Events in History on July 20

  • 514 St Hormisdas elected as Pope succeeding Pope Sympowerus
  • 1031 Henry I succeeds father Robert II as King of the Franks (1031-60)
  • 1054 Patriarch of Constantinople Michael Caerularius, as head of a Synod held in Constantinople excommunicates Cardinal Humbert of the Western church (Rome)

Historic Event

1304 Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle - King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold of the war

Victory in Battle

1402 Battle of Ankara: Army of Timur (Tamerlane) with its armor-plated elephants defeats forces of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I, capturing Bayezid in the process leading to an Ottoman power vacuum

  • 1495 French viceroy of Naples Montpensier surrenders
  • 1498 Emperor Maximilian names Albrecht governor of Netherlands
  • 1553 John Dudley, Lord President of the Council under Edward VI, captured in Cambridge
  • 1609 Emperor Rudolf II grants Silezische protestants freedom of religion
  • 1619 Gerardus Vossius resigns as Dutch regent States college leader
  • 1654 Anglo-Portuguese treaty is reinforced, England guarantees Portugal’s independence and receives trade concessions
  • 1712 The Riot Act takes effect in Great Britain.
  • 1738 North America: French explorer Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye reaches the western shore of Lake Michigan
  • 1749 Earl of Chesterfield says "Idleness is only refuge of weak minds"
  • 1773 Scottish settlers arrive at Pictou, Nova Scotia (Canada)
  • 1793 Scottish explorer Alexander Mackenzie completes the first European east-to-west crossing of America north of Mexico
  • 1801 Elisha Brown Jr presses a 1,235 pound cheese ball at his farm

Historic Event

1808 Napoleon decrees all French Jews adopt family names

  • 1810 Citizens of Bogotá, New Granada (now Colombia), declare independence from Spain

Opening of Euston Station

1837 Euston railway station opens in London as the terminus of the London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR), the city's 1st intercity railway station

  • 1847 German astronomer Theodor discovers Comet Brorsen-Metcalf
  • 1849 Start of 1st Lancashire-Yorkshire clash at Hyde Park, Sheffield
  • 1855 1st train from Rotterdam to Utrecht in Netherlands

Meeting of Interest

1858 Gathering of Plombieres - Napoleon III meets Cavour

  • 1861 Confederate states' congress began holding sessions in Richmond, Virginia
  • 1862 Guerrilla campaign in Georgia (Porter's & Poindexter's) [->SEP 20]
  • 1864 Battle at Stephenson's Depot, Virginia: 200 killed or injured
  • 1864 Battle of Peachtree Creek-Atlanta Campaign
  • 1866 Sea battle of Lissa-Austria vs Italy
  • 1868 1st use of tax stamps on cigarettes
  • 1871 British Columbia joins the confederation of Canada.
  • 1876 1st US intercollegiate track meet held, Saratoga, NY; Princeton wins
  • 1877 Great Railroad Strike: Labor issues turn violent as state militia confronts much larger crowd of rail workers and supporters - rocks met with bullets in Baltimore, Maryland; 10 killed and federal troops called in to restore order [1]
  • 1878 1st telephone introduced in Hawaii
  • 1879 Swedish expedition headed by Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, aboard SS Vega, becomes the first to navigate the Northeast passage

Victory in Battle

1881 Sioux Indian Chief Sitting Bull, surrenders to US federal troops

  • 1890 "Gibbons Stamp Monthly" begins publishing
  • 1890 Snow and hail in Calais, Maine
  • 1894 2000 fed troops recalled from Chicago, having ended Pullman strike
  • 1901 Morocco signs an agreement with France fixing Morocco's frontier with Algeria, a French colony
  • 1907 A train wreck on the Pere Marquette Railroad near Salem, Michigan kills thirty and injures seventy more

Historic Event

1910 Former Dutch premier Abraham Kuyper acquitted of corruption

  • 1911 Generals Henry Wilson/Auguste Dubail sign plan for British Expeditionary army in case of war with Germany
  • 1913 Turkish troops take Adrianopel & Erdine from Bulgaria
  • 1914 Armed resistance against British rule begins in Ulster
  • 1917 Pact of Corfu signed: Serbs, Croats & Slovenes form Yugoslavia
  • 1917 WW I draft lottery held; #258 is 1st drawn

Historic Event

1921 Congresswoman Alice Mary Robertson becomes the first woman to preside over the floor of US House of Representatives

  • 1922 French and British Togoland make separate mandates within the League of Nations
  • 1924 Federation Internationale des Echecs (FIDE) forms in Paris
  • 1924 Tehran, Persia comes under martial law after the American vice consul, Robert Imbrie, is killed by a religious mob enraged by rumors he had poisoned a fountain and killed several people
  • 1925 Beirut sultan Pasja al-Atrasj calls Druzen for holy war against France
  • 1925 Italian-Serbian/Croatian/Slav treaty about Dalmatie
  • 1926 A convention of the Methodist Church votes to allow women to become priests.
  • 1928 The government of Hungary issues a decree ordering Gypsies to end their nomadic ways, settle permanently in one place, subject themselves to the same laws and taxes as other Hungarians
  • 1930 106°F (41°C), Washington, D.C. (district record)

Coup d'état

1932 Franz von Papen launches a coup against the Prussian government

  • 1932 In Washington, D.C., police fire tear gas on World War I veterans part of the Bonus Expeditionary Force who attempt to march to the White House
  • 1933 Germany: Two-hundred Jewish merchants are arrested in Nuremberg and paraded through the streets
  • 1933 In London, 500,000 march against anti-Semitism

Historic Event

1933 Vatican state secretary Pacelli (Pius XII) signs accord with Adolf Hitler

  • 1934 118°F (48°C), Keokuk, Iowa (state record)
  • 1935 Switzerland: A Royal Dutch Airlines plane en route from Milan to Frankfurt crashes into a Swiss mountain, killing thirteen
  • 1940 Germany occupiers forbid Dutch Communist Party (CPN) in Netherlands
  • 1940 Nazi collaborator Rost of Tonningen appointed director of Marxist

Historic Event

1941 The Guinea Pig Club forms, made of severely injured airmen treated by Archibald McIndoe at Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, England [1]

  • 1942 1st detachment of Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, begin basic training
  • 1942 Legion of Merit Medal authorized by US congress

Historic Event

1943 US Joint Chiefs of Staff question Admiral Chester Nimitz over the landing on Gilbert Island

  • 1944 Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt led by German army officer Claus Von Stauffenberg
  • 1944 British and Canadian troops occupy Hill 67/Ifs/Bras/Frenouville, Normandy
  • 1944 Canadian Cameron Highlanders conquer St Andre
  • 1944 Death March of 1,200 Jews from Lipcani Moldavia begins
  • 1944 Fieldmarshal von Kluge consults with German commandant at Caen
  • 1944 Fifty are hurt in rioting in front of the presidential palace in Mexico City
  • 1944 Flying Fortresses of US 8th Air Force attack Leipzig/Dessau

Historic Event

1944 General Eisenhower visits Montgomery's headquarter in Normandy

  • 1944 Heavy storm hampers British offensive at Caen
  • 1944 Japanese aircraft carrier Hijo sunk by US air attack
  • 1944 Liberators of US 8th Air Force attack Gotha Russelsheim/Eisenach
  • 1944 US 15th Air Force attacks Friedrichshaven Memmingen
  • 1944 US 9th Air Force bombs railroad at Chaulnes Sable-sur-Sarthe/Dreux
  • 1944 US invades Japanese-occupied Guam

Presidential Convention

1944 US President FDR nominated for an unprecedented 4th term at Democratic convention

  • 1944 Violent battles in Verrieres-hill (Normandy)
  • 1947 1st political action of Netherlands Army on Java and Sumatra

Election of Interest

1948 Syngman Rhee elected the 1st President of South Korea

  • 1948 US Communist Party chairman William Forster arrested
  • 1949 Israel's 19 month war of independence ends
  • 1949 Vasil Kolarov elected Premier of Bulgaria
  • 1951 King Abdullah I of Jordan is assassinated by a Palestinian while attending Friday prayers in Jerusalem
  • 1953 The United Nations Economic and Social Council votes to make UNICEF a permanent agency
  • 1953 USSR/Israel recover diplomatic relations
  • 1954 West German secret service head Otto John defects to East Germany (DDR)
  • 1956 Confirmation of the first detection of the neutrino by Clyde Cowan, Frederick Reines, F. B. Harrison, H. W. Kruse, and A. D. McGuire published in "Science" (Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment)
  • 1956 France recognizes Tunisian independence
  • 1956 Great Britain refuses to lend Egypt money to build Aswan Dam
  • 1956 US performs atmospheric nuclear Test at Bikini Island
  • 1958 King Hussein of Jordan breaks off diplomatic relations with UAR
  • 1960 1st submerged submarine to fire Polaris missile (George Washington)
  • 1960 The head of the Physics Department at the Israel Institute of Technology, Kurt Sitte, is arrested for espionage
  • 1960 USSR recovers 2 dogs; 1st living organisms to return from space
  • 1961 French military forces break the Tunisian siege of Bizerte
  • 1962 France and Tunisia recover diplomatic relations
  • 1963 17 African states & Madagascar sign peace treaty with EC
  • 1963 Riots break out at Mt Eden Prison, Auckland, New Zealand
  • 1963 Verne Gagne beats Crusher Lisowski in Minneapolis, to become NWA champ
  • 1964 1st surfin' record to go #1-Jan & Dean's "Surf City"
  • 1965 18.18" (46.18 cm) of rainfall, Edgarton, Missouri (state 24-hr record)

Historic Event

1967 Chilean poet and diplomat Pablo Neruda receives 1st Viareggio-Versilia Prize, recognizing “world personalities who work for culture and understanding between peoples”

  • 1967 Race riots in Memphis, Tennessee

Apollo 11 Bootprint

1969 Apollo 11 lunar module carrying Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin lands on the surface of the Moon; Aldrin and Armstrong walk on the moon seven hours later; Michael Collins remains in orbit in the lunar module

  • 1972 US performs nuclear Test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1973 Jack Brisco beats Harley Race in Houston, to become NWA champ
  • 1973 The US Senate passes the War Powers Act
  • 1974 Heng Yo and Heng Ju, completes 1,000 mile (SF-Seattle) pilgrimage
  • 1974 Turkey invades Cyprus
  • 1975 Bruce Springteen and the E Street Band kick off the Born to Run Tour at the Palace Theatre in Providence, Rhode Island; Steven Van Zandt debuts as a full-fledged member of the group
  • 1975 India expels three reporters from "The Times", "The Daily Telegraph", and "Newsweek" because they refuse to sign a pledge to abide by government censorship
  • 1976 US Viking 1 lands on Mars at Chryse Planitia, 1st Martian landing
  • 1976 Vietnam War: The US military completes its troop withdrawal from Thailand.
  • 1977 Flash flood hits Johnstown, Pennsylvania, kills 80 and causes $350 million damage
  • 1977 The Central Intelligence Agency releases documents under the Freedom of Information Act revealing it had engaged in mind control experiments
  • 1979 44-kg Newfoundland dog pulls 2293-kg load, Bothell, Washington
  • 1981 England set for innings loss v Aust, Botham hits 100 in 87 balls
  • 1982 Hyde Park and Regent's Park bombings: 11 British soldiers and 7 military horses killed in Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb attacks during military ceremonies in London
  • 1983 France performs nuclear Test at Mururoa atoll
  • 1985 Divers find wreck of Spanish galleon Atocha
  • 1985 The government of Aruba passes legislation to secede from the Netherlands Antilles

Historic Event

1987 Don Mattingly ties 1st base fielding record with 22 put-outs

Historic Event

1988 Michael Dukakis selected Democratic presidential nominee

  • 1989 93°F, highest overnight low ever recorded in Phoenix Arizona

Historic Event

1989 Burma government puts author Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest

  • 1989 Photographer Robert Mapplethorpe's show opens at Washington, D.C.'s Project for the Arts after the Smithsonian Institution's Corcoran Gallery cancels it
  • 1990 Justice William J. Brennan Jr. resigns from the Supreme Court after 36 years
  • 1992 Round World Air Race begins in Paris

Historic Event

1992 Václav Havel resigns as President of Czechoslovakia after Slovakia declares independence

  • 1993 Fire in the press box at Atlanta Fulton County Stadium

Historic Event

1994 Alexander Lukashenko is inaugurated as the first president of Belarus

  • 1994 Major parts of Comet Shoemaker-Levy hit Jupiter (July 16th-22nd)

Historic Event

1994 Supreme Leader of North-Korea, Kim Il-sung is placed in a public Mausoleum at the Kumsusan Palace of the Sun

  • 1995 The Regents of the University of California vote to end all affirmative action in the UC system by 1997.
  • 1996 In Spain an ETA bomb at an airport kills 35
  • 1998 Two hundred aid workers from CARE International, Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) and other aid groups leave Afghanistan on orders of the Taliban
  • 1999 Falun Gong is banned in the People's Republic of China, and a large scale crackdown of the practice is launched
  • 2000 In Zimbabwe, Parliament opens its new session and seats opposition members for the first time in a decade
  • 2000 Terrorist Carlos the Jackal sues France in the European Court of Human Rights for allegedly torturing him
  • 2001 Italy: The 27th Annual G8 summit opens in Genoa. An Italian protester in Genoa, Carlo Giuliani, is shot by police.
  • 2001 The London Stock Exchange goes public.
  • 2002 Bartenders doing tricks with fire start a major fire in a night club in Lima, Peru that kills 25 and injures 100
  • 2003 France: Sixteen people are injured after two bombs explode outside a tax office in Nice.
  • 2005 Canada becomes the fourth country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage, after the bill C-38 receives its Royal Assent
  • 2012 21 people are killed and 29 injured in a bus accident in Nayarit, Mexico
  • 2014 Patrick Sawyer arrives in city of Lagos in Nigeria and collapses; he dies of Ebola five days later
  • 2014 The Israeli Defence Force enter Shuja'iyya, a populous neighbourhood of Gaza City, as part of their ground offensive focused on destroying tunnels crossing the Israel border
  • 2015 Hacker group the Impact Team announce they have hacked married dating site Ashley Madison
  • 2015 Suicide bomber kills 30 in Turkish town of Suruc near Syrian border
  • 2017 China announces a plan against “foreign garbage” banning 24 categories of plastic and recyclable waste from 2018

Historic Event

2017 Elon Musk tweets he has "verbal government approval" to build 29 minute Hyperloop between New York and Washington, D.C.

  • 2017 The last fighting occurs in the Iraqi city of Mosul as the city is liberated from ISIS militants
  • 2018 Australian businessman James Packer announces he has quit 22 directorships due to mental health issues
  • 2019 115°F (46.1°C), John Martin Dam, Colorado (state record)
  • 2020 Announcement that a COVID-19 vaccine developed by the University of Oxford (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) is able to trigger immune response and antibodies
  • 2020 Scientists find evidence of volcanoes on Venus, showing the planet is not as dormant as previously thought (Nature Geoscience)
  • 2020 United Kingdom suspends extradition treaty with Hong Kong in wake of new Chinese security laws for the territory

Historic Event

2021 Amazon founder Jeff Bezos announces his first two 'Courage and Civility Awards' of $100M each to writer, commentator, and non-profit founder Van Jones and chef and World Central Kitchen founder José Andrés to distribute to charities of their choice

  • 2021 Amazon founder Jeff Bezos goes into space in first unpiloted suborbital flight with all-civilian crew, aboard rocket developed by his company Blue Origin
  • 2021 India's COVID-19 death toll likely 10 times its official toll, 3.4 million to 4.7 million (to June 2021), according to The Center for Global Development [1]
  • 2021 New York records the worst air quality in the world due to smoke from 80 wild fires on the US west coast [1]
  • 2021 Oregon's Bootleg fire has burnt nearly 400,000 acres, now so big it's generating its own weather patterns according to local fire chiefs
  • 2021 Torrential rain causes severe flooding in China's Hunan province, flooding subways with people still on the trains, killing at least 12 people in Zhengzhou city [1]
  • 2021 US, NATO members and other states accuse China's Ministry of State Security for using "contract criminal hackers" to infiltrate Microsoft email systems [1]
  • 2022 An intense heatwave across Europe results in over 1000 deaths in Portugal and 500 in Spain; while starting wildfires across Spain, France, Italy and Greece [1]
  • 2022 Geranium, a meat-free restaurant in Copenhagen named world's best restaurant at a ceremony in London [1]

Historic Event

2022 Italian government of Prime Minister Mario Draghi falls after his coalition partners pass a no confidence vote against him [1]

  • 2022 Russia now looking to extend its territory into southern as well as eastern Ukraine according to top Russian diplomat [1]