Events in History on July 2

  • 311 St Miltiades begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 626 Incident at Xuanwu Gate: in fear of assassination, Li Shimin ambushes and kills his rival brothers Li Yuanji and Li Jiancheng
  • 706 Remains of Chinese Emperor Gaozong, his wife Empress Wu Zetian and family members interred in Qianling Mausoleum by Emperor Zhongzong, outside Chang'an on Mount Liangshan
  • 963 The imperial army proclaims Nicephorus Phocas to be Emperor of the Romans on the plains outside Cappadocian Caesarea
  • 1140 Hartbert becomes bishop of Utrecht

Battle of Interest

1214 Battle of La Roche-aux-Moines (Angers), part of King John of England's attempt to reclaim Normandy from France

  • 1266 Treaty of Perth: Norway recognises Scottish sovereignty over the Hebrides and the Isle of Man
  • 1298 Battle on Hasenbuhl (Gollheim) between German kings Adolf and Albrecht I

Historic Event

1505 After an encounter with a violent thunderstorm, Martin Luther declares that he will become a monk

  • 1555 Turkish naval commander Dragut [Turgut Reis] sacks the Italian city of Paola
  • 1561 Menas, Emperor of Ethiopia, defeats a revolt in Emfraz
  • 1570 Ottoman Empire invades Venetian controlled Cyprus and lays siege to its cities. Gains control of the island August 1571.
  • 1576 Muitende Spanish soldiers conquer Zierik Sea
  • 1578 English explorer Martin Frobisher sights Baffin Island
  • 1582 Battle of Yamazaki: Toyotomi Hideyoshi defeats Akechi Mitsuhide
  • 1600 Battle at Newport: Earl Mauritius van Nassau beats Spanish Army
  • 1613 The first English expedition from Massachusetts against Acadia led by Samuel Argall
  • 1644 Battle of Marston Moor, North Yorkshire: Parliamentary forces under Lords Fairfax and Manchester defeat royalists led by Prince Rupert
  • 1679 Europeans first visit Minnesota and see headwaters of Mississippi in an expedition led by Daniel Greysolon de Du Luth
  • 1681 Earl of Shaftesbury arrested for high treason

Historic Event

1687 King James II disbands English parliament

  • 1698 English engineer Thomas Savery patents the first steam engine

Historic Event

1776 At the Continental Congress, John Dickinson abstains from the votes that declare independence

  • 1776 Continental Congress resolves "these United Colonies are and of right ought to be Free and Independent States"
  • 1776 New Jersey gives the right to vote to all adults who could show a net worth of 50 pounds

Historic Event

1787 Marquis de Sade shouts from Bastille that prisoners are being slaughtered

  • 1794 Second Battle of Seneffe: France-Austria
  • 1798 Marine Police established by The West India Committee to guard merchant vessels on the river Thames, London, beginnings of the world's oldest continuously serving police force [1]
  • 1808 Simon Fraser completes his trip down Fraser River, British Columbia, lands at Musqueam

Historic Event

1816 French frigate "La Méduse" runs aground under incompetent leadership of Viscount of Chaumareys, 400 passengers evacuated. 150 men, 1 woman are left on "la Machine," a poorly provisioned raft. 13 days later only 15 survivors remain, inspires Théodore Géricault's painting "The Raft of the Medusa"

  • 1822 Denmark Vesey (aka Telemaque), accused of planning a slave rebellion in South Carolina, dies by hanging at approximately 55
  • 1823 Bahia Independence Day: the end of Portuguese rule in Brazil, with the final defeat of the Portuguese crown loyalists in the province of Bahia
  • 1839 Slaves aboard a Spanish schooner La Amistad revolt to secure their freedom while being transported from one Cuban port to another

The Day an Alligator Fell from the Sky

1843 An alligator falls from sky during a thunderstorm in Charleston, South Carolina

  • 1847 Envelope bearing 1st US 10 cent stamps used (still exists today)

Historic Event

1849 Giuseppe Garibaldi begins hunger strike in Rome

  • 1850 Benjamin Lane patents gas mask with a breathing apparatus
  • 1858 Partial emancipation of Russian serfs
  • 1861 Battle of Hoke's Run, West Virginia - small Union victory
  • 1862 Lincoln signs act granting land for state agricultural colleges
  • 1863 2nd day of the Battle of Gettysburg (US Civil War)
  • 1863 R Morgan's: Burksville, Kentucky to Salineville, Ohio [->JUL 26]
  • 1864 General Early and Confederate forces reach Winchester en route to Washington, D.C.
  • 1864 Statuary Hall in US Capitol forms

A Salute To The Salvation Army

1865 One-time Methodist Reform Church minister William Booth and his wife Catherine found the East London Christian Mission, now known as the Salvation Army

  • 1867 1st US elevated railroad begins service, NYC
  • 1870 Jules Joseph d'Anethan is elected the tenth Prime Minister of Belgium

Historic Event

1881 US President James Garfield shot by Charles J. Guiteau a disappointed office-seeker; Garfield dies 79 days later

  • 1885 Canada's North-west Insurrection ends with surrender of Big Bear
  • 1890 US Congress passes Sherman Antitrust Act
  • 1894 Government obtains injunction against striking Pullman Workers

Historic Event

1900 First flight LZ-1, of a dirigible airship designed by Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin, at Lake Constance near Friedrichshafen, Germany

Historic Event

1901 Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid rob train of $40,000 at Wagner, Montana

  • 1912 Horn & Hardart opens its 1st NYC "automat" (self-service restaurant)
  • 1915 Erich Muenter, an instructor in German at Cornell University, explodes a bomb in the US Senate reception room

Historic Event

1916 Lenin says Imperialism is caused by capitalism

  • 1916 Russian offensive in Armenia
  • 1917 Labor disputes lead to race riot in East St Louis, Illinois - Black neighborhood attacked and burned, 40-200 killed and 6000 left homeless

Historic Event

1921 Warren G. Harding signs a joint congressional resolution declaring the official end of war with Germany

  • 1926 US Army Air Corps created; Distinguished Flying Cross authorized, to award "heroism or extraordinary achievement while participating in an aerial flight"
  • 1927 Jericho Earthquake in Palestine kills about 500
  • 1928 British parliament reduces the age at women can vote to 21 - the same as men (Representation of the People Act 1928)

Historic Event

1932 FDR makes 1st presidential nominating conventional acceptance speech

  • 1934 General Lazaro Cardenas elected president of Mexico

Historic Event

1937 Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan disappear flying over the Pacific Ocean en route to Howland Island. Noonan is declared dead the following year, and Earhart is declared the year after (1939)

  • 1940 Dutch PM Colijn publishes "Borders of 2 Worlds" (German victory)
  • 1940 Indian independence leader Subhas Chandra Bose is arrested and detained in Calcutta
  • 1940 Lake Washington (Seattle) Floating bridge dedicated
  • 1941 Nazi mass murder in Lvov/Lemberg (7,000 dead)
  • 1943 Gulf of Biskaje: Liberator bombers sinks U-126
  • 1943 Lieutenant Charles Hall becomes 1st African American pilot to shoot down a Nazi plane

Historic Event

1944 German Field Marshal Günther von Kluge replaces General von Rundstedt

  • 1946 Dutch Beel government forms
  • 1946 Harbor workers end strike at Rotterdam and Amsterdam
  • 1947 Military coup discovered in France

Historic Event

1949 The State of Vietnam is internationally recognised, governing the southern half of Vietnam, with Bảo Đại as chief of state

  • 1950 Henri Queuille is elected the seventh Prime Minister of the Fourth French Republic
  • 1950 Kinkaku-ji, a Zen Buddihst temple in Kyoto, Japan, burns down
  • 1951 Island advisor of Curacao installed
  • 1951 Leidse astronomers discover radio signal out of Milky Way system
  • 1952 Princess Beatrice opens miniature city of Madurodam
  • 1956 US performs nuclear test at Enwetak (atmospheric tests)
  • 1957 1st submarine designed to fire guided missiles launched, Grayback

Catholic Encyclical

1957 Pope Pius XII publishes encyclical Le pelerinage De Lourdes

  • 1958 US performs atmospheric nuclear test at Bikini Island

Historic Event

1962 Cuba's Minister of Foreign affairs Raúl Castro arrives in Moscow

Historic Event

1962 Sam Walton opens his first Walmart store in Rogers, Arkansas

Historic Event

1964 Architect Le Corbusier is made Grand Officiers of the Légion d'honneur

Murder of Interest

1964 Grand jury indicts Byron de la Beckwith in murder of Medger Evers

Historic Event

1964 US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act into law

  • 1966 1st France nuclear test on Mururoa atoll
  • 1968 An El Al Israeli airliner is hijacked and diverted to Algeria by three armed members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)
  • 1970 1st Boeing 747 to land in Amsterdam & Brussels
  • 1970 Neil Blaney is found not guilty of illegal arms importation to the Irish Republican Army by a Dublin jury
  • 1970 The Prevention of Incitement to Hatred Act (Northern Ireland) is introduced; it proves difficult to secure convictions under its provisions, seldom enforced
  • 1971 USSR performs underground nuclear test
  • 1972 India and Pakistan sign Simla Agreement peace accord
  • 1972 Two Catholic civilians are shot and killed in Belfast by Loyalist paramilitaries, probably the Ulster Defence Association (UDA)
  • 1973 James R Schlesinger ends term as 9th director of CIA
  • 1973 Nation Black Network begins operation on radio
  • 1974 Fernando Mameda of Portugal sets record for 10,000 m (27:13.81)
  • 1976 Formal reunification of North and South Vietnam
  • 1976 Ramble Inn attack: the Ulster Volunteer Force killed 6 civilians (5 Protestants, 1 Catholic) in a gun attack at a pub near Antrim; the pub was targeted because it was owned by Catholics
  • 1976 US Supreme Court rules death penalty not inherently cruel or unusual

Historic Event

1979 Susan B. Anthony dollar is issued, 1st US coin to honor a woman

  • 1980 Julie Marie Bryan, 18, of Georgia, crowned America's Young Woman of Yr
  • 1982 In South Africa, the Internal Security Act is passed, giving massive powers to the authorities to investigate any organization or publication
  • 1982 Larry Walters using lawn chair & 42 helium balloons, rose to 16,000'
  • 1982 Soyuz T-6 returns to Earth
  • 1985 Andrei Gromyko appointed president of USSR
  • 1985 European Space Agency launches Giotto (Halley's Comet Flyby)

Historic Event

1986 General strike against Pinochet regime in Chile

  • 1986 US Supreme Court upholds affirmative action in 2 rulings
  • 1987 Nilde Iotti is named as the first female President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies.
  • 1988 Lester Dumakude, commander of an Umkhonto we Sizwe special operations unit, detonate a car bomb by remote control outside Ellis Park Stadium in Johannesburg, South Africa

Historic Event

1989 Tiananmen Square student leader Wang Dan arrested and imprisoned for spreading counterrevolutionary propaganda and incitement (trial not till 1991)

  • 1990 1,426 pilgrims trampled to death after a panic in a tunnel in Mecca, Saudi Arabia

Historic Event

1990 Imelda Marcos and Adnan Khashoggi found not guilty of racketeering

  • 1992 Braniff Airlines goes out of business
  • 1993 Boat sinks at Bocaue Philippines, 325 die
  • 1993 F-28 crashes at Sorong Irian Barat, 41 die
  • 1993 Muslim fundamentalists in Sivas, Turkey, set hotel on fire, kill 36

Historic Event

1993 Pope John Paul II hospitalized for Cat Scan test

  • 1994 John Wayne Bobbitt & Kristina Elliot arrested for domestic battery
  • 1994 US Air DC-9 crash in North Carolina, 37 killed
  • 1995 Thailand: Banharn Silpa-Archa's party wins election
  • 1998 "Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets" the second book in the series is published by Bloomsbury in the UK
  • 2000 Vicente Fox Quesada is elected the first President of México from an opposition party, the Partido Acción Nacional after more than 70 years of continuous rule by the Partido Revolucionario Institucional.
  • 2001 AbioCor self contained artificial heart created.
  • 2001 Bush Administration announce that it will seek to let oil companies drill on about 1,500,000 acres of the Gulf of Mexico
  • 2001 UN Security Council, facing an almost certain Russian veto, agrees to postpone indefinitely a vote on the US-led "smart sanctions" package for Iraq
  • 2002 Steve Fossett becomes the first person to fly solo around the world nonstop in a balloon.
  • 2003 Silvio Berlusconi, Prime Minister of Italy, insults German MP Martin Schulz by calling him a "kapo" during a session of the European Parliament.
  • 2004 ASEAN Regional Forum accepts Pakistan as its 24th member.
  • 2005 Live 8 concert in Red Square, Moscow, Russia; performers include Pet Shop Boys, Agata Kristi, Splean, and Red Elvises
  • 2008 Ingrid Betancourt and 14 other FARC hostages are rescued by the Colombian armed forces.
  • 2010 Oil tanker truck explosion in South Kivu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, kills at least 230 people
  • 2012 GlaxoSmithKline settles the largest healthcare fraud case in history for US$3 Billion
  • 2012 Monsoon rain in East India kills at least 79 people and leaves 2.2 million homeless
  • 2013 16 people are killed and 200 are injured in protest clashes at Cairo University against Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi

Historic Event

2014 Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy is criminally charged with corruption by French prosecutors

  • 2015 62 people are killed after the Kim Nirvana ferry capsizes off the coast of the Philippines
  • 2015 BP agrees to compensate US government & gulf states $18.7 billion for the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill
  • 2016 Large lorry bomb in Baghdad kills at least 125 people and wounds 150, Islamic State claims responsibility
  • 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup: Germany defeats Chile 1-0 to win for the 1st time at Krestovsky Stadium in Saint Petersburg, Russia
  • 2017 New Jersey Governor Chris Christie causes uproar by day at beach during his government's shutdown of beaches
  • 2017 World Health Organization declares Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo over (4 deaths)
  • 2018 270,000 people now displaced by fighting in south-western Syria says UN since assault on rebel-held area two weeks ago
  • 2018 British divers discover 12 boys and their coach alive in Tham Luang Nang Non cave, Thailand after being trapped for 9 days by monsoon flooding
  • 2019 Air strike kills at least 40 people at Libyan migrant center in Tripoli, with Libyan National Army blamed

Historic Event

2019 Germany's Ursula von der Leyen is the first woman nominated to lead the European Commission with France's Christine Lagarde 1st woman nominated to lead the European Central Bank

  • 2019 Total solar eclipse over Chile and Argentina
  • 2019 Virginie Viard presents her first haute couture collection as designer at Chanel after the death of Karl Lagerfeld at the Grand Palais
  • 2020 More than 160 people die after a landslide at a jade mine in northern Hpakant area of Myanmar
  • 2020 Texas Governor Greg Abbott makes wearing face masks mandatory as cases of coronavirus soar in the state
  • 2021 India's known COVID-19 death toll passes 400,000 with 30.45 million cases, amid expert speculation that over one million have died [1]
  • 2022 Earliest evidence for the use of opium from 14th century bce found in burials at Tel Yehud, ancient Canaan (now Israel) [1]
  • 2022 Largest ever exhibition on African fashion "Africa Fashion" opens at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London [1]
  • 2022 The more contagious COVID-19 omicron subvariant BA.5 achieves dominance in the US, making up 54% of cases according to the CDC [1]