On This Day

Events in History in 1945 (Part 2)

Events 201 - 400 of 553

  • Apr 4 World War II: Soviet forces liberate Hungary from German occupation, establishing their own communist satellite state. This was celebrated as Liberation Day until 1989.
  • Apr 4 The Holocaust: US forces liberate the Ohrdruf concentration camp in Germany, the first such camp to be liberated by the US Army
  • Apr 4 World War II: US Army occupies Bielefeld in north-eastern Germany
  • Apr 5 World War II: Dutch city of Almelo is freed by the Second Canadian Corps
  • Apr 6 The Holocaust: Nazis begin evacuating prisoners from Buchenwald concentration camp
  • Apr 6 World War II: Dutch city of Coevorden freed from German occupation by Canadian forces
  • Apr 6 Battle of Okinawa: Giant Japanese battleship Yamato heads to Okinawa with orders to beach herself and be destroyed defending the island
  • Apr 7 Kuniaki Koiso resigns as Prime Minister of Japan after the US invasion of Okinawa; he is replaced by Kantaro Suzuki
  • Apr 7 Battle of Okinawa: Massive kamikaze attack of around 110 Japanese aircraft damages three US battleships off Okinawa island
  • Apr 7 Sonderkommando Elbe, special Luftwaffe units designed to destroy Allied planes by ramming them mid-air, are sent on their first and only mission of World War II
  • Apr 7 Battle of Okinawa: US planes intercept Japanese fleet heading for Okinawa on a suicide mission, super battleship Yamato and four destroyers are sunk
  • Apr 8 Nazi occupiers executed, Nazi general Christiansen flees Netherlands
  • Apr 9 Battleship Admiral Scheer sunk by RAF bombing in Kiel
  • Apr 9 Liberty ship at Bari Italy carrying aerial bombs explodes, kills 360
  • Apr 9 World War II: The Battle of Königsberg, East Prussia, ends.
  • Apr 10 Canadian troops conquer Deventer

  • Apr 10 General Blaskowitz becomes nazi leader of "Fort Holland"
  • Apr 10 German troops attack Ijsselbrug
  • Apr 10 US troops land on Tsugen Shima Okinawa
  • Apr 10 William Schuman & Antony Tudor's ballet premieres in NYC
  • Apr 11 Allied troops liberate Basket-Compascuum
  • Apr 11 SS burns & shoots 1,100 at Gardelegen
  • Apr 11 US captures Tsugen Shima
  • Apr 11 Four soldiers in the Sixth Armored Division of the US Third Army liberate the Nazi concentration camp, Buchenwald
  • Apr 11 US troops conquers Mulheim, Oberhausen, Bochum, Unna, Essen
  • Apr 12 Canadian troops liberate Nazi concentration camp Westerbork, Netherlands

Person of InterestDeath of FDR

Apr 12 US President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies in office and Vice President Harry Truman is sworn in as 33rd US President

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The famous unfinished portrait of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, started by Elizabeth Shoumatoff on the day of his death
The famous unfinished portrait of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, started by Elizabeth Shoumatoff on the day of his death
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  • Apr 12 Richard Strauss completes his "Metamorphosis"
  • Apr 13 Canadian army liberates Teuge & Assen, Netherlnds, from Nazis
  • Apr 13 Red Army occupies Vienna
  • Apr 13 US Marines conquer Minna Shima off Okinawa
  • Apr 13 Canadian soldier Léo Major single-handedly liberates Dutch town of Zwolle by fooling Germans into thinking a raid had begun
  • Apr 14 American planes bomb Tokyo & damage the Imperial Palace
  • Apr 14 World War II: US 7th Army & allies forces capture Nuremberg & Stuttgart in Germany
  • Apr 14 US forces conquered Motobu peninsula on Okinawa
  • Apr 14 US Marines attack Yae Take on Okinawa

  • Apr 15 British Army liberates Nazi concentration camp Bergen-Belsen

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 15 FDR buried in grounds of Hyde Park home

32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President
Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Apr 15 Pope Pius XII publishes encyclical Communium interpretes dolorum
  • Apr 15 US troops occupy concentration camp Colditz
  • Apr 16 Battle of Okinawa: US Army invades and seizes the Ie Shima Airfield on Ie Shima island near Okinawa
  • Apr 16 World War II: Dutch town of Arnhem, site of failed Operation Market Garden, is freed by British and Canadian forces
  • Apr 16 German troops in Groningen surrender

Victory in BattleRaising a Flag over the Reichstag

Apr 16 Battle of Berlin: Red Army begins its attack on the capital of Nazi Germany

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Soldiers Raqymzhan Qoshqarbaev and Georgij Bulatov raise the Soviet Union flag on the roof of the Reichstag building in Berlin
Soldiers Raqymzhan Qoshqarbaev and Georgij Bulatov raise the Soviet Union flag on the roof of the Reichstag building in Berlin
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  • Apr 16 US troops enter Nuremberg, Germany
  • Apr 16 US troops land on He Shima, Okinawa
  • Apr 16 Colditz Castle, the high-security prisoner of war camp in Germany, is liberated by American troops
  • Apr 17 8th Air Force bombs Dresden
  • Apr 17 German occupiers flood Wieringermeer, Netherlands

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 17 Benito Mussolini flees from Salò to Milan

Italian Dictator Benito Mussolini
Italian Dictator
Benito Mussolini
  • Apr 17 US troops land in central Mindanao, Philippines during Battle of Mindanao
  • Apr 18 Epe freed (by corporal G van Aken)
  • Apr 18 Clandestine Radio 1212, after broadcasting pro-nazi propaganda for months used their influence to trap 350,000 German army group B troops
  • Apr 18 Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Bolivia established
  • Apr 19 US aircraft carrier Franklin heavy damaged in Japanese air raid
  • Apr 19 US offensive against Shuri-barrier on Okinawa
  • Apr 19 Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Guatemala are established
  • Apr 20 German occupiers flood Beemster & Fencer
  • Apr 20 Soviet artillery begins shelling Berlin
  • Apr 20 US 7th army captured German city of Nuremberg
  • Apr 20 US forces conquer Motobu peninsula on Okinawa
  • Apr 21 Allied troops occupy German nuclear laboratory
  • Apr 21 He Shima Okinawa conquered in 5 days, 5,000 die
  • Apr 21 Ivor Novello's "Perchance to Dream" premieres in London
  • Apr 21 Soviet army arrives at outskirts of Berlin
  • Apr 21 US 7th Army reaches Nuremberg
  • Apr 22 Concentration Camp at Sachsenhausen liberated

BattleBattle of Interest

Apr 22 Battle of Berlin: Upon being informed that a planned counter-attack never happened, Adolf Hitler flies into a rage, denounces the German Army and concedes World War II is lost

Dictator of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Dictator of Nazi Germany
Adolf Hitler

Conference meetingMeeting of Interest

Apr 22 SS chief Heinrich Himmler secretly meets with Count Folke Bernadotte of Sweden, asking him to act as an intermediary for a surrender offer to the Western Allies. The Allies do not take the offer seriously.

Leading Nazi and Reichsführer of the SS Heinrich Himmler
Leading Nazi and Reichsführer of the SS
Heinrich Himmler
  • Apr 23 Concentration camp Flossenburg liberated
  • Apr 23 US troops in Italy cross river Po
  • Apr 25 45 countries convene UN Conference on Intl Organization in San Francisco
  • Apr 25 Allied air raid on Surabaja, Java
  • Apr 25 British troops reach Grebbe line Neth
  • Apr 25 Clandestine Radio 1212, used to hoax Nazi Germany's final transmission
  • Apr 25 Last Boeing B-17 attack against Nazi Germany
  • Apr 25 Soviet forces complete their encirclement of Berlin, cutting off all access points west of the German capital
  • Apr 25 "Elbe Day" - US and Soviet forces meet at Torgau, Germany on the Elbe River during the invasion of Germany in WWII

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Apr 26 Marshal Philippe Pétain, leader of France's Vichy collaborationist regime during World War II, arrested for treason

French General Philippe Pétain
French General
Philippe Pétain
  • Apr 26 World War II: Battle of Bautzen - last successful German tank-offensive of the war and last noteworthy victory of the Wehrmacht
  • Apr 27 2nd Republic of Austria forms
  • Apr 27 Italian partisans capture Benito Mussolini at Dongo (Lake Como)
  • Apr 27 US 5th army enters Genoa
  • Apr 27 World War II: The Völkischer Beobachter, the newspaper of the Nazi Party, ceases publication
  • Apr 28 British commandos attack Elbe & occupy Lauenburg
  • Apr 28 US 5th army reaches Swiss border
  • Apr 29 First food drop by RAF above Nazi-occupied Holland (Operation Manna)
  • Apr 29 Japanese army evacuates Rangoon
  • Apr 29 German armies in Italy sign an unconditional surrender to the Western Allies to be carried out on 2 May
  • Apr 29 US Army liberates 31,601 people from the Dachau Nazi concentration camp in Germany
  • Apr 29 Venice & Mestre captured by the Allies

  • Apr 30 Concentration camp Munchen-Allag freed
  • Apr 30 Lord Haw-Haw (William Joyce) calls for crusade against the Bolsheviks
  • Apr 30 Red Army occupies Demmin
  • Apr 30 Red Army opens attack on German Reichstag building in Berlin
  • Apr 30 Soviet Army frees Ravensbruck concentration camp
  • Apr 30 US troops attack the Elbe
  • Apr 30 Record 48 U-boats sunk by the Allies this month
  • Apr 30 Adolf Hitler commits suicide along with his new wife Eva Braun in the Fuhrerbunker in Berlin as the Red Army captures the city
  • May 1 About 1,000 citizens of Demmin in Germany, commit suicide provoked by occupation by Soviet Red Army
  • May 1 Admiral Karl Doenitz forms German government
  • May 1 Australian & Dutch troops land on Tarakan
  • May 1 General Belgian Labor Union (ABVV) party forms
  • May 1 Radio Budapest, Hungary re-enters shortwave broadcasting after WW II
  • May 1 Seys-Inquart flees to Flensburg
  • May 1 Soviet army reaches Rostock
  • May 2 Allies occupy Wismar, Northern Germany
  • May 2 Dutch Queen Wilhelmina & Princess Juliana reach Gilze-Rijen
  • May 2 More than 1,000,000 German soldiers officially surrender to the Western Allies in Italy and Austria
  • May 2 World War II: Battle of Berlin ends as Soviet army takes Berlin and General Weidling surrenders
  • May 2 Yugoslav troops occupy Trieste
  • May 3 1st Polish Armoured Division of the Polish Armed Forces in the West occupies Wilhelmshafen in Germany
  • May 3 Allies arrest German physicist Werner Heisenberg
  • May 3 British troop join in Rangoon
  • May 3 World War II: German ship "Cap Arcona" laden with prisoners sunk by Royal Air Force in East Sea, 5,800 killed - one of largest maritime losses of life

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 4 German forces in Denmark, Norway and the Netherlands surrender unconditionally to British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery at Luneburg Heath

British WWII Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery
British WWII Field Marshal
Bernard Montgomery
  • May 4 German forces in Bavaria surrender unconditionally to American commander Jacob L. Devers
  • May 5 Mauthausen Concentration camp in Austria liberated by US forces from 41st Reconnaissance Squadron
  • May 5 Netherlands & Denmark liberated from Nazi control
  • May 5 Uprising against occupying SS troops in Prague
  • May 5 Premier Gerbrandy on Radio Orange tells Dutch they are liberated

BattleBattle of Interest

May 5 World War II: Admiral Karl Dönitz, leader of Germany after Hitler's death, orders all U-boats to cease offensive operations and return to their bases

Naval Commander and Nazi leader Karl Dönitz
Naval Commander and Nazi leader
Karl Dönitz
  • May 6 General Johannes Blaskowitz surrenders German troops in Netherlands
  • May 6 World War II: Axis Sally delivers her last propaganda broadcast to Allied troops (first was on December 11, 1941).
  • May 7 World War II: British troops enter Utrecht, Netherlands

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 7 World War II: Unconditional German surrender to the Allies signed by General Alfred Jodl at Rheims

Nazi Leader Alfred Jodl
Nazi Leader
Alfred Jodl
  • May 7 Princess Irene Brigade moves into The Hague, Netherlands
  • May 7 Pulitzer prize awarded to John Hersey (Bell for Adano)
  • May 7 SS open fire on crowd in Amsterdam, killing 22
  • May 8 Canadian troops move into Amsterdam
  • May 8 Chinese counter attack at Tsjangte, supports by 14th air fleet

Victory in BattleNazi Germany Surrenders

May 8 German General Wilhelm Keitel formally surrenders to the Allies represented by the United States, the UK, France and the Soviet Union in Berlin

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German commander Wilhelm Keitel signs the final unconditional surrender of Germany in the ruins of Berlin
German commander Wilhelm Keitel signs the final unconditional surrender of Germany in the ruins of Berlin
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  • May 8 V-E Day: World War II ends in Europe after Germany signs an unconditional surrender
  • May 9 Czechoslovakia liberated from Nazi occupation (National Day)
  • May 9 Nazi propagandist Max Blokzijl arrested
  • May 9 Norwegian nazi collaborators Vidkun Quisling arrested
  • May 9 Victory celebration at Red Square
  • May 9 World War II: Partisans liberate Ljubljana.

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 9 World War II: Hermann Goering is captured by the United States Army

Nazi Politician Hermann Goering
Nazi Politician
Hermann Goering
  • May 9 World War II: The Soviet Union marks Victory Day
  • May 9 World War II: The Channel Islands are formally liberated by the British
  • May 10 Allies capture Rangoon from the Japanese
  • May 10 Soviet troops occupied Prague
  • May 11 US Marines conquer Awatsha Draw, Okinawa
  • May 13 US troops conquer Dakeshi Okinawa
  • May 14 Kamikaze Zero strikes US aircraft carrier Enterprise
  • May 14 US offensive on Okinawa, Sugar Loaf conquered

Event of interestEvent of Interest

May 14 Physician Joseph G. Hamilton injects misdiagnosed cancer patient Albert Stevens (CAL-1) with 131 kBq (3.55 µCi) of plutonium without his knowledge. Stevens lives another 20 years, surviving the highest known accumulated radiation dose in any human

Human Medical Subject Albert Stevens
Human Medical Subject
Albert Stevens
Physician Joseph Gilbert Hamilton
Physician
Joseph Gilbert Hamilton
  • May 15 World War II: The final skirmish in Europe is fought near Prevalje, Slovenia
  • May 16 Violent battles around Sugar Loaf and Half Moon, Okinawa
  • May 17 2 US P-47 Thunderbolts bomb Kiushu

  • May 18 Tigers & A's both have 7 straight games postponed due to rain
  • May 21 Nazi SS-Reichsfuehrer Heinrich Himmler captured
  • May 22 6th US Marine division reaches suburbs of Naha Okinawa
  • May 22 NSB-Fuhrer Rost van Tonningen makes failed suicide attempt
  • May 23 The Allies arrest the members of the Nazi Flensburg government, including Admiral Karl Donitz, formally dissolving Nazi Germany
  • May 23 German island of Helgoland in the North Sea surrenders to British
  • May 23 Lord Haw-Haw (William Joyce) arrested at Danish boundary
  • May 25 Arthur C Clark proposes relay satellites in geosynchronous orbit
  • May 26 US drop fire bombs on Tokyo
  • May 29 US 1st Marine division conquers Shuri Castle, Okinawa
  • Jun 1 WLB-AM in Minneapolis Minn changes call letters to KUOM
  • Jun 4 6th US Marine division occupies Orokoe Peninsula Okinawa
  • Jun 4 US, Soviet Union, Britain and France agree to divide up occupied Germany
  • Jun 5 USA, UK, USSR, France declare supreme authority over Germany
  • Jun 6 "Free People" premieres in Amsterdam
  • Jun 9 -10] Australian troops land in Brunei Bay, North Borneo
  • Jun 10 US destroyer William D Porter ("Willie Dee") sunk by kamikaze
  • Jun 12 US 7th Marine regiment conquer summit of Kunishi Ridge, Okinawa
  • Jun 13 Orokoe peninsula Okinawa captured, with 6,000 dead
  • Jun 15 Dutch political party ANJV established in Concert building, Amsterdam
  • Jun 17 Day of Unity in West Germany (National Day)
  • Jun 18 William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) charged with treason
  • Jun 21 US defeat Japanese forces on Okinawa
  • Jun 23 Last organized Japanese defiance broken (Tarakan)
  • Jun 24 Schermerhorn government forms in the Netherlands
  • Jun 24 The Moscow Victory Parade takes place
  • Jun 25 Allied landing at Ternate, capital of the Maluku Islands in modern day Indonesia
  • Jun 25 Imperial General Headquarters in Tokyo announce fall of Okinawa

United NationsUnited Nations Charter

Jun 26 United Nations Charter signed by 50 nations in San Francisco

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Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations
Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations
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  • Jun 27 Foundation 1940-45 established

  • Jun 28 Polish Provisional government of National Unity set up by Soviets
  • Jun 29 20.6 cm rainfall at Litchville North Dakota (state record)
  • Jun 29 Ruthenia, formerly in Czechoslovakia, annexed by Soviet Union, becomes Ukrainian SSR
  • Jun 30 17-day newspaper strike in NY begins
  • Jul 1 55th Postmaster General: Robert E Hannegan of Mo takes office
  • Jul 1 Allies troop land on Balikpapan

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 3 James F. Byrnes becomes 49th US Secretary of State, succeeding Edward Stettinius

Politician and US Secretary of State James F. Byrnes
Politician and US Secretary of State
James F. Byrnes
  • Jul 4 Field Marshal Henry Maitland Wilson gives Britain's agreement to use the atomic bomb against Japan at the Combined Policy Committee in Washington D. C.

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Jul 5 Labour Party under Clement Attlee wins British parliamentary elections (results not declared until 26 July)

British Prime Minister Clement Attlee
British Prime Minister
Clement Attlee
  • Jul 5 World War II: Liberation of the Philippines declared
  • Jul 6 Nicaragua becomes 1st nation to ratify the Charter of the United Nations
  • Jul 6 US President Harry Truman signs executive order establishing Medal of Freedom
  • Jul 6 Washington Senator Rick Ferrell catches a record 1,722 games
  • Jul 10 Admiral Marc Mitscher named chief of US Navy staff
  • Jul 14 Battleship USS South Dakota is 1st US ship to bombard Japan

USAManhattan Project

Jul 16 1st test detonation of an atomic bomb, Trinity Site, Alamogordo, New Mexico as part of the US Manhattan Project

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'Calutron Girls' monitoring a mass spectrometer during the Manhattan Project. Gladys Owens, in the foreground, did not know what she was involved with until seeing this picture on a tour fifty years later.
'Calutron Girls' monitoring a mass spectrometer during the Manhattan Project. Gladys Owens, in the foreground, did not know what she was involved with until seeing this picture on a tour fifty years later.
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  • Jul 16 Cruiser Indianapolis leaves San Francisco with atom bomb

Conference of InterestPotsdam Conference

Jul 17 Potsdam Conference: Harry Truman, Joseph Stalin and Winston Churchill hold 1st post-World War II meeting

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Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Josef Stalin in the garden of Cecilienhof Palace before meeting for the Potsdam Conference
Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Josef Stalin in the garden of Cecilienhof Palace before meeting for the Potsdam Conference
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  • Jul 19 USS Cod saves 51 sailors from Dutch sub in only sub-to-sub rescue