Events in History on July 31

Victory in Battle

30 BC Battle of Alexandria: Mark Antony achieves minor victory over Octavian, but most of his army subsequently deserts, leading to Octavian's invasion of Egypt

  • 432 St Sixtus III begins his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 768 [Philip] begins and ends his reign as Catholic Pope
  • 781 The oldest recorded eruption of Mt. Fuji (Traditional Japanese date: July 6, 781)
  • 1291 Egyptian Mamelukken occupies Akko, crusaders driven out of Palestine

Assassination Attempt

1415 The Southampton plot to assassinate English king Henry V and put Edmund Mortimer on the throne is uncovered

  • 1423 Hundred Years' War: Battle of Cravant - the French army is defeated by the English on the banks of the river Yonne in Burgundy
  • 1451 Jacques Cœur is arrested by order of Charles VII of France

Historic Discovery

1498 Christopher Columbus discovers the island of Trinidad on his third voyage

  • 1620 Pilgrim Fathers depart Leiden, Netherlands for England on their way to America
  • 1653 Fronde-leaders surrender in Bordeaux
  • 1655 Russo-Polish War (1654-1667): the Russian army enters the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnius, which it holds for six years
  • 1658 Aurangzeb appoints himself Mongol emperor
  • 1664 Pierre Corneille's "Othon" premieres in Paris
  • 1667 Peace of Breda: 2nd English war-Suriname vs New-Netherlands ends

Historic Publication

1703 Daniel Defoe is placed in a pillory for the crime of seditious libel after publishing a politically satirical pamphlet, but is pelted with flowers

  • 1737 Prince Frederick of Wales escapes English court
  • 1741 Charles Albert of Bavaria invades Upper Austria and Bohemia.
  • 1751 Fire in Stockholm destroys 1,000 houses
  • 1771 Paul Potters "Great ossendrift" sold for Ÿ9050 in Amsterdam

Historic Event

1777 Marquis de Lafayette, 19, made major-general of Continental Army

  • 1790 1st US patent granted, to Samuel Hopkins for a potash process
  • 1792 Cornerstone laid for 1st US government building: US Mint in Philadelphia
  • 1794 All Jacobijnse clubs together in Haarlem
  • 1809 1st practical US railroad track (wooden, for horse-drawn cars), Philadelphia
  • 1813 British invade Plattsburgh, NY
  • 1849 Benjamin Chambers patents breech loading cannon
  • 1852 Hottest July in Netherlands since at least 1783 (68.4°F (20.2°C) avg)

Historic Invention

1853 First night time surgery performed at Lychakiv Hospital in Lemberg (now Liviv, Poland), using new paraffin oil lamps invented by Ignacy Łukasiewicz

  • 1855 Hottest July in Stockholm since at least 1756 (21.4°C avg)
  • 1856 Christchurch, New Zealand, is chartered as a city.
  • 1861 9,300 mm rainfall in July in Cherrapunji, Assam: then world record

Historic Event

1864 Ulysses S. Grant is named General of Volunteers

  • 1865 The first narrow gauge mainline railway in the world opens at Grandchester, Australia
  • 1874 Patrick Francis Healy, SJ, inaugurated as President of Georgetown U
  • 1876 US Coast Guard officers' training school established (New Bedford Massachusetts)
  • 1877 Second Russian assault on Plevna, Turkey fails, during Russo-Turkish War, 7,300 Russian casualties
  • 1879 The first cable connection between South Africa and Europe is laid by the British electrical engineer Charles Tilston Bright as part of his project to link the British Empire with growing telecommunications technologies
  • 1893 Gaelic League is founded by Douglas Hyde and Eoin MacNeill in order to encourage Irish people to speak the language and take a greater interest in their culture
  • 1899 Albert Trott hits Monty Noble over the Pavilion at Lord's
  • 1900 Boer Generals Prinsloo & Roux surrender in Brandwater Basin

Historic Event

1901 Abraham Kuyper becomes premier of Netherlands

  • 1905 Matumbi rebellion at Samanga, German East Africa
  • 1910 Chic Cub King Cole no-hits St Louis, 4-0 in a 7 inning game
  • 1910 Clement van Maasdijk gives flying demonstration
  • 1911 Hungarian education is only taught in German

Historic Event

1914 German Emperor Wilhelm II threatens war, orders Russia to demobilize

  • 1914 Oil discovered in Lake of Maracaibo
  • 1917 World War I: Battle of Passchendaele (Third Battle of Ypres) begins, goes on to cause approximately 500,000 casualties
  • 1919 The Weimar Constitution establishing the German Republic is adopted
  • 1922 18-year-old Ralph Samuelson rides world's 1st water skis (Minnesota)
  • 1922 General strike in Italy against fascist violence
  • 1923 Belgian Chamber discusses bilinguality at Ghent University
  • 1925 Last allied occupying troops leave Ruhrgebied
  • 1925 Unemployment Insurance Act passed in Britain

Historic Event

1929 Aristide Briand becomes premier of France for the 6th time

  • 1932 German Election (NSDAP gets 37.3%)
  • 1935 3rd Dutch government of Prime Minister Hendrikus Colijn sworn in
  • 1938 Archaeologists discover engraved gold and silver plates from King Darius in Persepolis.
  • 1940 Riechskommissar Seyss-Inquart bans homosexuals
  • 1941 U-boats sink and damage 21 allied ships this month (80,521 tons)
  • 1942 German SS gases 1,000 Jews in Minsk, Belorussia
  • 1943 Transport #58 departs with French Jews to Nazi Germany

Historic Event

1944 Last deportation train out Mechelen departs to Auschwitz

  • 1944 Transport #77 departs with French Jews to Nazi Germany
  • 1944 US troops occupy Sansapor, New Guinea

Victory in Battle

1945 Pierre Laval, fugitive former leader of Vichy France, surrenders to Allied soldiers in Austria

  • 1948 US President Harry Truman dedicates Idlewild Field (now Kennedy Airport), NY
  • 1951 Japan Airlines is established
  • 1954 First ascent of K2, by an Italian expedition led by Ardito Desio
  • 1958 Anti-Chinese uprising in Tibet

Historic Event

1960 Elijah Muhammad, leader of Nation of Islam, calls for a black state

  • 1961 Israel welcomes its one millionth immigrant
  • 1963 Arturo Illia elected President of Argentina
  • 1964 Al Parker glides 644 miles without a motor
  • 1964 US Ranger 7 takes 4,316 pictures before crashing on Moon
  • 1965 Cigarette advertising banned on British TV
  • 1969 Mariner 6 makes its closest approach to planet Mars at 3410 km
  • 1969 National Guard mobilizes in racial disturbances in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Black Tot Day

1970 Black Tot Day: the last day of the officially sanctioned rum ration in the Royal Navy (started 1740)

  • 1970 Daniel O'Hagan (19), a Catholic civilian, is shot dead by the British Army during a serious riot in the New Lodge Road area of Belfast, Northern Ireland
  • 1971 Apollo 15 astronauts take 6½ hour electric car ride on Moon
  • 1971 Venezuela's Hydrocarbons Reversion Law mandates gradual transfer to government ownership of all "unexploited concession areas" by 1974 and "all their residual assets" by 1983
  • 1972 Claudy bombing: nine civilians were killed when three car bombs exploded in County Londonderry, North Ireland; no group has since claimed responsibility
  • 1972 Operation Motorman: the British Army use 12,000 soldiers supported by tanks and bulldozers to re-take the "no-go areas" controlled by the Provisional Irish Republican Army
  • 1972 Thomas Eagleton withdraws as Democratic VP candidate
  • 1973 Delta Airlines DC-9 crashes in fog at Logan Airport, Boston, killing all but one of 89 aboard. Lone survivor dies 5 months later
  • 1975 The Miami Showband killings: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), a loyalist paramilitary group, shoot dead three members of an Irish showband at Buskhill, County Down, Ireland
  • 1976 Seychelles Independence (Independence day)
  • 1977 E. Henry Knoche, ends term as deputy director of CIA
  • 1977 John F. Blake promoted from acting to deputy director of CIA
  • 1978 Gunman shoots his way into Iraqi Embassy in Paris
  • 1980 Hurricane Allen forms in the Atlantic Ocean, will go on to become the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic Basin with winds of 190mph (305km/h)
  • 1980 Soyuz 37 crew returns to Earth aboard Soyuz 36
  • 1980 USSR performs nuclear Test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR
  • 1981 Arnette Hubbard installed as 1st woman president of National Bar Association
  • 1981 Poland's Deputy Prime Minister Mieczyslaw Jagielski is fired
  • 1982 46 kids & 7 adults die as 2 buses and several cars collide near Beaune, France
  • 1982 Finland, Italy, Germany, Austria and France form American European Football Federation (AEFF)
  • 1982 USSR performs nuclear Test
  • 1983 Dutch July average temperature is 20.1°C; warmest July since 1852
  • 1984 Venz commandos terminate hijacking of an aircraft, 2 killed

Historic Publication

1985 Indian writer R.K. Narayan publishes his short story collection "Under the Banyan Tree and Other Stories"

  • 1987 A rare, class F-4 tornado rips through Edmonton, Alberta, killing 27 people and causing $330 million in damage
  • 1987 Battle between Iranian pilgrims and Saudi-Arabian troops, 402 killed
  • 1987 Rockwell International awarded contract to build a 5th shuttle
  • 1988 32 people are killed and 1,674 injured when a bridge at the Sultan Abdul Halim ferry terminal collapses in Butterworth, Malaysia

Historic Event

1988 Last Playboy Club closes in Lansing, Michigan

  • 1990 Bosnia-Hercegovina declares independence
  • 1991 Russia and US sign long range nuclear weapons reduction pact
  • 1991 Senate votes to allow women to fly combat aircraft
  • 1991 The Medininkai Massacre in Lithuania. Soviet OMON attacks Lithuanian customs post in Medininkai, killing 7 officers and severely wounding one other
  • 1992 Thai Airbus crashes into mountain at Kathmandu, 113 die
  • 1993 Inkatha-arm forces killed 49 ANC-followers in Johannesburg
  • 1993 Prince Ronald "Ronnie" Mutebi crowned king of Uganda
  • 1994 102.7°F (39.3°C) in Pleschen, East-Germany
  • 1994 Arcen Limburg averages 71.6°F (22.0°C) in July: record
  • 1994 Netherlands' warmest July since 1783 - average 21.4°C
  • 1994 Sergei Bubka ploe vaults his 35th world record (6.14 m)
  • 1994 Stockholm averages 21.5°C; the warmest July since 1855
  • 1994 UN votes 12-0 (2 abstentions) to authorize use of force against Haiti
  • 1999 Discovery Program: Lunar Prospector - NASA intentionally crashes the spacecraft into the Moon, thus ending its mission to detect frozen water on the moon's surface
  • 2002 Polaroid Corporation is purchased by One Equity Partners, continuing to operate under the Polaroid Corporation name

Historic Event

2006 Fidel Castro temporarily hands over power to brother Raúl Castro. This leads to a celebration in Little Havana (La Pequeña Habana in Spanish), Miami, Florida, where many Cuban Americans participated.

  • 2007 Operation Banner, the presence of the British Army in Northern Ireland, and longest-running British Army operation ever, comes to an end
  • 2012 A second power grid failure in India in two days leaves 670 million people without power
  • 2012 Two car bombs kill 21 people in Baghdad, Iraq
  • 2014 Israel and Hamas agree to a 72-hour humanitarian cease-fire
  • 2014 The US agree to resupply arms to Israel - including rocket launchers, mortar rounds, grenades - despite condemnation of civilian casualties in Gaza

Historic Event

2015 It is announced that creative director Alexander Wang will leave Balenciaga

  • 2016 Yuriko Koike is the first woman to be elected Tokyo Governor

Historic Publication

2016 “Harry Potter and the Cursed Child", a play by Jack Thorne with contributions by J. K. Rowling is published worldwide at midnight

  • 2017 Anthony Scaramucci removed as White House Communications Director after less than 2 weeks
  • 2018 Aeroméxico flight 2431 crash lands in Durango, Mexico, all 103 on board survive
  • 2018 Facebook discloses and removes Russian-linked network of sites attempting to interfere in American politics

Historic Event

2019 American officials announce Osama bin Laden's son, Hamza bin Laden and potential successor has been killed in US air strikes in Pakistan

  • 2019 Kelly Craft confirmed by US Senate as US ambassador to the UN [1]

Historic Event

2019 Russian President Vladimir Putin orders Russian army to help put out huge wildfires in Siberia covering three million hectares (7.4 million acres) after 700,000 people sign petition

  • 2019 US Federal Reserve cuts interest rates for the first time since 2008 by 0.25%
  • 2020 Apple wildfire starts near Beaumont, California, forcing the evacuation of nearly 8,000 people over the next few days
  • 2020 Eurozone economic activity falls 11.9% for April-June with Spain the worst at -18.5%, its deepest in modern times
  • 2020 Mexico overtakes the UK to have the world's third highest death toll from COVID-19 with 46,688 fatalities

9/11 Attack on NY's World Trade Towers

2022 Al Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, who helped plan 9/11 attacks killed in CIA drone strike in Kabul, Afghanistan, US President Joe Biden calls it group's biggest blow since Osama bin Laden killed [1]

  • 2022 McKinney fire at Klamath National Forest, becomes California's largest fire of the year at 51,000 acres, fueled by high temperatures and strong winds, forcing evacuations [1]
  • 2022 Women's Euro 2022: England defeat Germany 2-1 in extra time in front of biggest-ever Euro crowd of 87,192 at Wembley, London [1]