes into a bridge abutment in Salem, Illinois, killing 21 people
  • Mar 24 National Gallery of Art established by Congress
  • Mar 25 Italy & Yugoslavia sign non-aggression treaty (Pact of Belgrade)
  • Mar 25 Washington Daily News is 1st US newspaper with perfumed advertising page
  • Mar 26 Spinach growers of Crystal City, Texas, erect statue of Popeye
  • Mar 26 William H. Hastie becomes 1st black federal judge (Virgin Islands)
  • Apr 1 Aden becomes a British crown colony
  • Apr 22 NYC college students stage 4th annual peace strike
  • Apr 26 German Luftwaffe destroys Basque town of Guernica in Spain
  • Apr 27 1st US social security payment made
  • Apr 28 1st commercial flight across Pacific operated by Pan Am
  • Apr 29 Symbolic 'Golden Rivet', completing the Golden Gate Bridge connecting San Francisco and Marin County, is driven (later replaced with a more structurally sound steel version)
  • Apr 30 The Philippines holds a plebiscite for Filipino women on whether they should be extended the right to suffrage; over 90% would vote in the affirmative
  • May 1 US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Neutrality Act, banning travel on belligerent ships and imposes an arms embargo on warring nations

Historic Event

May 3 Margaret Mitchell wins Pulitzer Prize for "Gone With The Wind"

The Age of Zeppelins

May 6 German airship Hindenburg explodes in flames at Lakehurst, New Jersey, killing 35 of the 97 on board and 1 on the ground

  • May 10 Busmen strike in London
  • May 11 Los Glaciares National Park established in Patagonia, Argentina, the country's largest national park (UNESCO World Heritage Site 1981) [1]

Royal Coronation

May 12 Coronation of King George VI of Great Britain (and his other realms and territories beyond the sea) at Westminster Abbey, London

  • May 17 Juan Negrin succeeds Largo Caballero as Spain's premier
  • May 25 1st airmail letter to circle globe returns to NY
  • May 26 Dutch Rail NV at law forms
  • May 27 Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco opens to pedestrians
  • May 28 Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco opens to vehicular traffic

Election of Interest

May 28 Neville Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

  • May 30 Memorial Day Massacre: Chicago Police Department shoot and kill 10 unarmed demonstrators during the "Little Steel Strike" in the United States
  • May 31 1st quadruplets to finish college (Baylor University)
  • May 31 German warships bombard Almeria, Spain

Historic Event

Jun 1 Edith Wharton suffers a heart attack and collapses at the French country home of Ogden Codman

  • Jun 1 Prince Konoye becomes Japanese premier

Historic Event

Jun 4 Léon Blum becomes premier of People's front government of France

Historic Event

Jun 5 Henry Ford initiates a 32 hour work week

Very Rare Photo of the Supreme Court

Jun 7 Time magazine publishes the second of the only two known photos taken of the United States Supreme Court in session

  • Jun 8 World's largest flower blooms in NY Botanical Garden, 12' calla lily
  • Jun 11 Marx Brothers' "A Day At The Races", directed by Sam Wood, is released in the US
  • Jun 12 After a one-day show trial, eight Soviet generals are sentenced to death and executed by the NKVD
  • Jun 19 Francisco Franco's troops conquer the Bilbao Basques
  • Jun 21 French People's Popular Front government of Socialist Léon Blum falls
  • Jun 25 Cub Augie Galan becomes 1st player to switch hit HRs in a game
  • Jun 30 The world's first emergency call telephone service is launched in London using the number 999
  • Jul 1 Rev Martin Niemöller arrested in Nazi Germany for activities against the State
  • Jul 1 Spanish bishops support Francisco Franco and his fascist movement

Historic Event

Jul 2 Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan disappear flying over the Pacific Ocean en route to Howland Island. Noonan is declared dead the following year, and Earhart is declared the year after (1939)

  • Jul 5 117°F (47°C), Medicine Lake, Montana (state record)
  • Jul 5 Republican offensive by Brunete in Spain
  • Jul 5 Spam, the luncheon meat is first introduced into the market by the Hormel Foods Corporation
  • Jul 7 Japanese and Chinese troops clash at the Marco Polo Bridge, beginning the Second Sino-Japanese War
  • Jul 12 -13) Tupolev ANT-25 non-stop flight Moscow to San Jacinto, California
  • Jul 15 Buchenwald Concentration Camp opens
  • Jul 15 Japanese attack Marco Polo Bridge, invade China
  • Jul 19 Entartete Art Fair opens in Munich

Election of Interest

Jul 22 Irish premier Eamon de Valera wins elections

  • Jul 22 US Senate rejects FDR's proposal to enlarge Supreme Court
  • Jul 23 Isolation of pituitary hormone announced (Yale University)
  • Jul 24 Alabama drops charges against 5 blacks accused of rape in Scottsboro
  • Jul 26 End of the Battle of Brunete in the Spanish Civil War.
  • Jul 27 International Lawn Tennis Challenge, Wimbledon: GB 4 title streak ends as American Frank Parker beats Charles Hare 6-2, 6-4, 6-2 for an unbeatable 3-1 lead; ends 4-1
  • Jul 28 Eddie Paynter scores 322 for Lancashire against Sussex
  • Jul 28 Richard Moore scores 316 for Hampshire against Warwickshire
  • Jul 29 Japanese troops occupies Peking and Tientsin
  • Jul 29 Tongzhou Incident: East Hopei Army mutinies against Japanese troops and civilians
  • Jul 30 Russian Politburo issues NKVD Order no. 00447, to repress former kulak and anti-soviets, 269,100 to be arrested, 76,000 to be shot. Part of the Great Purge.
  • Aug 2 Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 is passed in America, essentially rendering marijuana and all its by-products illegal
  • Aug 6 Franco's artillery fires on Madrid
  • Aug 6 US and USSR sign trade treaty
  • Aug 8 Bonneville Dam on Columbia River begins producing power
  • Aug 13 Second Sino-Japanese War: Japanese forces begin the Battle of Shanghai, a conflict that will last 3 months and involve 1 million troops
  • Aug 14 Appalachian Trail is formally completed, traversing 2,000 miles and 14 US States, Georgia to Maine
  • Aug 14 China declares war on Japan
  • Aug 18 1st FM radio construction permit issued (W1X0J (WGTR) in Boston MA)
  • Aug 24 In the Spanish Civil War, the Basque Army surrenders to the Italian Corpo Truppe Volontarie following the Santoña Agreement.
  • Aug 24 Republican offensive near Belchite, Spain
  • Aug 25 Japanese fleet blockades Chinese coast
  • Aug 26 General Franco's Nationalist troops conquer Santander during the Spanish Civil War
  • Aug 26 Pumping to build Treasure Island in San Francisco Bay is finished
  • Aug 27 George E T Eyston sets world auto speed record at 345.49 MPH
  • Aug 28 Toyota Motors becomes an independent company
  • Aug 31 Det's rookie Rudy York sets record for HRs of 18 HRs in August
  • Sep 1 4th Chicago College All-Star Game: All-Stars beat Green Bay, 6-0; 84,560 at Soldier Field
  • Sep 1 Battle of Gijon in Spain begins
  • Sep 2 US Housing Authority created by National Housing Act
  • Sep 5 Spanish Civil War: Llanes falls
  • Sep 6 Spanish Civil War: The start of the Battle of El Mazuco
  • Sep 8 Pan Arab conference about Palestine opens
  • Sep 14 President Franklin D. Roosevelt bans US ships from trading arms with China or Japan
  • Sep 15 Works Progress Administration (WPA) extends L-Taraval streetcar line to San Francisco Zoo, at Sloat Blvd (San Francisco, California)
  • Sep 18 The first New Zealand State house opens in Miramar
  • Sep 19 Seven convicts take Folsom Prison Warden Clarence Larkin hostage in escape attempt, the warden, a guard, and 2 inmates are killed in ensuing stand-off; 5 remaining prisoners convicted of murder and executed by newly introduced gas chamber in California
  • Sep 22 Date celebrated as the first International Hobbit Day and the birthdays of Bilbo and Frodo Baggins
  • Sep 22 Forest fire kills 14 and injures 50 in Cody, Wyoming
  • Sep 22 Spanish Civil War: Peña Blanca is taken; the end of the Battle of El Mazuco.
  • Sep 25 "il duce" visits Berlin/named "the Fuhrer" to corporal 1st class
  • Sep 25 Battle of Pingxingguan Pass: Chinese force defeat the Japanese army in a key battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War
  • Sep 27 1st Santa Claus Training School opens (Albion NY)
  • Sep 27 Balinese Tiger declared extinct
  • Sep 28 FDR dedicates Bonneville Dam on Columbia River (Oregon)
  • Oct 1 Pullman Co formally recognizes Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
  • Oct 2 FDR visits Grand Coulee Dam construction site in Washington State
  • Oct 5 Dutch Minister Carl Romme says unemployment is 25% "quarter of Romme"
  • Oct 7 Johan Wagenaar's "Feestmars" premieres in Amsterdam
  • Oct 13 A recorded trace of snow in Central Park, NYC

Historic Publication

Oct 15 Ernest Hemingway's novel "To Have & Have Not" published

  • Oct 21 Francisco Franco's troops occupy Gijon
  • Oct 25 Belgian government of Zealand falls due to black money
  • Oct 31 Spanish government moves from Valencia to Barcelona
  • Nov 1 Stalinists execute by shooting Pastor Paul Hamberg and seven members of Azerbaijan's Lutheran community (including three women).

Historic Event

Nov 5 Adolf Hitler informs his military leaders in a secret meeting of his intentions of going to war

  • Nov 8 The Nazi exhibition Der ewige Jude ("The Eternal Jew") opens in Munich.
  • Nov 9 Japanese army conquers Shanghai
  • Nov 9 St Louis Cards Triple Crown winner Joe Medwick is named NL MVP

Historic Event

Nov 10 Brazilian dictator Getulio Vargas proclaims "Estado novo"

  • Nov 11 German aircraft Messerschmidt ME-109V13 flies a new world air speed record for landplanes with piston engines of 610.95 km/h (379.62 mph)
  • Nov 11 Nobel prize for physics awarded to American Clinton Joseph Davisson and Briton George Paget Thomson "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"
  • Nov 15 First US congressional session in air-conditioned chambers
  • Nov 17 Britain's Lord Halifax visits Germany, beginning of appeasement
  • Nov 23 Clifford Odets' play "Golden Boy" premieres on Broadway in NYC
  • Nov 23 Emile Janson becomes Belgian premier

Theater Premiere

Nov 23 John Steinbeck's play "Of Mice & Men" premieres in NYC

  • Nov 25 World's Fair of Paris closes (31.2 million visitors)
  • Nov 29 Dutch Prince Bernhard injured in auto accident in Netherlands
  • Dec 1 Japan recognizes Spain's Franco government
  • Dec 7 Dutch Minister Romme proclaims married women are forbidden to work
  • Dec 11 Italy withdraws from League of Nations
  • Dec 12 Japanese aircraft shell & sink US gunboat Panay on Yangtze River in China. (Japan apologized & eventually paid US $2.2M in reparations)
  • Dec 13 Japanese troops conquer and plunder Nanjing (Nanjing Massacre)
  • Dec 16 Theodore Cole and Ralph Roe attempt to escape from American federal prison Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay; neither is ever seen again.
  • Dec 22 Lincoln Tunnel, under the Hudson River, opens to traffic, connecting Weehawken, New Jersey to Midtown Manhattan, New York City
  • Dec 23 First flight of the Vickers Wellington bomber
  • Dec 24 Dutch government recognizes Italian king Emanuel III as emperor of Abyssinia
  • Dec 25 Queensland all out for 93 v SA in front of 10,436
  • Dec 28 Fascist Octavian Goga becomes Prime Minister of Romania
  • Dec 29 Constitution of Ireland (Irish: Bunreacht na hÉireann) is enacted and Irish free state is named Eire
  • Dec 29 Pan Am starts service between San Francisco and Auckland, New Zealand