- 418 [Etalius] begins his reign as Catholic Pope
537 Hagia Sophia inaugurated by the Emperor Justinian I as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral
- 795 Leo III begins his reign as Pope after his election the previous day
- 1437 Albrecht II von Habsburg becomes king of Bohemia
- 1512 Spanish Crown issues the Laws of Burgos, governing the conduct of settlers with regards to native Indians in the New World
- 1521 The "Zwickau Prophets" appear in Wittenberg
1657 "Flushing Remonstrance" petition signed in the Dutch colony of New Netherland, protesting the ban on Quaker worship
- 1679 Dutch troops capture Madurees prince Trunudjojo in Java
- 1703 England & Portugal sign Methuen-Asiento-trade agreement
- 1741 Prussian forces took Olmutz, Czechoslovakia
- 1814 Destruction of schooner Carolina, the last of Commodore Daniel Patterson's makeshift fleet that fought a series of delaying actions that contributed to Andrew Jackson's victory at the Battle of New Orleans.
Darwin Discovers The Secrets of Life
1831 HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin on board departs England for a survey of South America, a voyage Darwin later said "determined my whole career"
- 1836 Worst English avalanche kills 8 of 15 buried (Lewes Sussex)
- 1845 Ether 1st used in childbirth in US in Jefferson, Georgia
- 1850 Hawaiian Fire Department established
- 1862 Battle of Chickasaw Bluffs, MS (Chickasaw Bayou)
- 1862 Battle of Elizabethtown, Kentucky
- 1867 Ontario & Quebec legislatures hold 1st meeting
- 1884 Netherlands recognizes King Leopold II's Congo Free State
- 1892 Foundation Stone of Cathedral of St John laid (NYC)
- 1900 Carrie Nation's 1st public smashing of a bar (Carey Hotel, Wichita, Kansas)
- 1904 Stage play "Peter Pan" by J. M. Barrie premieres at the Duke of York Theatre in London
- 1904 W B Yeats and Lady Gregory's "On Baile's Strand" premieres in Dublin
- 1906 1st annual meeting of American Sociological Society, Providence, Rhode Island
- 1915 US Iron and Steel workers begin a 3-week strike in Ohio for a eight-hour-day; they are successful as the US needs steel for armaments
- 1918 The Great Poland Uprising against the Germans begins.
- 1924 Albania is declared a dictatorship under Ahmed Beg Zofu
- 1924 The US signs a treaty with the Dominican Republic, which supersedes that of 1907: in July, the Us had withdrawn its Marines and ended its occupation
- 1926 Depot Square in Bronx renamed Botanical Square
- 1926 Latkin Square in Bronx named for 1st US Jewish soldier to die in WW I
- 1927 Philip Barry's "Paris Bound" premieres in NYC
- 1934 1st youth hostel in US opens (Northfield, Mass)
- 1939 1st American skimobiles (North Conway, NH)
- 1939 Between 20,000 and 40,000 die in magnitude 8 earthquake in Erzincam, Turkey
- 1941 Japan bombs Manila even though it was declared an "open city"
- 1942 1st Japanese women camp (Ambarawa) goes into use
- 1942 The Union of Pioneers of Yugoslavia is founded.
- 1943 France transfers most of her powers in Lebanon to Lebanese government
- 1943 German warship "Scharnhorst" sinks in Barents Sea
Event of Interest
1945 International Monetary Fund formally established by 29 member countries based on ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes
- 1945 The World Bank was created with the signing of an agreement by 28 nations.
- 1949 Queen Juliana of the Netherlands grants independence to Indonesia
- 1960 France performs nuclear test
- 1961 Belgium & Congo resume diplomatic relations
- 1968 Apollo 8 returns to Earth
- 1968 China performs nuclear test at Lop Nor, PRC
- 1972 Belgium recognizes German DR
- 1972 New North Korean constitution comes into effect
- 1974 FSLN seizes government hostages at a private Managua party
- 1974 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
- 1975 Explosion at Chasnala Colliery collapses drowning 350 in Dhanbad, India
- 1976 Albania constitution goes into effect
- 1978 Spain becomes a democracy after 40 years of dictatorship as King Juan Carlos ratifies Spain's 1st democratic constitution
- 1979 After invading Afghanistan two days earlier Soviet forces pull off a coup in Kabul, killing President Hafizullah Amin
- 1981 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
- 1983 Propane gas fire devastated 16 blocks of Buffalo
Event of Interest
1985 Terrorists kill 20 and wound 110 attacking El Al at Rome and Vienna airports. President Reagan blames Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.
- 1987 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
- 1988 Bulgaria stops jamming Radio Free Europe after more than 3 decades
- 1992 13th United Negro College Fund raises $11,000,000
- 1993 Dow-Jones hits record 3792.93
- 1996 Carquest Bowl 7: Miami beats Virginia, 31-21
- 1996 Taliban forces retake the strategic Bagram air base which solidifies their buffer zone around Kabul.
- 1997 Protestant paramilitary leader Billy Wright is assassinated in Northern Ireland.
- 2001 The People's Republic of China is granted permanent normal trade relations with the United States.
- 2002 Kenyan General Election: National Rainbow Coalition headed by Mwai Kibaki wins, overthrowing 39 year rule by the Kenya African National Union
- 2002 Two truck bombs kill 72 and wound 200 at the pro-Moscow headquarters of the Chechen government in Grozny, Chechnya.
- 2004 Radiation from an explosion on the magnetar SGR 1806-20 reaches Earth. It is the brightest extrasolar event known to have been witnessed on the planet.
2007 Former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto is assassinated by a suicide bomber in Rawalpindi
- 2008 Israel launches Operation Cast Lead in the Gaza Strip, beginning with an airstrike that hits 100 targets in 220 seconds killing around 250 people
- 2009 The World Health Organization says 208 countries, territories and communities have reported H1N1 cases, including at least 12,220 deaths
- 2012 NASA unveils plans to capture a 500 ton asteroid in 2025
- 2013 29 people are killed after a bus plunged off the Huay Tong Bridge, Thailand
- 2015 Iraqi forces retake IS held city of Ramadi (ISIS first captured in May)