Events in History on January 21

Henry IV Petitions Gregory VII

1077 German King Henry IV petitions Pope Gregory VII for forgiveness

  • 1276 French Cardinal Pierre de Tarantaise elected head of the Catholic Church, takes the name of Pope Innocent V
  • 1287 The treaty of San Agayz is signed. Minorca is conquered by King Alfons III of Aragon.
  • 1324 Zen Buddhist religious debate between Tendai & Shingon
  • 1522 Head inquisitor Adrian Florisz Boeyens elected pope
  • 1525 Swiss Anabaptist Movement is born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and a dozen others baptize each other in the home of Manz's mother in Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union
  • 1542 English Parliament passes bill of attainder against Queen Katherine Howard
  • 1549 Act of Uniformity passed by the English Parliament requiring clergy use The Book of Common Prayer
  • 1664 Count Miklos of Zrinyi sets out to battle Turkish invasion army
  • 1677 1st medical publication in America (pamphlet on smallpox), published in Boston
  • 1720 Sweden and Prussia sign a peace treaty ending hostilities between them during the Great Northern War
  • 1732 Russia & Persia sign Treaty of Riascha
  • 1749 Verona Philharmonic Theatre destroyed by fire. Rebuilt 1754.
  • 1789 The 1st American novel, William Hill Brown's "The Power of Sympathy" is published by Isaiah Thomas

Execution of Louis XVI

1793 Louis XVI of France is executed by guillotine in Paris, following his conviction for "high treason" by the newly created French Parliament (Convention nationale), during the French Revolution

  • 1793 Prussia & Russia sign partition treaty, dividing Poland.
  • 1813 First reference to pineapple cultivation in Hawaii in diary entry by Francisco de Paula Marin
  • 1813 Spaniard Don Francisco de Paula y Marin plants coffee in Hawaii - 1st record of coffee growing in Hawaii
  • 1818 Keats writes his poem "On a Lock of Milton's Hair"
  • 1821 Paramaribo Suriname catches fire, 4 die
  • 1830 In Portsmouth, Ohio, African Americans forcibly deported

"The Daily News"

1846 1st edition of Charles Dickens' newspaper "The Daily News"

Jefferson Davis Resigns

1861 Jefferson Davis of Mississippi and 4 other southern senators resign (U.S Civil War)

  • 1863 City of Dublin leases part of Cattle Market for 100,000 years
  • 1864 The Tauranga Campaign of the New Zealand Wars begins
  • 1874 Franz Grillparzer's "Libussa" premieres in Vienna

Theater Premiere

1879 Henrik Ibsen's play "Et Dukkehjem" (A Doll's House) premieres in Copenhagen

  • 1880 1st US sewage disposal system separate from storm drains in Memphis, Tennessee
  • 1887 Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) forms
  • 1887 Brisbane receives a daily rainfall of 465 millimetres (18.3 inches), a record for any Australian capital city
  • 1890 1st issue of "Propria Cures", Amsterdam student-weekly newspaper
  • 1893 Tati Concessions Land, formerly part of Matabeleland, formally annexed to the Bechuanaland Protectorate (now Botswana)
  • 1894 Oscar Fredriksen skates world record 500m in 47.8 sec
  • 1899 Opel manufactures its first automobile
  • 1900 The second contingent of Canadian troops sails from Halifax to fight in South Africa against the Boers

Theater Premiere

1901 Clyde Fitch's play "The Climbers" premieres in NYC

  • 1903 International Theater (Majestic, Park) opens at 5 Columbus Circle NYC
  • 1908 "Sullivan Ordinance" is passed in NYC, making it illegal for a woman to smoke in public places. It was vetoed 2 weeks later by mayor George B. McClellan Jr.
  • 1908 August Strindberg's "Spoksonaten" premieres in Stockholm
  • 1910 British-Russian military intervention in Persia

Second Briand Government

1913 Aristide Briand forms French government for the second time

  • 1915 Kiwanis International founded in Detroit
  • 1919 Irish militant nationalist party Sinn Féin creates its own parliament in Dublin and declares Ireland independent of Great Britain, sparking the Irish War of Independence

Historic Publication

1921 British crime writer Agatha Christie publishes her first novel "The Mysterious Affair at Styles" introducing the character Hercule Poirot

Historic Event

1921 Italian Communist Party founded at Livorno by Amadeo Bordiga and Antonio Gramsci

  • 1922 1st slalom ski race run at Murren, Switzerland

Historic Event

1924 Vladimir Lenin's Testament is handed over to the Communist Party; it calls for changes to the Soviet governing structure and criticizes Joseph Stalin, Leon Trotsky and other members

  • 1925 Albanian parliament announces itself a republic; Ahmed Zogoe president
  • 1926 Belgian parliament accepts Locarno treaties
  • 1929 Robert Sherriff's "Journey's End" premieres in London
  • 1932 USSR and Finland stop non-attack treaty
  • 1934 Parisian baker and "student of medieval life" Henri Littière appears in court charged with forcing his adulterous wife Juliette to wear a chastity belt. Having committed the same offence in 1932, he was sentenced to three months in prison and fined 50 francs for cruelty to his wife
  • 1935 12.0" (30.5 cm) of rain falls, Quinault RS, Washington (state record)
  • 1935 The Wilderness Society is founded by conservationists
  • 1935 WFI-AM in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania merges with WLIT as WFIL (now WEAZ)
  • 1938 Dutch government starts obligatory unemployment insurance

Historic Event

1939 George Kaufman and Moss Hart's "American Way" premieres in NYC

  • 1939 US male Figure Skating championship won by Robin Lee
  • 1940 Foreign correspondents in Netherlands subjected to censorship
  • 1941 1st anti-Jewish measures in Bulgaria
  • 1941 1st commercial extraction of magnesium from seawater, Freeport, Texas
  • 1941 Australian and British troops attack Tobruk, Libya
  • 1941 British communist newspaper "Daily Worker" banned
  • 1942 Bronx magistrate rules all pinball machines illegal
  • 1942 Count Basie records "One O'Clock Jump"
  • 1943 Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham, Royal Navy, promoted to Admiral of the Fleet
  • 1943 Soviet forces reconquer Gumrak airport near Stalingrad
  • 1943 Soviet forces reconquer Worosjilowsk
  • 1944 447 German bombers attack London
  • 1944 649 British bombers attack Magdeburg
  • 1945 British troops land on Ramree, near coast of Burma
  • 1950 New York jury finds former State Department official Alger Hiss guilty of perjury

Theater Premiere

1950 T. S. Eliot's play "The Cocktail Party" premieres in NYC

Election of Interest

1952 Jawaharlal Nehru's Congress party wins general election in India

  • 1952 William Shawn succeeds Harold Ross as editor of "The New Yorker"

Appointment of Interest

1953 John Foster Dulles appointed as US Secretary of State

  • 1954 1st gas turbine automobile exhibited (NYC)
  • 1954 USS Nautilus, the first nuclear-powered submarine, launched on the Thames River in Connecticut
  • 1960 Little Joe 4 suborbital Mercury test reaches 16 km
  • 1960 Rock falls traps 437 at Coalbrook, South Africa; 417 die of methane poisoning
  • 1961 Portuguese rebels seize cruise ship Santa Maria

Historic Event

1962 JFK arrives in Uruguay

  • 1962 Snow falls in San Francisco
  • 1964 Carl Rowan named director of US Information Agency
  • 1965 Iranian premier Hassan Ali Mansur assassinated by 17-year-old Mohammad Bokharaei, a member of the Fadayan-e Islam
  • 1967 US male Figure Skating championship won by Gary Visconti
  • 1968 The Battle of Khe Sanh - one of the most publicized and controversial battles of the Vietnam War - begins at the Khe Sanh Air Base
  • 1968 US B-52 bomber with nuclear bomb on board crashes in Greenland
  • 1969 A partial meltdown at the Lucens nuclear reactor in Switzerland seriously contaminating the cavern containing the reactor; the plant is sealed and decommissioned
  • 1972 Assam's North East Frontier Agency becomes Arunachal Pradesh territory
  • 1972 Belgian government of Eyskens-Cools forms
  • 1972 Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura become separate states of the Indian union
  • 1972 Mizoram, formerly part of Assam, creates an Indian union territory
  • 1974 Gold hits record $161.31, silver hits record $3.97 an ounce in London
  • 1976 Supersonic Concorde has its 1st commercial flights

Vietnam War

1977 US President Jimmy Carter pardons almost all Vietnam War draft evaders

  • 1979 Neptune becomes outermost planet (Pluto moves closer)
  • 1979 Price of gold increases to record $875 troy oz
  • 1980 Gold hits record $850 an ounce
  • 1981 Bernhard Goetz is assaulted for 1st time on a New York City subway train
  • 1981 Norman Stronge and his son James (both former Ulster Unionist Members of Parliament) are assassinated by the Irish Republican Army at their home Tynan Abbey, which is then burnt down
  • 1983 Bollingen Prize for poetry awarded to Anthony E Hecht

Historic Event

1983 President Reagan certifies El Salvador human-rights abuses have decreased making country eligible for US military aid

  • 1985 -19°F (-28°C), Caesar's Head, South Carolina (state record)
  • 1985 -34°F (-37°C), Mt Mitchell, North Carolina (state record)
  • 1985 Bomb attack on Borobudur temple in Java
  • 1986 Bomb attack in East-Beirut, 27 killed
  • 1988 US accepts immigration of 30,000 US-Vietnamese children
  • 1992 UN serves Libya a resolution to hand over intelligence agents accused of two airliner bombings
  • 1994 Dow Jones passes 3900 (record 3,914.20)
  • 1994 Lorena Bobbitt found temporarily insane when she cut off her husband's penis
  • 1996 US male Figure Skating championship won by Rudy Galindo
  • 1997 An inquiry in North Wales names more than 80 child abusers
  • 1998 Pope John Paul II visits Cuba
  • 1999 In one of the largest drug busts in American history, the US Coast Guard intercepts a ship carrying 4,300 kg of cocaine
  • 2002 The Canadian Dollar sets all-time low against the US Dollar (US$0.6179).
  • 2004 Canada: The residence of reporter Juliet O'Neill is searched by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) investigating leaks concerning the deportation of Maher Arar
  • 2004 NASA's MER-A (the Mars Rover Spirit) ceases communication with mission control. The problem lies with Flash Memory management and is fixed remotely from Earth on February 6.
  • 2005 In Belmopan, Belize, the unrest over the government's new taxes erupts into riots
  • 2007 Awashima Marine Park in Japan catches a video tape of the rare frilled shark.
  • 2008 Black Monday in worldwide stock markets. FTSE 100 had its biggest ever one-day points fall, European stocks closed with their worst result since 9/11, and Asian stocks drop as much as 15%.
  • 2008 The Eyak language in Alaska becomes extinct as its last native speaker dies
  • 2013 1 person is killed and 15 are injured by a magnitude 5.9 earthquake in Indonesia
  • 2013 18 people are killed and 24 are injured after a bus falls down a ravine in Yungas, Bolivia
  • 2013 30 people are killed in a car bombing in Salamiyeh, Syria
  • 2013 41 people are injured after two trains collide in Vienna, Austria
  • 2013 Jeroen Dijsselbloem, Netherlands’ Minister of Finance, becomes the President of the Euro Group
  • 2015 Italian fashion label Gucci names Alessandro Michele as its new creative director

Historic Event

2017 More than 2 million people protest worldwide in the 'Women's March' against Donald Trump, with 500,000 marching in Washington, D.C.

Election of Interest

2018 Gambian Dictator Yahya Jammeh finally concedes office and leaves Gambia 2 months after losing the presidential election

  • 2020 World's oldest asteroid impact at 2.2 billion years old found in Yarrabubba, Western Australia, may have ended an ice age, reported in "Nature Communications"

Historic Event

2021 Avril Haines is sworn in as the first female US Director of National Intelligence by VP Kamala Harris

  • 2022 Yemen detention centre in Saada held by rebel Houthis bombed killing more than 70 people [1]