Events in History on March 31

  • 1084 Anti-pope Clemens crowns German King Hendrik IV as Holy Roman Emperor

Historic Event

1146 Bernard of Clairvaux preaches his famous sermon in a field at Vézelay, urging the necessity of a Second Crusade. Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine are present and join the Crusade

Historic Event

1492 Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon issue the Alhambra Decree which expels Jews from their kingdoms

  • 1504 France & Spain sign truce

Historic Event

1521 Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan takes possession of Homohon, Archipelago of St Lazarus, Philippines

  • 1521 The first Mass in the Philippines is generally believed to have been held on the Island of Limasawa, but may also have taken place on Masao in Butuan

Historic Event

1547 Henry II succeeds Francois I as King of France

  • 1644 Pope Urbanus VIII and Duke of Parma sign Peace of Ferrara
  • 1651 Great earthquake at Cuzco, Peru

Historic Event

1657 English Parliament makes the Humble Petition to Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell offering him the crown: he declines

  • 1667 France & England sign anti-Dutch military accord
  • 1683 Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I and King John III Sobieski of Poland sign a covenant against Turkey, beginning of the Holy League
  • 1717 A sermon on "The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ" by Benjamin Hoadly, the Bishop of Bangor, provokes the Bangorian Controversy
  • 1736 Bellevue Hospital founded in a New York City almshouse - 1st public hospital in the US
  • 1745 Jews are expelled from Prague

Appointment of Interest

1770 Immanuel Kant is appointed Professor of Logic and Metaphysics at the University of Königsberg

  • 1808 French created Kingdom of Westphalia orders Jews to adopt family names

Historic Event

1814 Forces allied against Napoleon capture Paris

  • 1822 Massacre of the population of the Greek island of Chios by soldiers of the Ottoman Empire following a rebellion attempt, (later depicted by artist Eugène Delacroix)
  • 1831 Mainzer Rijnvaart Convention ends
  • 1831 Quebec & Montreal incorporated
  • 1849 Colonel John W Geary arrives as 1st postmaster of San Francisco
  • 1850 US population hits 23,191,876 (Black population: 3,638,808 (15.7%))
  • 1854 Treaty of Kanagawa: Commodore Perry forces Japan to opens ports to US
  • 1861 Confederacy takes over mint at New Orleans (US Civil War)
  • 1862 Civil War action at Island #10 on Mississippi River
  • 1863 Battle of Grand Gulf, Mississippi and Dinwiddie Court House, Virginia
  • 1865 Battle of Boydton, Virginia (White Oaks Roads, Dinwiddie C H)
  • 1865 General Pickett moves to 5 Forks, abandoning the defense of Petersburg
  • 1866 The Spanish navy bombards the harbor of Valparaíso, Chile
  • 1868 Chinese Embassy arrives aboard steamship China
  • 1870 Thomas Mundy Peterson of Perth Amboy, New Jersey is the first African American to vote in the US under provisions of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, in a local election on town's charter [1]
  • 1877 British High Commissioner Sir Bartle Frere arrives in Capetown
  • 1877 The family with samurai antecedents who responded to the Saigo army in Ōita Nakatsu rebels.
  • 1880 1st town to claim to be completely illuminated by electric lighting (Wabash, Indiana)
  • 1883 Utrecht begins water pipe system
  • 1885 Great Britain declares Bechuanaland a protectorate

Eiffel Tower Opens

1889 Eiffel Tower officially opens in Paris. Built for the Exposition Universelle, at 300m high it retains the record for the tallest man made structure for 41 years.

  • 1900 At " Surprise of Sanna’s Post" in the Second Boer War 150 troops under Brigadier General Robert Broadwood are killed
  • 1903 Richard Pearse flies a monoplane several hundred yards in New Zealand

Historic Event

1905 Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany visits Tangier, Morocco and proclaims Germany's support of Moroccan independence and equal opportunity for all powers to trade there

  • 1905 German Emperor Wilhelm II lands in Tangier
  • 1906 GB Shaw's German version of "Caesar & Cleopatra" premieres in Berlin
  • 1906 Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States is founded to set rules in amateur sports; becomes the National Collegiate Athletic Association in 1910
  • 1907 Romanian Army puts down Moldavian farmers' revolt
  • 1909 In a diplomatic note to Austria, Serbia recognizes the Bosnian annexation and promises to maintain friendly relations with Austria
  • 1916 Dutch government ends all military engagements
  • 1917 The Danish West Indies are officially ceded to the US for $25 million and renamed the Virgin Islands
  • 1918 1st daylight savings time in US goes into effect
  • 1919 Strike against Ruhrgebied government of Scheidemann
  • 1920 British parliament accepts Irish Home Rule law
  • 1921 British coal miners goes on strike
  • 1922 KFI-AM in Los Angeles CA begins radio transmissions
  • 1922 Prince Hendrik opens trade fair building in Amsterdam
  • 1923 French soldiers fire on workers at Krupp factory in Essen; 13 die
  • 1924 Croydon Airport, London: Imperial Airways established
  • 1924 London public transport strike ends
  • 1925 WOWO-AM, Ft Wayne Indiana begins radio transmission (500 watts)
  • 1926 German Special Court of Justice for state security disbands
  • 1931 Brilliant Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne (43) is killed with 7 others when light plane crashes on trip from Kansas City to Los Angeles; record 105-12-5 @ .881 remains best ever
  • 1932 150 wild swans die in Niagara waterfall
  • 1932 Ford publicly unveils its V-8 engine
  • 1933 1st newspaper published on pine pulp paper, "Soperton News" (Ga)
  • 1933 Congress authorizes Civilian Conservation Corps
  • 1934 Netherlands Indies BC Ltd begins radio transmission (Indonesia)
  • 1939 Britain & France agree to support Poland if invaded by Germany
  • 1940 Karelo-Finnish SSR becomes 12th Soviet republic (until 1956)
  • 1941 Ground broken for Union Square Garage, San Francisco
  • 1943 US errantly bombs Rotterdam, kills 326
  • 1944 Hungary orders all Jews to wear yellow stars
  • 1945 3rd Algerian division crosses the Rhine
  • 1945 Sicherheitsdienst murders 10 political prisoners in Zutphen

Historic Event

1945 Tennessee Williams' "Glass Menagerie" premieres in NYC

  • 1945 US artillery lands on Keise Shima/begins firing on Okinawa
  • 1946 Belgian government of Acker forms
  • 1946 Belgian government of Spaak resigns - shortest ever Belgian government
  • 1946 First election is held in Greece after World War II
  • 1948 US Congress passes Marshall Aid Act to rehabilitate war-torn Europe
  • 1949 Newfoundland becomes Canada's 10th province
  • 1951 US tanks exceed 38° of latitude in Korea

Historic Event

1953 UN Security Council nominates Dag Hammarskjöld for Secretary-General

  • 1953 US Department of Health, Education & Welfare established
  • 1954 USSR offers to join NATO
  • 1955 Merger of Chase National Bank (3rd largest bank) and Bank of the Manhattan Company (15th largest bank) forms Chase Manhattan
  • 1958 US Navy forms atomic submarine division
  • 1958 USSR suspends nuclear weapons tests, & urges US & Britain to do same
  • 1960 Gore Vidal's "Best Man" premieres in NYC
  • 1961 Aklilou Habtewold becomes 1st premier of Ethiopia
  • 1963 LA ends streetcar service after 90 years
  • 1964 President Jango Goulart of Brazil chased out of office by military
  • 1965 Iberia Airlines Convair 440 crashes into the sea on approach to Tangier killing 47 of 51 occupants
  • 1966 25,000 anti war demonstrators march in NYC

Election of Interest

1966 Labour Party under Harold Wilson win British parliamentary election

  • 1966 USSR launches Luna 10, 1st lunar orbiter
  • 1968 Pirate Radio Station Pegaus (NZ) begins transmitting
  • 1968 Seattle's AL club is named Pilots

Historic Event

1968 US President Lyndon B. Johnson announces in an address to the nation that he will not seek re-election

  • 1968 US President Lyndon B. Johnson authorizes a troop surge in Vietnam, bringing the total number of US soldiers to a peak of 549,500

Historic Event

1969 "The New York Times" reviews "Slaughterhouse-Five" by Kurt Vonnegut on its publication saying ""you'll either love it, or push it back in the science-fiction corner"

  • 1970 Explorer 1 re-enters the Earth's atmosphere after 12 years in orbit
  • 1970 Federal bankruptcy court allows Seattle Pilots to be sold to Milwaukee
  • 1970 Following an Orange Order parade, intense riots erupt on the Springfield Road in Belfast; violence lasts for three days, and the British Army use CS gas for the first time in large quantities
  • 1971 South Africa national debt hits 5.45 billion
  • 1971 William Calley sentenced to life for Mi Lai Massacre

Black Tot Day

1972 Final day of the rum ration in the Royal Canadian Navy

  • 1976 NJ Court rules Karen Anne Quinlan may be disconnected from respirator
  • 1977 Michael Cristofer's "Shadow Box" premieres in NYC
  • 1978 USSR launches Kosmos 1000 navigational satellite
  • 1979 The last British soldier leaves the Maltese Islands. Malta declares its Freedom Day (Jum il-Helsien).

Historic Event

1980 President Jimmy Carter deregulates banking industry

  • 1980 The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific railroad operates its final train after being ordered to liquidate its assets due to bankruptcy and debt owed to creditors.
  • 1982 Arkas tanker at Montz La, spills 1.47 million gallons of oil
  • 1983 Marsha Norman's "'night, Mother" premieres in NYC
  • 1983 Popayán Earthquake (5.5 Mw Depth) in Colombia kills 267 people, injuring some 7,500
  • 1984 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
  • 1985 15th Easter Seal Telethon raises $27,400,000
  • 1985 El Salvador's President José Napoleón Duarte' Christian Democratic Party wins election
  • 1986 167 die when Mexicana Airlines Boeing 727 crashes
  • 1986 English Hampton Court palace badly damaged by fire, 1 dead
  • 1986 Six metropolitan county councils are abolished in England.
  • 1988 Last East Limburg coal mine closes in Gent Belgium

Historic Event

1988 Pulitzer prize awarded to Toni Morrison for her novel "Beloved"

Historic Event

1989 Donald Trump purchases Eastern's Northeast Shuttle

  • 1990 Dionisio Castro cycles world record 20km (57:18.4)
  • 1990 Major riots occur in London and other British towns in protest against the new Community Charge poll tax laws
  • 1991 Albania offers 1st multi-party election in 50 years
  • 1991 Danny Bonaduce attacks a transvestite prostitute in Phoenix, Arizona
  • 1991 Georgian SSR votes on whether to remain in the Soviet Union
  • 1991 Soviet Rep of Georgia endorsed independence; Warsaw Pact dissolves
  • 1991 The Establishment of Islamic Constitutional Movement - Hadas in Kuwait.
  • 1992 UN Security Council voted to ban flights & arms sales to Libya
  • 1994 The Journal Nature reports the finding in Ethiopia of the first complete Australopithecus afarensis skull
  • 1994 Walkway from Cleveland's Tower City to Jacobs Field officially opens
  • 1996 Radio Canada International's final shortwave broadcast
  • 1996 Space Shuttle STS 76 (Atlantis 16), lands
  • 2004 In Fallujah, Iraq, 4 American private military contractors working for Blackwater USA, are killed and their bodies mutilated after being ambushed
  • 2007 In Sydney, Australia, 2.2 million people take part in the first Earth Hour.
  • 2008 Aloha Airlines, a bankrupt airline, permanently ends passenger service
  • 2012 Fiji Floods kill 2 people and force thousands to be evacuated
  • 2013 11 people are killed in flooding at Port Louis, Mauritius
  • 2013 14 Boko Haram suspects are killed in a Nigerian Army raid
  • 2013 2 people die from bird flu (type H7N9) in China
  • 2017 Mudslides caused by heavy rains sweep through Mocoa, Colombia killing more than 200
  • 2020 British pensioner Robert Weighton becomes the world's oldest man at 112 years
  • 2021 Alfred Aho and Jeffrey Ullman win computing's Turing Award for their work inventing computer program compilers

Historic Event

2021 French President Emmanuel Macron announces a new pandemic lockdown, closing schools for three weeks with new national restrictions

Historic Event

2021 New York state legalizes recreational use of marijuana in legislation signed by Governor Andrew Cuomo (sales not legal for 18 months)

Historic Event

2021 US President Joe Biden overturns Trump's restrictions on transgender people serving in the armed forces

  • 2021 US President Joe Biden unveils " the American Jobs Plan" one of the largest infrastructure plans in US history- worth $2 trillion
  • 2022 First truly complete sequence of a human genome published by Telomere-to-Telomere (T2T) consortium, after breakthroughs in new technology (previously just over 90% coded) [1]
  • 2022 US announces it will release 1 million barrels of oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve for six months to drive down prices [1]