On This Day

Events in History in 1945 (Part 3)

Events 401 - 553 of 553

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 23 Marshal Philippe Pétain, leader of the French Vichy collaborationist regime during World War II goes on trial

French General Philippe Pétain
French General
Philippe Pétain
  • Jul 24 US destroyer Underhill torpedoed West of Guam

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Jul 26 After Labour landslide in general election, Clement Attlee becomes British Prime Minister

British Prime Minister Clement Attlee
British Prime Minister
Clement Attlee

Conference of InterestPotsdam Conference

Jul 26 Declaration of Potsdam: US, Britain and China demand the unconditional surrender of Japan during WWII

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Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Josef Stalin in the garden of Cecilienhof Palace before meeting for the Potsdam Conference
Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman and Josef Stalin in the garden of Cecilienhof Palace before meeting for the Potsdam Conference
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  • Jul 26 Japanese government disregards US ultimatum
  • Jul 26 US cruiser Indianapolis reaches Tinian with atom bomb

Electoral defeatElection of Interest

Jul 26 Winston Churchill resigns as Britain's Prime Minister after election defeat

Soldier, Author and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Soldier, Author and British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill

JapanNuclear Bombing of Nagasaki

Jul 26 Physicist Raemer Schreiber and Lieutenant Colonel Peer de Silva depart Kirtland Army Air Field to transport the plutonium core for the Fat Man bomb (bombing of Nagasaki) to the island of Tinian where the bomb is assembled

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Mushroom cloud over Nagasaki
Mushroom cloud over Nagasaki
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  • Jul 27 US Communist Party forms
  • Jul 28 Japanese premier Suzuki disregards US ultimatum to surrender
  • Jul 28 US Army B-25 crashes into 79th floor of Empire State Bldg, 14 die

United NationsUnited Nations Charter

Jul 28 US Senate ratifies United Nations charter 89-2

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Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations
Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations
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Event of interestEvent of Interest

Jul 28 Physicist Raemer Schreiber and Lieutenant Colonel Peer de Silva arrive on the Pacific island of Tinian with the plutonium core used to assemble the Fat Man bomb used in the bombing of Nagasaki on August 9

Physicist Raemer Schreiber
Physicist
Raemer Schreiber
  • Jul 28 "Elevator girl" Betty Lou Oliver survives falling 75 stories after fog causes a US bomber plane to crash into the Empire State Building, breaking the cables supporting the elevator she was operating. This remains a world record for the longest survived elevator fall

Sinking ShipSinking of the USS Indianapolis

Jul 30 After delivering the Atomic Bomb across the Pacific, the cruiser USS Indianapolis is torpedoed and sunk by Japanese submarine I-58. 880 of the crew died, many after being attacked by sharks, the inspiration for the movie Jaws.

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A scene from the 2016 movie
A scene from the 2016 movie "USS Indianapolis: Men of Courage"
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Victory in battleVictory in Battle

Jul 31 Pierre Laval, fugitive former leader of Vichy France, surrenders to Allied soldiers in Austria

Prime Minister of France and Head of Vichy France Pierre Laval
Prime Minister of France and Head of Vichy France
Pierre Laval

  • Aug 1 Japanese city Toyama destroyed by B-29's
  • Aug 2 After 3½ days suffering exhaustion, lack of water and shark attacks in the Philippine Sea, the surviving crew of USS Indianapolis are spotted by Wilbur “Chuck” Gwinn, a PV-1 Ventura pilot on a routine sector search. 316 had survived.

Conference meetingConference of Interest

Aug 2 Potsdam Conference between Joseph Stalin, Harry Truman and Winston Churchill (replaced by Clement Attlee after losing the 1945 general election) ends

Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin
Soviet General Secretary
Joseph Stalin
33rd US President Harry Truman
33rd US President
Harry Truman
Soldier, Author and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Soldier, Author and British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill

JapanAtomic Bombing of Hiroshima

Aug 6 Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima by the US B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay"

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Mushroom cloud over Hiroshima
Mushroom cloud over Hiroshima
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  • Aug 8 England & Australian Services draw 4th Victory Test

United <b>Nations</b>United Nations

Aug 8 President Harry Truman signs the United Nations Charter

33rd US President Harry Truman
33rd US President
Harry Truman

Conference of InterestNuremberg Trials

Aug 8 US, USSR, Britain and France sign Treaty of London which sets down procedures for the Nuremberg war trials of Nazi leaders

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Hermann Goering on trial at the Nuremberg Trials. He would later be sentenced to death, but committed suicide the night before his sentence was to be carried out.
Hermann Goering on trial at the Nuremberg Trials. He would later be sentenced to death, but committed suicide the night before his sentence was to be carried out.
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  • Aug 8 USSR declares war against Japan in WW II
  • Aug 8 USSR establishes a communist government in North Korea
  • Aug 9 US drops second atomic bomb "Fat Man" on Nagasaki, Japan, destroying part of the city

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 10 Japan announces willingness to surrender to Allies, provided Emperor Hirohito's status remains unchanged

Emperor of Japan Hirohito
Emperor of Japan
Hirohito
  • Aug 11 Allies refuse Japan's offer to surrender on the condition that Emperor Hirohito retains his status
  • Aug 12 Emperor Hirohito of Japan informs the imperial family that he has decided to surrender

Victory in BattleVictory over Japan

Aug 14 V-J Day, Japan surrenders unconditionally to end WW II (also August 15 depending on time zone)

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Kissing the War Goodbye on VJ Day
Kissing the War Goodbye on VJ Day
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Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 14 Ho Chi Minh's Viet Minh movement launch a coordinated uprising against French rule across Vietnam following the Japanese surrender

Vietnamese Communist Revolutionary Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese Communist Revolutionary
Ho Chi Minh
  • Aug 14 Japanese government notifies the Allies that it had accepted the Potsdam Declaration
  • Aug 15 A riot ensues in San Francisco while the city is celebrating the end of WW II
  • Aug 15 US wartime rationing of gasoline & fuel oil ends
  • Aug 15 World War II: Korean Liberation Day.
  • Aug 15 Victory over Japan Day, the Japanese surrender and the end of WWII is announced in Japan (due to time zones 14th Aug in the Americas)

  • Aug 16 Puyi, the last Chinese Emperor and ruler of Manchukuo is captured by Soviet troops

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 17 Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta declare Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) independent from the Netherlands

1st President of Indonesia Sukarno
1st President of Indonesia
Sukarno
  • Aug 17 Korea is divided into North and South Korea along the 38th parallel
  • Aug 18 Sukarno elected 1st President of Indonesia by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI)
  • Aug 20 Soviet troops occupy Harbin & Mukden
  • Aug 21 US President Harry Truman ends Lend-Lease program
  • Aug 22 Bob Cristofani scores 110 for Aust Services at Old Trafford
  • Aug 22 Vietnam conflict begins as Ho Chi Minh leads a successful coup
  • Aug 24 Cleveland ace Bob Feller returns from Navy & strike out 12
  • Aug 25 Jewish immigrants are permitted to leave Mauritius for Palestine
  • Aug 26 Japanese diplomats board USS Missouri to receive instructions on Japan's surrender at the end of WWII
  • Aug 27 US troops land in Japan after Japanese surrender
  • Aug 29 British liberate Hong Kong from Japan

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 29 General MacArthur named Supreme Commander of Allied Powers in Japan

US WWII General Douglas MacArthur
US WWII General
Douglas MacArthur

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Aug 31 The Liberal Party of Australia is founded by Robert Menzies

12th Australian Prime Minister Robert Menzies
12th Australian Prime Minister
Robert Menzies

Victory in BattleSurrender of Japan

Sep 2 V-J Day, formal surrender of Japan signed aboard USS Missouri marks the end of World War II (US date, 3rd September in Japan)

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Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signs the Instrument of Surrender to formally end World War II
Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signs the Instrument of Surrender to formally end World War II
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  • Sep 2 Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam independent from France (National Day)
  • Sep 2 V-J Day, formal surrender of Japan aboard USS Missouri marks the end of World War II (Japanese date, 1st September in US)
  • Sep 3 World War II: Japanese forces in the Philippines surrender to the Allies
  • Sep 4 US regains possession of Wake Island from Japan
  • Sep 7 Japanese at Rioekioe-islands surrender
  • Sep 7 Joe Kuhel hits inside-the-park HR, only HR hit by a Senator all season at Washington's Griffith Stadium
  • Sep 8 US invades Japanese-held Korea
  • Sep 9 Japanese in South Korea, Taiwan, China, Indochina surrender to Allies
  • Sep 9 Jimmie Foxx hits his 534th & final HR
  • Sep 9 Philadelphia A's Dick Fowler no-hits St Louis Brown, 1-0

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Sep 9 1st "bug" in a computer program discovered by Grace Hopper, a moth was removed with tweezers from a relay & taped into the log

Computer Scientist and Admiral Grace Hopper
Computer Scientist and Admiral
Grace Hopper
  • Sep 10 KLS-AM in Oakland Ca changes call letters to KWBR (now KDIA)
  • Sep 10 Vidkun Quisling sentenced to death for collaborating with Nazis

World RecordMiracle Mike!

Sep 10 Mike the Headless Chicken is decapitated in Fruita, Colorado; he survives for another 18 months before choking to death.

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Mike the headless chicken
Mike the headless chicken
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Event of interestEvent of Interest

Sep 11 Hideki Tojo, Japanese Prime Minister during most of World War II, attempts suicide rather than face war crimes tribunal but fails - later he is hanged

Prime Minister of Japan during WW II Hideki Tojo
Prime Minister of Japan during WW II
Hideki Tojo
  • Sep 11 Physician Willem J Kolff performs the first successful kidney dialysis using his artificial kidney machine, the Netherlands
  • Sep 15 A hurricane in southern Florida and the Bahamas destroys 366 planes and 25 blimps at NAS Richmond.
  • Sep 16 Barometric pressure at 856 mb (25.55") off Okinawa (record low)
  • Sep 18 1000 whites walk out of Gary, Indiana, schools to protest integration

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Sep 19 Kim Il-sung arrives in harbor of Wonsan, Korea

North Korean Founder and Dictator Kim Il-sung
North Korean Founder and Dictator
Kim Il-sung
  • Sep 19 Lord Haw Haw (William Joyce) sentenced to death in London
  • Sep 20 German rocket engineers begin work in US
  • Sep 26 All old Dutch banknotes declared invalid

Meeting of InterestMacArthur Meets Hirohito

Sep 27 US General and head of the Allied occupation of Japan, Douglas MacArthur, meets Emperor Hirohito in Tokyo for the first time

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General Douglas MacArthur meets Japanese Emperor Hirohito on September 27, 1945
General Douglas MacArthur meets Japanese Emperor Hirohito on September 27, 1945
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  • Sep 28 Canadian football's Calgary Bronks changes its name to Stampeders
  • Sep 28 Robert T Duncan appears as Tonio in "I Pagliacci"
  • Sep 30 Bourne End rail crash, Hertfordshire, England killed 43
  • Oct 1 US Office of Strategic Services (OSS), precursor to the CIA, disbands
  • Oct 3 World Federation of Trade Unions forms; CIO a member
  • Oct 5 "Meet the Press" premieres on radio
  • Oct 5 Indonesian army forms
  • Oct 5 Queen Wilhelmina visits Rotterdam

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 6 US General Eisenhower welcomed in The Hague (on Hitler's train)

34th US President & WWII General Dwight D. Eisenhower
34th US President & WWII General
Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Oct 6 Memorial for executed unveiled in Terbregge
  • Oct 7 Dutch author A M de Jong's murderer Ton van Gog escapes
  • Oct 8 US President Harry Truman announced atomic bomb secret shared with Britain and Canada
  • Oct 8 Microwave oven patented

  • Oct 9 British troops occupy Andamanen in Gulf of Bengal

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 11 Chinese civil war begins between Kuomintang government led by Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong's Communist Party

Chinese Revolutionary and Chairman of the Communist Party Mao Zedong
Chinese Revolutionary and Chairman of the Communist Party
Mao Zedong
Chinese Military and Political Leader Chiang Kai-shek
Chinese Military and Political Leader
Chiang Kai-shek
  • Oct 11 JPL WAC Corporal Launch (1st Man-Made Object to escape Atmosphere)
  • Oct 14 Chicago Cardinals end a record 29-game losing streak, beat Bears
  • Oct 16 UN's Food & Agriculture Organization comes into existence

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 17 Loyalty Day in Argentina, mass demonstrations held to release Juan Perón

General and President of Argentina Juan Perón
General and President of Argentina
Juan Perón
  • Oct 18 Paul Robeson wins Spingarn Medal for singing & acting achievements
  • Oct 21 Women in France allowed to vote for 1st time
  • Oct 24 Charter of United Nations comes into effect
  • Oct 24 In France PC/PS/MRP win parliamentary election (25/24/23%)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 25 Japanese surrender Taiwan to General Chiang Kai-shek

Chinese Military and Political Leader Chiang Kai-shek
Chinese Military and Political Leader
Chiang Kai-shek
  • Oct 27 1st edition of Elseviers Weekly newspaper (Elseviers Magazine)
  • Oct 29 First ballpoint pen goes on sale, manufactured by Biro

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Oct 29 Getulio Vargas, President of Brazil, resigns.

President and Dictator of Brazil Getulio Vargas
President and Dictator of Brazil
Getulio Vargas
  • Oct 30 US government announces end of shoe rationing
  • Nov 1 First issue of Ebony magazine published by John H Johnson
  • Nov 5 Colombia joins the United Nations.
  • Nov 6 House Committee on Un-American Activities begins investigation of 7 radio commentators
  • Nov 6 The first landing of a jet on a carrier takes place on USS Wake Island when an FR-1 Fireball touches down
  • Nov 8 Riverboat sinks off Hong Kong; kills 1,550
  • Nov 10 General Enver Hoxha becomes leader of Albania
  • Nov 10 Heavy battle in Surabaya between Indonesian nationalists and returning colonialists after World War II, celebrated as Heroes' Day (Hari Pahlawan).
  • Nov 12 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Cordell Hull (establishing UN)
  • Nov 13 Australian Services draw 1st Victory Test against India
  • Nov 14 H Lindsay and R Crouse's "State of the Union" premieres in NYC
  • Nov 14 Java: Sutan Sjahrir appointed as forming government
  • Nov 15 The rules are revised for election of modern players to the Hall of Fame
  • Nov 16 Yeshiva College (University), chartered in NY, 1st US Jewish College
  • Nov 16 Founding of UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
  • Nov 16 Two new elements discovered by Glenn Seaborg, James, Morgan and Albert Ghiorso were are announced: americium (atomic number 95) and curium (atomic number 96)

  • Nov 17 New world air speed record 606 mph (975 kph) set by HJ Wilson of RAF

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Nov 20 The Nuremberg war trials begin as 24 Nazi leaders are put on trial before judges representing the victorious Allied powers

Nazi Minister of Armaments and War Production Albert Speer
Nazi Minister of Armaments and War Production
Albert Speer
  • Nov 20 Queen Wilhelmina opens Dutch parliament in Hague
  • Nov 21 Benjamin Britten's 2nd String quartet in C premieres
  • Nov 21 General Motors workers go on strike
  • Nov 23 Most US wartime rationing of foods, including meat & butter, ends
  • Nov 26 During snow storm, school bus crashes, kills 15 (Washington)

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Nov 27 Gen George Marshall named special US envoy to China

Military Leader George Marshall
Military Leader
George Marshall
  • Nov 27 Trial against NSB-leader Mussert begins
  • Nov 27 Dutch resistance fighter Hannie Schaft re-buried in presence of Queen Wilhelmina
  • Nov 29 Yugoslavian Socialist Republic proclaimed
  • Dec 4 Senate approves US participation in United Nations
  • Dec 5 Flight 19 the "Lost Squadron" of 5 torpedo bombers and 14 airmen is lost east of Florida in the supposed Bermuda Triangle
  • Dec 5 Special Council of Annulment affirms death sentence of Max Blokzijl
  • Dec 10 Preston Tucker reveals plan to produce the Torpedo, a new 150 MPH car
  • Dec 11 Het Parool publishes 1st Captain Rob-strip
  • Dec 12 Special Court of justice convicts Dutch Nazi leader Mussert to death
  • Dec 14 Elmer Rice' "Dream Girl" premieres in NYC
  • Dec 15 John J "Cardinal" O'Connor, ordained as a priest
  • Dec 18 Uruguay joins the United Nations
  • Dec 19 Austrian Republic re-establishes
  • Dec 19 Jean Giraudoux' "La Folle de Chaillot" premieres in Paris
  • Dec 20 Rationing of auto tires ends in US
  • Dec 22 Utrecht: Catholic People's party (KVP) established
  • Dec 23 Frederick Astons "Cinderella" premieres in London
  • Dec 23 Pope Pius XII encyclical Orientals omnes, about Rutheense church
  • Dec 26 CFP franc and CFA franc created
  • Dec 27 Arthur Laurent's "Home of the Brave" premieres in NYC

Event of interestEvent of Interest

Dec 27 International Monetary Fund formally established by 29 member countries based on ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes

  • Dec 27 The World Bank was created with the signing of an agreement by 28 nations.
  • Dec 28 Congress officially recognizes "Pledge of Allegiance"
  • Dec 31 Ratification of United Nations Charter completed