Events in History on March 23

  • 1026 Conrad II crowns himself King of Italy
  • 1066 18th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet

Treaty of Interest

1153 Treaty of Konstanz between Frederick I "Barbarossa" & Pope Eugene III

  • 1174 Jocelin, abbot of Melrose, is elected bishop of Glasgow
  • 1490 1st dated edition of Maimonides "Mishneh Torah", a code of Jewish religious law is published
  • 1534 Aragonese legal code formally recognised
  • 1568 Treaty of Longjumeau: French huguenots go on strike
  • 1579 Friesland joins Union of Utrecht
  • 1593 English Separatist Puritans John Greenwood and Henry Barrowe tried and sentenced to death on the charge of devising and circulating seditious books
  • 1630 French troops occupy Pinerolo Piedmont
  • 1657 France & England form alliance against Spain; England gets Dunkirk
  • 1708 Pretender to the English throne James III attempts to land at Firth of Forth, Scotland, but is turned away by the British Royal Navy
  • 1752 Pope Stephen II elected to succeed Zacharias, dies 2 days later

Historic Event

1775 Patrick Henry proclaims "Give me liberty or give me death" in speech in favour of Virginian troops joining US Revolutionary war

  • 1782 Novel "Les Liaisons dangereuses" (Dangerous Liaisons) by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos is published by Durand Neveu
  • 1794 Josiah Pierson patents a "cold-header" (rivet) machine

Historic Event

1808 Napoleon's brother Joseph takes the throne of Spain

  • 1821 Battle and fall of city of Kalamata, Greek War of Independence
  • 1839 1st recorded use of "OK" [oll korrect] (Boston's Morning Post)
  • 1840 John William Draper takes 1st successful photo in US of the Moon (daguerreotype), in New York City
  • 1848 The ship John Wickliffe arrives at Port Chalmers carrying the first Scottish settlers for Dunedin, New Zealand. Otago province is founded.
  • 1849 Battle of Novara (King Charles Albert vs Italian republic)

Historic Event

1857 Elisha Otis installs his 1st elevator at 488 Broadway in New York City

  • 1858 Streetcar patented (E A Gardner of Philadelphia)
  • 1861 London's 1st tramcars, designed by Mr Train of NY, begins operating
  • 1862 Battle of Kernstown Virginia, Jackson begins his Valley Campaign
  • 1864 Encounter at Camden, Arkansas

Historic Event

1865 General Sherman and Cox' troops reach Goldsboro, North Carolina

Historic Event

1867 Congress passes 2nd Reconstruction Act over President Andrew Johnson's veto

  • 1868 University of California founded in Oakland, California
  • 1879 War of the Pacific fought between Chile and the joints forces of Bolivia and Peru. Chile successfully takes over Arica and Tarapacá, leaving Bolivia a landlocked country.
  • 1880 Flour rolling mill patented (John Stevens of Wisconsin)
  • 1881 Boers & Britain sign peace accord; end 1st Boer war
  • 1882 The Edmunds Act (Edmunds Anti-Polygamy Act) is adopted by the US to suppress polygamy. 1300 men are later imprisoned under the act
  • 1889 The free Woolwich Ferry officially opens in east London
  • 1896 The Raines Law is passed by the New York State Legislature, restricting Sunday sale of alcohol to hotels
  • 1903 The Wright brothers 1st file a patent for a flying machine, which is granted 3 years later
  • 1908 American diplomat Durham Stevens is attacked by Korean assassins Jeon Myeong-un and Jang In-hwan, leading to his death in hospital two days later
  • 1915 Zion Mule Corp formed by the British Army
  • 1917 Tornadoes kills 211 over 4 days in Midwest US
  • 1918 Alick Wickham dives 200' into Australia's Yarra River
  • 1918 German forces advance 14 miles to the Somme River (WW1)
  • 1918 Germany begins using long-range gun, the 'Kaiser Wilhelm Geschütz' ('Emperor William Gun'), aka 'Paris Gun' to shell Paris from Crépy-en-Laonnais, 75 miles away; over several days, 303 rounds kill 256 and wound over 600
  • 1918 Lithuania proclaims independence

Historic Event

1919 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party re-establishes a five-member Politburo which becomes the center of political power in the Soviet Union. Original members Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin, Lev Kamenev and Nikolai Krestinsky

  • 1919 Bashkir ASSR, in RSFSR, constituted

Historic Event

1919 Benito Mussolini forms Fascist movement in Milan Italy

  • 1920 Perserikatan Communist of India (PKI) political party forms
  • 1921 Germany announces it will be unable to meet its Great War reparation payments
  • 1922 1st airplane lands at the US Capitol in Washington, D.C.
  • 1922 KMJ-AM in Fresno CA begins radio transmissions
  • 1922 WEW-AM in Saint Louis MO begins radio transmissions

Historic Event

1929 1st telephone installed at the President’s desk under the Hoover administration at the White House


1931 Indian independence fighters Bhagat Singh, Shivaram Rajguru and Sukhdev Thapar are hanged after conducting an assassination and a bombing. Their request to be shot by a firing squad is refused.

Historic Event

1933 Enabling Act: German Reichstag grants Adolf Hitler dictatorial powers

  • 1936 Italy, Austria & Hungary sign Pact of Rome

Historic Event

1936 Physician Joseph G. Hamilton injects a leukemia patient with a sodium radioisotope, first intravenous injection of a human with a radioisotope

  • 1937 LA Railway Co starts using PCC streetcars
  • 1940 The Lahore Resolution (Qarardad-e-Lahore), calling for independent Muslim state(s), is adopted by the All-India Muslim League
  • 1942 2,500 Jews of Lublin massacred or deported
  • 1942 Japanese forces occupy Andaman Islands in Indian Ocean
  • 1943 German counter attack on US lines in Tunisia
  • 1944 Italian resistance group bombs occupying German police at Via Rasella, Rome; killing 33 and wounding 110 of the 156 man force; retaliation kills 335 civilians

Battle of Okinawa

1945 Battle of Okinawa: US Navy ships bomb the Japanese island of Okinawa in preparation for the Allied invasion; it would become the largest battle of the Pacific War in World War II

  • 1945 British 7th Black Watch crosses the Rhine into Germany
  • 1945 British Prime Minister Churchill visits Montgomery's headquarter in Straelen

Historic Event

1945 Lt. Gen. Miles Dempsey becomes the first British commander to cross the Rhine during the Allied invasion of Germany

Historic Event

1945 The Swallow Sidecar Company headed by William Lyons agrees to change its name to Jaguar

  • 1948 John Cunningham sets world altitude record (54,492' (18,133 m))
  • 1949 Sidney Kingsley's "Detective Story" premieres in NYC
  • 1950 Frances Farmer is released from Western State Hospital
  • 1950 Sophocles Venizelos forms liberal Greek government
  • 1950 UN World Meteorological Org established
  • 1951 Wages in France increase 11%
  • 1956 Pakistan proclaimed an Islamic republic in Commonwealth (National Day)
  • 1956 Sudan becomes independent
  • 1957 US army sells last homing pigeons
  • 1960 NASA's Explorer (8) fails to reach Earth orbit

Historic Event

1962 JFK visits San Francisco

  • 1962 Wake Forest coach "Bones" McKinney becomes 2nd person to play and coach
  • 1963 Rolf Hochhuth's play "Der Stellvertreter" (The Representative) premieres in Berlin
  • 1964 UNCTAD 1 world conference opens in Geneva
  • 1965 Gemini 3 launched, 1st US 2-man space flight (Grissom & Young)
  • 1965 Moroccan army shoots on demonstrators, about 100 killed
  • 1966 1st official meeting after 400 years of Catholic & Anglican Church
  • 1968 Rev Walter Fauntroy, is 1st non-voting congressional delegate from DC
  • 1969 Rally for Decency in Miami
  • 1970 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1971 Dutch 2nd Chamber accept simplified divorce
  • 1971 USSR performs underground nuclear test
  • 1973 After a 5½ year run soap "Love is a Many Splendored Thing" ends
  • 1973 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1974 AIAW Women's Basketball Tournament, Immaculata beat Mississippi College 68-53 in Manhattan, Kansas
  • 1976 International Bill of Rights goes into effect (35 nations ratifying)
  • 1978 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1980 AIAW Women's Basketball Tournament, Old Dominion beat Tennessee 68-53 at Mount Pleasant

Historic Event

1980 Deposed Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi arrives in Egypt

  • 1980 France performs nuclear test
  • 1980 Nicaraguan National Literary Crusade begins: crusade teachers swear in plazas across the country to exterminate ignorance in just five months (will successfully reduce illiteracy from 50% to 12%) [1]
  • 1981 US Supreme Court rules states could require, with some exceptions, parental notification when teen-age girls sought abortions
  • 1981 US Supreme Court upholds law making statutory rape a crime only for men

Coup d'état

1982 Guatemala military coup under General Efraín Rios Montt, President Romeo Lucas flees

Historic Event

1983 US President Ronald Reagan introduces Strategic Defense Initiative ("Star Wars")

  • 1984 Andrea Schone skates ladies world record 3 km (4:20.91)
  • 1984 Ice Pairs Championship at Ottawa won by Underhill & Paul Martini (CAN)
  • 1985 Space Shuttle Discovery moves to Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (Florida) for mating of STS 51-D mission
  • 1985 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

Historic Event

1987 Former West German Chancellor Willy Brandt resigns as chairman of the Social Democratic Party

  • 1987 Soap "Bold & Beautiful" premieres
  • 1987 US offers military protection to Kuwaiti ships in the Persian Gulf
  • 1989 2 Utah scientists claim they have produced fusion at room temperature
  • 1989 Joel Steinberg sentenced to 25 yrs for killing his adopted daughter
  • 1990 Former Exxon Valdez Captain Joseph Hazelwood ordered to help clean up Prince William Sound & pay $50,000 in restitution for 1989 oil spill
  • 1991 20 Tornadoes kill 5 in Tennessee
  • 1993 Belgian government of Jean-Luc Dehaene resigns

Historic Event

1994 Amy Fisher's lover Joey Buttafuoco is released from jail after 4 months & 9 days

  • 1994 Richard Jacobs buys naming rights to Indians new ball park at Gateway for $13.8 million (renamed Jacobs Field)
  • 1994 Russian Airbus A-310 crashes in Siberia (74-75 killed)
  • 1995 Dollar equals 88.41 yen (record)
  • 1996 Taiwan holds its first direct elections and chooses Lee Teng-hui as President.
  • 1999 Gunmen assassinate Paraguay's Vice President Luis María Argaña
  • 2001 The Russian Mir space station is disposed of, breaking up in the atmosphere before falling into the southern Pacific Ocean near Fiji
  • 2003 In Nasiriyah, Iraq, 11 soldiers of the 507th Maintenance Company as well as 18 U.S. Marines are killed during the first major conflict of Operation Iraqi Freedom
  • 2004 Andhra Pradesh Federation of Trade Unions holds its first conference in Hyderabad, India
  • 2005 Major explosion and fire at the BP's Texas City Refinery kills 15 workers in Texas City, Texas
  • 2005 The United States 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, in a 2-1 decision, refuses to order the reinsertion of Terri Schiavo's feeding tube
  • 2006 The Federal Reserve discontinues publishing M3 money supply
  • 2007 Burnley Tunnel catastrophe occurs in Melbourne, Australia
  • 2007 Iranian Navy seize Royal Navy personnel in Iraqi waters

Historic Event

2010 US President Barack Obama signs the Affordable Care Act (ACA), nicknamed 'Obamacare', expanding the availability and affordability of health care insurance

  • 2012 African Union suspends Mali's membership following a coup
  • 2013 20 people are killed and 200 are injured by a tornado in Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh
  • 2013 The US Senate approves its first budget in four years by a margin of 50–49

Historic Event

2016 GPR investigation of Shakespeare's tomb at Holy Trinity Church in Stratford concludes the Bard's skull probably has been stolen

  • 2018 A Sahara sandstorm turns snow in Sochi, Russia, orange in one of the largest-ever transfers of desert sand
  • 2018 Peru's Congress swears in Vice-President Martín Vizcarra as the new President after Pedro Pablo Kuczynski resigned amid corruption scandal

Historic Event

2019 Italy signs up to China's Belt and Road Initiative with deals signed in Rome between Italian Deputy Prime Minister Luigi Di Maio and Chinese President Xi Jinping

  • 2019 More than 1 million march to demand a new EU referendum in London, England
  • 2019 More than 130 Fulani people killed in Ogossagou, Mali, in attack by Dogon hunters, prompting government ban on the hunters
  • 2019 Syrian Democratic Forces announce that the last Islamic State territory has been retaken raising flags in Baghuz, Syria and ending the five-year Islamic State "caliphate"
  • 2020 African American Daniel Prude dies after being physically retrained by police in Rochester, New York, including having a hood put over his head


2020 COVID-19 lockdowns imposed in South Africa and the United Kingdom while other European nations extend and strengthen their lockdowns

COVID-19 Pandemic

2020 Immediate global ceasefire to fight COVID-19 called for by UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres

  • 2020 New York confirmed as new center of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US with 20,875 cases (5,707 in the last day) and 157 deaths
  • 2020 WHO says the COVID-19 pandemic is accelerating, 1st 100,000 cases took 67 days, 2nd 100,000 cases 11 days, 3rd 100,000 cases 4 days

COVID-19 Pandemic

2021 Brazil's daily COVID-19 death toll passes 3,000 (3,251) for the first time (298,676 total deaths reported) as country's Supreme Court blocks President Jair Bolsonaro overturning local restrictions [1]

  • 2021 Cargo ship Ever Given gets stuck in the Suez Canal, Egypt, a 400m megaship it completely blocks the shipping canal

Historic Event

2021 First ever tweet by Twitter founder Jack Dorsey "just setting up my twttr" sells for $2.9 million in digitally autographed version

  • 2022 Abel Prize, mathematics' Nobel equivalent, awarded to American Dennis Sullivan for his work on topography [1]
  • 2022 Brian Houston, Australian founder of megachurch Hillsong, resigns after an internal investigation finds he breached their code of conduct with two women
  • 2022 US Secretary of State Antony Blinken formally declares that members of Russia armed forces have committed war crimes in Ukraine [1]