Events in History on February 23

Historic Publication

1455 Johannes Gutenberg prints his first Bible (estimated date)

Historic Expedition

1540 Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's expedition sets off from Mexico in search of the 7 cities of Cibola

  • 1574 France begins 5th "holy war" against Huguenots
  • 1660 Charles XI becomes king of Sweden
  • 1668 Fire in the Hofburg in Vienna, Emperor Leopold I rescued
  • 1672 Joan Blaeus publishers destroyed by fire in Amsterdam

Historic Event

1689 Dutch prince William III proclaimed King of England

  • 1778 Baron von Steuben joins Continental Army at Valley Forge

Historic Invention

1782 Engineer James Watt's patent for a rotary motion for the steam engine (his sun-and-planet gear) is granted

  • 1792 Humane Society of Massachusetts incorporated (erected life-saving stations for distressed mariners)
  • 1813 1st US raw cotton-to-cloth mill founded in Waltham, Massachusetts
  • 1820 Cato Street conspiracy uncovered, attempt to murder British Prime Minister Earl of Liverpool and Government Ministers
  • 1821 College of Apothecaries organized in Philadephia; 1st US pharmacy college
  • 1822 Boston, Massachusetts, is incorporated as a city

Battle of the Alamo

1836 Alamo besieged for 13 days until March 6 by Mexican army under General Santa Anna; entire garrison eventually killed

  • 1846 Polish revolutionaries march on Kraków, but are defeated

Victory in Battle

1847 Battle of Buena Vista, Mexico; Zachary Taylor leads mostly volunteer troops against larger Mexican Army force; Mexico retreats, both sides claim victory

  • 1854 Great Britain & Orange Free state sign Convention of Bloemfontein
  • 1861 Dutch Premier Floris A van Hall resigns
  • 1869 Louisiana governor signs public accommodations law
  • 1870 Mississippi is readmitted to US after the Civil War
  • 1883 Alabama becomes 1st US state to enact an antitrust law
  • 1883 American Anti-Vivisection Society organized (Philadelphia)
  • 1886 "The Times" of London newspaper publishes world's 1st classified ad
  • 1886 Aluminum manufacturing process developed
  • 1887 French/Italian Riviera struck by Earthquake; 2,000 die
  • 1887 US Congress grants Seal Rocks to San Francisco
  • 1892 1st college student government forms at Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
  • 1895 William Heard, AME minister & educator, named American minister to Liberia
  • 1896 Tootsie Roll introduced by Leo Hirshfield

Historic Event

1898 In France, Emile Zola is imprisoned for writing his "J'accuse" letter accusing government of anti-Semitism & wrongly jailing Alfred Dreyfus

  • 1900 Battle at Hart's Hill, South Africa (Boers vs British army)
  • 1900 Steamer "Rio de Janeiro" sinks in San Francisco Bay
  • 1903 The Sultan agrees to an Austro-Russian plan to reform the government of Macedonia in yet another effort to stifle the rising disorder among the rival Bulgarian
  • 1903 The US and Cuba sign an agreement by which Cuba releases Guantanamo and Bahia Hondo to the US for naval stations
  • 1904 Having occupied Korea, Japan signs a treaty with Korea under which it becomes a Japanese protectorate in return for Japanese protection from other powers
  • 1904 United States acquires control of the Panama Canal Zone for $10 million
  • 1905 First Rotary Club formed by 4 men in the Unity Building, Chicago

Historic Event

1909 Russian Tsar Nicholas II dissolves Finnish Diet

  • 1910 1st radio contest held (Philadelphia)

Theater Premiere

1910 George Bernard Shaw's play "Misalliance" premieres in London

  • 1915 Germany sinks US ships Carib & Evelyn & torpedoe Norwegian ship Regin
  • 1915 Nevada enforces convenient divorce law
  • 1916 US Congress authorizes McKinley Memorial $1 gold coin
  • 1918 First victory of Red Army over the Kaiser's German troops near Narva and Pskov. Since 1923 this date become the Day of Red Army in honour of this victory.

Historic Event

1919 Fascist Party formed in Italy by Benito Mussolini

  • 1921 1st US transcontinental air mail flight arrives in NYC from San Francisco
  • 1923 German Republic day with laws against worker
  • 1923 Great Britain lowers import duty on German products from 26% to 5%

Radio History

1927 US President Calvin Coolidge creates Federal Radio Commission (FRC)

  • 1934 Coronation of King Leopold III of Belgium
  • 1936 1st rocket air mail flight, Greenwood Lake, NY
  • 1940 Russian troops conquer Lasi Island
  • 1941 Plutonium first produced and isolated by American chemist Glenn T. Seaborg at Berkeley
  • 1942 Japanese submarine fires on oil refinery in Ellwood, California
  • 1943 German troops pull back through Kasserine-pass Tunisia

Historic Event

1943 Major General Omar Bradley arrives in Dakar & Marrakesh

Battle of Eniwetok

1944 Battle of Eniwetok ends as US forces complete the capture of Parry Island from the Japanese 1st Amphibious Brigade

  • 1944 Forced deportation of the Chechen and Ingush people to Central Asia.
  • 1945 2nd Dutch government of Gerbrandy forms in London
  • 1945 Canadian troops occupy Kalkar
  • 1945 Operation Grenade: US Lieutenant General Simpson's 9th Army crosses Ruhr

Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima

1945 US Marines raise American flag on top of Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima. Pulitzer Prize winning photo of which by Joe Rosenthall later became iconic, inspiring the Marine Corps War Memorial sculpture

Historic Event

1947 US General Eisenhower opens drive to raise $170M in aid for European Jews

  • 1954 Syrian army drives out president Adib el-Shishakli
  • 1955 Edgar Faure forms French government
  • 1956 20th Congress of CPSU closes in Moscow
  • 1957 The founding congress of the Senegalese Popular Bloc is opened in Dakar
  • 1958 Arturo Frondizi elected President of Argentina
  • 1958 Last Municipal arc light at Mission & 25th removed in San Francisco (installed 1913)
  • 1958 USSR performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya USSR
  • 1960 Demolition begins on Brooklyn's Ebbets Field (opened in 1913)
  • 1962 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1965 Constance Baker Motley elected Manhattan Borough president
  • 1966 Military coup in Syria ends Bitar government
  • 1966 Premier Milton Obote seizes power in Uganda
  • 1967 25th amendment (US Presidential succession) adopted
  • 1967 John Herbert's "Fortune & Men's Eyes" premieres in NYC

Historic Publication

1967 Noam Chomsky's anti-Vietnam war essay "The Responsibility of Intellectuals" is published by the New York Review of Books

  • 1969 Nayif Hawatimah forms Dem People's Front for Liberation of Palestine
  • 1970 Guyana becomes a republic (National Day)
  • 1970 Holy Eucharist given by women for 1st time in Roman Catholic service
  • 1971 US army officer William Calley confesses & implicates Captain Medina during his trial for the My Lai Massacre
  • 1973 Gold goes up $10 overnight to record $95 an ounce in London
  • 1975 In response to the energy crisis, daylight saving time commences nearly two months early in the United States.
  • 1976 Owners announce spring training won't open without a labor contract
  • 1979 Frank Peterson Jr named 1st black general in Marine Corps
  • 1980 France performs nuclear test at Mururoa atoll
  • 1980 Oil tanker explosion off Pilos, Greece, causes 37-mil-gallon spillage

Coup d'état

1981 "Tejerazo" Spanish coup led by Civil Guard officer Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero Molina fails after televised speech by King Juan Carlos I

  • 1982 Michael Frayn's "Noises Off" premieres in London
  • 1983 The Spanish Socialist government of Felipe González and Miguel Boyer nationalizes Rumasa, a holding of José María Ruiz Mateos
  • 1983 The United States Environmental Protection Agency announces its intent to buy out and evacuate the dioxin-contaminated community of Times Beach, Missouri
  • 1983 USFL New Jersey Generals sign Heisman Trophy winner Herschel Walker to a then massive 3 year, $5 million deal

Historic Event

1985 US Senate confirms Edwin Meese as the 75th Attorney General

  • 1986 Nelli Fiere-Cooman runs world record 60 m indoor (7.00 sec)
  • 1987 Russian Writers Union accepts Boris Pasternak posthumous as member
  • 1987 Supernova 1987A in LMC 1st seen; 1st naked-eye supernova since 1604
  • 1990 Ian Smith 173* NZ v India, 136 balls, world record for no 9 bat
  • 1991 Greg Haugen scores a split decision over Hector "Macho" Camacho
  • 1991 Military coup in Thailand, Premier Choonhaven arrested

Historic Event

1991 US President George H. W. Bush gives Iraq a 24-hour deadline to withdraw from Kuwait or face a ground war

  • 1992 The Socialist Labour Party is founded in Georgia
  • 1993 Gary Coleman wins $1,280,000 lawsuit against parents for high fees
  • 1993 India complete a 3-0 series drubbing of England
  • 1995 Antoine Nduwayo appointed Premier of Burundi
  • 1995 Dow Jones closes above 4,000 for 1st time (4,003.33)
  • 1996 Mark Waugh scores 130 in World Cup vs Kenya, 207 w/brother Steve
  • 1996 Rajindra Dhanraj takes 9-97 for Trinidad against Leeward Islands
  • 1997 Ali Abu Kamal opens fire in Empire State Building & kills 1
  • 1997 Scientists in Scotland announce they have cloned an adult mammal, producing a lamb named "Dolly"
  • 1998 Howard Stern Radio Show premieres in Charleston, South Carolina on WAVF 96.1 FM

Historic Publication

1998 Osama bin Laden publishes a fatwa declaring jihad against all Jews and Crusaders

  • 1998 Tornadoes in Florida kills at least 31
  • 1998 US Supreme Court lets Megan's Law (sex offenders information) stand
  • 1999 An avalanche destroys the Austrian village of Galtür, killing 31
  • 1999 Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Öcalan is charged with treason in Ankara, Turkey
  • 2002 Sky Disc of Nebra, world's oldest map of the stars at 3,600 years old, recovered in police sting operation in Basal, Switzerland after being illegally excavated in Germany [1]

Summit of Interest

2005 Slovakia Summit 2005 begins; George W. Bush and Russian President Vladimir Putin attend - 1st visit of a sitting US President to Slovakia

  • 2005 Vote of the controversial French law on colonialism, repealed start of 2006
  • 2006 Dubai Ports World agrees to postpone its plans to take over management of six U.S. ports after the proposal ignited harsh bipartisan criticism on Capitol Hill.
  • 2007 A train derails on an evening express service near Grayrigg, Cumbria, England, killing one person and injuring 22. This results in hundreds of points being checked over the UK after a few similar accidents.
  • 2007 Japan launches its fourth spy satellite, stepping up its ability to monitor potential threats such as North Korea.
  • 2008 B-2 Spirit of the USAF crashes at Guam. Crew survives but aircraft written off, the most expensive air crash in human history (aircraft alone cost $1.2Bn). B-2 had a perfect safety record before the crash; not one B-2 ever crashed.

Historic Publication

2010 Danielle Steel’s novel “Big Girl” is published

  • 2010 Unknown criminals pour more than 2.5 million litres of diesel oil and other hydrocarbons into the river Lambro, in Northern Italy, causing an environmental disaster.
  • 2011 Venezuela's economy grew 0.6% in the last quarter of 2010, technically leaving the recession after six quarters, it is reported today
  • 2012 A series of bomb attacks across 12 Iraqi cities kills 60 and injures 200
  • 2013 51 people are killed and 62 are injured in conflict between rival tribes in Darfur, Sudan
  • 2014 A pro-Euromaidan rally is held in Simferopol, Ukraine, while in Kerch, protesters attempt to replace the Ukrainian flag from city hall with a Russian flag

Election of Interest

2016 US primary elections: Nevada Republican Primary - Donald Trump wins with 45.9.5%

  • 2018 Study suggests earliest European Palaeolithic artwork in Spain made by Neanderthals not humans in "Science Journal"
  • 2019 Clashes on Venezuelan border kills two as its country's officials try to stop aid getting in

Election of Interest

2019 Nigerian presidential election: President Muhammadu Buhari wins re-election defeating Atiku Abubakar, amid violence and a delay, on turnout of 35.6%

Historic Event

2019 Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir declares a national emergency, dismisses the federal government and sacks all state governors

  • 2020 African American Ahmaud Arbery shot to death after being chased down by two white men in Brunswick, Georgia. Video of the killing emerges in May, prompting arrests.

COVID-19 Pandemic

2020 China's Supreme Leader Xi Jinping describes the country's COVID-19 outbreak as the China's largest health emergency since 1949

  • 2020 Fashion designer heavyweights Miuccia Prada and Raf Simons announce they will work alongside each other at Prada
  • 2020 First major COVID-19 outbreak in Europe in Italy with 152 cases and three deaths, prompting emergency measures, locking down 10 towns in Lombardy

COVID-19 Pandemic

2020 President Moon Jae-in puts South Korea on high alert, empowering the government to lock down cities after 602 cases of COVID-19 reported with six deaths

  • 2020 Violent protests against new citizenship laws in Delhi, India erupt leaving at least 38 people dead over the next few days
  • 2021 Covid-19 antibodies survey in Nigeria suggests 4 million people have had the virus in Lagos state alone, more than officially recorded for whole of Africa [1]
  • 2021 Discovery of oldest Australian rock art, a 17,300-year-old painting of a kangaroo in Kimberley region, Western Australia, published in "Nature Human Behaviour" [1]